L. (Leonard) Forrer.

Biographical dictionary of medallists : coin, gem, and sealengravers, mint-masters, &c., ancient and modern, with references to their works B.C. 500-A.D. 1900 (Volume 3) online

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Online LibraryL. (Leonard) ForrerBiographical dictionary of medallists : coin, gem, and sealengravers, mint-masters, &c., ancient and modern, with references to their works B.C. 500-A.D. 1900 (Volume 3) → online text (page 42 of 49)
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MAIRE, JULIEN Vide LEMAIRE (Vol. Ill, p. 386).

MAISTRE, PIERRE LE (French}. Mint-master at Cre"mieu, 1538-
1542 and later, as his privy mark, a P at the end of the legends,
still appear on the last coins issued at that mint in 1551 and 1552.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. Faivre, Etat actuel des ateliers niotidaires fratt(ats tide Uurs
di/crents, 1896.

- 538-

MAITLAND, ALEXANDER (Brit.). Mint-warden at Edinburgh,

MAITLAND, CHARLES (Brit.) of Haltoun " Generall of his Maiesties
Mint heer in Scotland, to coyne or cause to be coyned in turners
three thousand stane weight of good poore copper. " He was acting
in the capacity of Mint-master-general of Scotland, in the early
years of Charles II., and in conjunction with " Sir Johne Falconer,
Master of the Conyiehouse", 1661-1663.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Burns, The Coinage of Scotland, II, 452, 493.

MAJANO, BENEDETTO DA (Ital.). Sculptor of the last decade of
the fifteenth century, to whom Friedla'nder suggests the attribution
of a Portrait-medal of Giovanni Tornabuoni, a variety of which is
dated 1492. Armand describes it under the works of the Medail'kur
a rEsperance.

Giovanni Tornabuoni, 1492.

Prof. W. Bode has however no ascribed this medal also to
Niccolo Spinelli of Florence.

In his art are two Relkfs in bronze, representing the Madonna
enthroned, and another, in silvered bronze, of St. Sebastian.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. D r Merzbacher, Kimst-Medaillen-Katalog, 1900, n 51. -
Bode, DM italienisclxn Bron^en, Berlin, 1904.

MAJOR, JOHANN DANIEL (Germ.). Designer of a medal of the
Institute ot Natural History and Sciences at Gottorp. It is dated
1688 and signed I.D.M. Major was Professor and physician at Kiel.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit.

MARKING, H. J. (Dulch). Sculptor, Medallist, and Chaser, residing
at Utrecht, and born in 1868. He studied at Amsterdam as a pupil
of the Academy of Fine Arts. By him are : Portrait-plaquette of
President Kruger, 1900; Prize Medal of the Society "Ani et
Industriae", of The Hague, 1905, &c.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Tijdscljrijt, X, p. 321. Dr J. H.de Dompierre de Chaufepie,
op. cit., Ill, p. 125 .

- 539

MALACAN, JEAN BAPTI3TE (French). Contemporary Sculptor,
born at Beziers (Herault); pupil of J. Thomas, Tasset and W. Kluge.
At the Salon of 1899 he exhibited five Portrait-medals and medal-
lions, and in 1905 various Portrait-medallions and Plaquettes.

MALAKIN, NICHOLAS (//a/.). A Florentine, who was appointed
Mint-master in London, in the i8 th year of Richard II., first in
conjunction with John Wildeman, and alone in the 19 th year (1395-
1396). Whether his successor, whose name appears in contempo-
rary documents as GEOFFREY MULLEKYN (q. v.) was one of
his relatives, I have been unable to ascertain.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Ruding, op. cit.

MALAISSON, JACQUELIN DE (French). Engraver of Jetons at
Bourges, circ. 1494-1498.^ was a Goldsmith, and executed in 1497
"gectoers" for the Chamber of Bourges..

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit.

MALASSIS, EMILE (French). Contemp -rary Gem-engraver, born
at Paris; pupil of H. Bourgeois. At the Saion of 1884 this artist
exhibited a cameo in sardonyx.

MALAVASI. GIUSEPPE (7/d/.). Sculptor and Medallist of Modena,
first half of the nineteenth century. His signature occurs on a cast
medal commemorating the Birth of the heir apparent of Duke
Francesco IV. of Modena, 1819.

MALHET (French). A Paris Die-sinker, who was one of the compet-
itors for the coinage of the second Republic, 1848. He presented
to the Monetary Commission pattern AT 20 Francs, JR. 5 Francs,
and / 10 Centimes, but his type was not adopted.

Pattern 5 Francs, 1848, by Malbet.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. De Saulcy, Souvenirs numismatiques, &c.

MALDINI (Ital.'). Sculptor and Medallist of the nineteenth century.
I have noticed his signature on a Portrait-medal of Cardinal
Oppizoni of Bologna.


MALEPILYS, BARDET DE (Brit.). Mint-master at London, undei
Edward III., 1372-1375. He was of Florentine origin, and was first
appointed Mint-master at Calais, 20. May 1371. There he issued
Nobles, Half, and Quarters Nobles, ot the same weight and standard
as those struck at the Tower of London; silver Gros, Half Gros,
Sterlings or Pennies, Half, and Quarter Sterlings. The Gold coins
of Edward. III. of the Calais Mint have a Q in centre of fyL. instead
of the usual , and a flag on ship ; the silver coins are all known
with the exception of the Half Sterling and Ferling.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Ruding, op. cit. Serrure, Histoire monelaire de la France,
A-C, Paris, 1887.

MALER, CHRISTIAN (Germ.}. Son of Valentin Maler, to whose
business as a Goldsmith and Medallist he succeeded, circ. 1603. He
was born at Nuremberg about 1584 and died there after 1648, but
neither the date of his birth, nor thatot his death are known. The
period of his activity is placed between 1603 and 1648. Although
a son of Valentin Maler, and grand-son of Wenzel Jamnitzer, his
productions, which are very numerous, "are executed," says
Bolzenthal, " in a mechanical manner and frequently in a bad

Christian Maler was most successful in the portraits of someNurem-
bergians, but worked also for the House of Brandenburg, and the
Emperors Rudolph II., Matthias, and Ferdinand II., "from whom
he received permission to strike medals in his own house, a privilege
noted on most of his works cum privihgio. "

Hans Jakob Tetzel, by C. Maler.

Most of Christian Maler's medals are struck ; some however are
cast, and bear the monogram CM incuse, whereas it is raised on
medals. Amongst these, Erman mentions the following : 1605.
Ernst Haller; Georg Volckamer; 1628. Georg Graf; -

i62 9 . Hans Jakob Tetzel (illustrated); - Undated. Maximilhn
Count Pappenheim; - - and probably also : Henrys dole/
Consul Pnmarms. Lvbecensis, 1636 (illustrated} &c '

Similar in style are the medals signed MH and many other oval
portrait-pieces of Nuremberg, of the two first decades of ?he seven

suggests Erma houid


This artist's medals are variously signed ; C.'M c


PRIVIL. CAE. C.M. ; - M C., or privy mark, a'crane.

I have made a note of the following medals by Christian Maler,
which however only represent a small portion of his work : Fred-
erick, Count Palatine, and Princess Elizabeth, 1615. R, Shields
ot arms; - Coronation of Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia

Coronation of Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia, 1619.

1619 (4 var. ; one illustrated); Elizabeth Stuart, oval badge,
30 x 38 mill., obv. QVAE SIM POST TERGA VIDEBIS.
Crowned bust to r. ty. SIC NVNC : PVLCHERRIMA QVON-
DAM. Skeleton holding hour-glass above table inscribed : CVM
PRIVIL : CAES : C.M. (illustrated} ; Emperor Rudolph II. ; -
Emperor Matthias and consort Anna; - Matthias II. King of
Hungary, 1611 tyL. King on horseback ; Emperor Matthias and
consort Anna, 1617; - Archduke Ferdinand, 1617; - Empress
Eleonora, 1630; Jeton on the Capture of Jiilich, by John
Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg, 1610 (2 var.); Frederick
William, Margrave of Brandenburg, and consort, Louise, 1648;
Christian II., Margrave of Brandenburg, 1606 (2 var.); -
Marriage of Joachim Ernest, Margrave of Brandenburg, with Princess


Elizabeth of Solms, 4. October 1612; Oval Portrait-Medal of
Joachim Ernest, of Brandenburg, undated (signed : C. MALLER
C. PRIVI. CAES.); - John George I., Duke of Saxony, 1611 ; -
Another, undated, with fyL. Duke on horseback (1614); Centen-
ary of the Reformation, 1617 (6 var.) ; Portrait-medal of John
George I. of Saxony ty. MONT.DVX.&c. Duke on horseback
(Engelh. n 790); - - Siege and Capture of Bautzen, 1620; -

Medal of Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia.

Hungarian and Bohemiaa Coronation of King Matthias II. (1608)
F. MANET VLTIMA COELIS; Portrait-medal of the Emperor
Mathias II. and Empress Anne, on the Reichstag at Ratisbon,
1613 ; - - John Casimir, Duke of Saxony, 1613 (illustrated; a
variety reproduced in Tentzel L. E. Plate 20. I is dated 1618); -

Gold Badge of John Casimir, Duke of Saxony, 1613.

Naval Victory of Admiral van der Does, near the Canary Islands,
with bust on obv. of Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau, 1595 ; -
Prince-Elector Frederick William of Brande-nburg and consort Louise


of Nassau- Orange, 1646; Brunswick medal of 1615, obv. \l \-
Religious Medal, Ein vernunftig Weiberfriscbtibres Manns Her t; &c -
- Another, Bust of Christ, EGO.SVM.VIA VERITAS ET
VITA ; Reformation Memorial, 1630; Proclamation Medal and
Coronation of Matthias II., at Frankfort-on-M., 1612 (sev. var.) ;
"Apostles" Medal j^ - Matthias II., Wars against the Turks!
1612; Matthias II. 's solemn entry into Ratisbon, 1613; -
" Utraquistenmedaille " ; - - Ferdinand II. and the six Prince-
Electors; - The Nuremberg Town Hall, 1619; - Rudolph II.
and the six Prince-Electors, 1607; Medal of Strassburg, 1615;
Siege of Brunswick, 1615.

Heinrich Coler, of Lubeck, 1636.

Among the personal medals engraved by Christian Maler are ;
Martin Luther, 1617 (sev. var.); Johann Tserclaes Tilly, 1628:
Ernest, Count Mansfeld ; - - Prince-Elector Frederick William
of Brandenburg and consort Louise of Nassau -Orange, 1646;
Duke John George I. of Saxony; - Prince Maurice of Orange-
Xassau, 1600 and 1613 (sev. var.); Georg Volckamer. 1624
and 1627; Emperor Matthias II., obv. legend : MATTHIAS
dinand II. (sev. var.); Frederick V., Count Palatine, King of
Bohemia, 1619; Rudolph II.; - Prince Henry Frederick, of
Orange-Nassau; Christian I., Prince of Anhalt, 1607 (oval

At the Kunstgeuerbe-Ausstellung, Dresden, 1906, the following
medals by Christian Maler were exhibited, which Prof. D r B. Pick
describes in his Catalogue : Emperor Rudolf II., 1603 (/R.. gilt.
Gotha Museum); - John Casimir, Duke of S.ixony, in Coburg
ilt. Weimar); Anna, consort ot Prince Christian of Anhalt,

- 544

1607 (./R. gilt); Emperor Mathias and his family; Coronation
medal of Fran kfort-on -Main, 1612 (yR. Gotha); Joachim
Ernest, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, i6i2(yR.); Ano-
ther, similar (but undated); - Ernst, Count of Mansfeld, undated
(/R. Gotha); John Frederick, Duke of Wiirtemberg, undated
(/R. gilt); Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, undated (yR. gilt.
Gotha); Medal of the Beyersdorf Convention, with busts of the
four Prankish Princes (/R. gilt); John Georg I., Prince Elector
of Saxony, 1520 (^R. Gotha); Johannes Dresel von Hoelfeld,
abbot of Erbach, 1618 (^R. gilt and enamelled. Gotha).

Christian Maler engraved dies for coins, as for instance the
" ReichsvikarLat" Thaler of John George L, 1612, and a Portrait-
thaler of George, Margrave of Brandenburg, but he never filled the
office of a Mint-engraver. According to Oesterreicher, he applied
on 13. November 1630 for the post of Die-cutter at the Vienna
Mint, and recalled in support of his application his twenty years'
services to that Mint.

By Christian Maler are also Portrait-medallions in coloured wax.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bolzenthal, Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen- Arbeit,
Berlin, 1840. Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. Franks & Grueber,
Medallic Illustrations, &c. - - Amrnon, Sammlung beriilmter Medailleurs und
Miln^meister nebst ibren Zeichen, Niirnberg, 1758. Kohler, Miin^belustigungen,
pi. V, 281, XII, 17. Wills, Nurnbergiscbe Mun^bel , pi. I, 33.40. II, 140. IV,
307, 395. Sey\er.LebenFrid. Wilh. des Grosscn Chnrjurslen ^11 Brandenburg, p. 26.

Numophyl. Burckh. PI. II,n9i7, &c. 1232, 1707, 1835, 2613. Doppelmaier,
Hist. Nachr. von Niirnb. Mathematicis und Kilnstlen., p. 215. Vollstandig
Braunschweig. Luneburg. Miin% und Med. Cabin., n os 243, 1217. Flad, Beruhmte
Medailleurs. Lohner, Medaillen Samnilung, pi. II, 49. V, 297. VII. 417.
Madai, Thaler Cabinet, n s 2168, 3794. Ad. Hess Nachf., Reimmann Sale Cata-
logue, 1892. L. & L. Hamburger, Raritalen Cabinet, IV. D r Merzbacher,
Kunst-Medaillen Catalog, 1900. Domanig, Portratmedaillen des Er^bauses
Oesterreich. Katalog der Mun^en- und Medaillen-Sternpel-Sammlung des K. K.
Hauptmiin^amtes in Wien, 1901. Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Abkur^ungen, etc.

Menadier, Scbaumiin^en des Hauses Hohen^ollern, 1901. Erbstein, Erorterungen
auj dem Gebiete der Sachsischen Mun^-und Medaillen-Geschichte, Dresden, 1888.
Theodor Distel, Nachrichten fiber den Contraf actor und Eisenschneider Christian Maler
%u Niirnberg, Blatter fur Miinzfreunde, 1036. Blanchet, op. cit., II. Gebert-
Nurnberg, Geschichte der Mun^statte der Reichstadt Nurnberg, 1891. Nagler, Neues
allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon, 1839. H. W. Singer, Allemeims Kiinstler-Lexicon,
1898. De Historiepenningen, en Munten betreklring hebbende op bet Stambuis van
Orange-Nassau. D r Julius Cahn, Medaillen und Plaketten-Sammlung W. P. Met^ler,
Frankfurt-am-Main. Paul-Joseph &.Eduard Fellner, Die Munten von Frankfurt-
am-Main, 1896. Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung bohmischer Miln^en und
Medaillen des Max Donebauer, Prag, 1888. Catalogus der Nederlandsche en op
Neder land betrekking hebbende Gedenkpenningen I, 1903. C. Oesterreicher, Regesten
aus J. Newald's Publicationen uber osterreichische Mun^prdgungen.

MALER, CHRISTOPH (Germ.}. Die-cutter to the Vienna Mint, 1609.
His initials C. M. occur on Thalers of Vienna, of that date. But I
suspect the author of the Vienna Mint Catalogue has misinterpret-
ed these initials which undoubtedly stand for Christian Maler. who
was engaged on various occasions with work for the Vienna Mint.


MALER, VALENTIN (Germ.']. A celebrated Medallist of Nurem-
berg; son-in-law of Wenzel Jamnit/er, the famous Nuremberg
goldsmith ; and father of Christian Maler. The date of his activity
ranges from 1568 to 1603, in which year, according toDoppelmayr,
he probably died. Mummenhof has traced this artist's origin to
Iglau in Moravia, and Erman has further shown that before set-
tling at Nuremberg he had been employed as Mint-engraver at
Joachimsthal. He married Wenzel Jamnit/er's daughter Maria in
1569, and by special favour of the Nuremberg Town Council
obtained the privileges of a Mastership.

It is highly probable that Valentin Maler settled at Nuremberg
in, or some time before 1568. A few years later we find him
taking up his residence at the Saxon Court, which might account
for the fact that of 1573 only one medal is known by the artist and

Balthasar Derrer.

of 15-4 and 157) none at all. He may also have worked in Silesia.
After his return to Nuremberg, he remained in connection with the
Prince-Elector of Saxony, and in 1590 executed a Portrait-medal <

Christian I. . . AA rp,

Valentin Maler's cast medals are usually signed : W-
following are known to Erman : Undated. Hans Erasmus von
Schwanberg, Mint-master-general for Bohemia previous to 1566
and perhaps Maler's chief, when engraver at the Joachimsthal Mint
it was executed before 1568 ; - Undated Georg Pichl von P chl
berg, a Bohemian (aet. 26 ; i. e. modelled before 1 5 6c IIW.
HaSs Thomas Newkum ; - Wenzel Jammtzer (2 var. ; on date,
1571, formerly in the T. W. Greene collection); - Kathann
Goswein; - Leonhart Tucher; Loren. Durnhofe.

L. FOKRER. - Biografhital Notices of MiMlitn. - III.

- 546-

1569. JobstTetzel; Jacob Muriel; Balthazar Derrer (illustrat-
ed); Sebald Haller ; - - Gabriel Niitzel; Andreas I. Iinhof
(some varieties ; there was a coloured wax Portrait-medallion of the
same personage in the Felix collection); 1570. Martin Holdwick;
Susanna Holdwick; Sebastian Imhof; Lienhard Dilherr;

C" I

Johann Hcrel.

Stephan Brechtl the elder ; Erhard Behaim and consort Mag-
dalena; - - 1571. Christoph Creutz of Letnan in Bohemia; -
Hans von Hohenwart, of Joachimsthal; - 1572. Margarethe
Gwandtschneider the elder (2 var.); Matthaus Fetzer; 1573.
Georg Roggenbach; 1576. Georg Romer the younger (2 var.);

Martin Luther and Georg Mylius.

Philipp Romer; 1578. Matthias Schilherr and consort Anna;
- 1579. Johann Neudorrler junior; - - 1580. Georg Roemer
junior; (1581?). Conrad Knipping, of Mergentheim (2 var.);-
(1581). Johann Herel (illustrated'); - - 1582. Wenzel Jamnitzer,
oval; 1583. Paul Scheurl; - Religious Medal with figure of
Christ; (1584). Georg Mylius, the well-known Augsburg


theologian. }$L. Head of Luther, in flat relief (illustrated) ;
Undated. Johann Rieter, f 1584; 1584. Wen/el Jamnitzer,
oval; - Matthaeus Schyrer ; (1584). Ernst von Mengersdorf,
bishop of Bamberg; - Undated. Frederick VII., of Limpurg,
Court Chamberlain to the Count Palatine, at Heidelberg ;
Martin Rehlen; 1585. Sigismund Feierabend ; 1587. Heinrich
Thenn (the head and arms are cast separately and soldered on a
silver plaque); - - 1593. Hermann Heher; - - Undated. Joachim
Camerarius ; Simon Naub and consort (Naub was a native of
Frankfort-on-M., his wife was of Nuremberg); Felicitas Sidel-
mann; - 1594. Johannes Masler (in British Museum; published
by D r Julius Cahn, Num. Cbron., 1904, pi. vn, 6) ; Paul Luther,
(Luther's son), Facing portrait (Berl. Miin^blatter, 1903,
p. 390).

The above list of Maler's cast medals is no doubt very incom-
plete. Erman suggests that the following unsigned medals of Wiirz-
Durg and Bamberg are by him also. In style and workmanship they
bear a strong similarity to the medals of Georg Mylius of 1584 and
Matthias Schilherr of 1578; the portraits are facing, and in very low
relief, and the lettering reminds one entirely of Maler's peculiar
characteristics. It is further known, from contemporary documents,
that the artist worked for the Bishop of Bamberg, but did not sign
his productions at the episcopal court. Heller (p. 27) has recorded
a payment of 22 florins made to Maler for the modelling of the
Portrait-medal of Ernst von Mengersdorf, bishop of Bamberg; a cast
in gold was made of this by the Bamberg goldsmith, Bernhard
Rehm. Erman ascribes to Valentin Maler the Portrait-medals of :
1575. Julius Echter, bishop of Wurzburg; - - 1577. Wilhelm
Schutzper, surnamed Milchling, of Wurzburg (Zelts. f. Num., 10,
r 74); ' - Johann Georg, bishop of Bamberg; Undated. Adam
Calvus, of Wurzburg ; - - Lienhart Hiebner and consort Barbara
(probably a son of Lienhart Hiebner of Nuremberg, who was born
in 1502).

Amongst the unsigned Nuremberg Portrait-medals in very low
relief Erman suggests the attribution of the following to Valentin
Maler, and in support of this he points out that the Fetzer medal
of 1576 is a copy of that of 1572, which bears the artist's mono-
gram. As however, Maler's productions before 1568 cannot be
traced, there must still be some uncertainty as to the authorship of
these medals : 1567. Paul Behaim ; 1573. Gabriel Tucher; -
1575. Lorenz Zollikofer; 1576. Matthaeus Fetzer; Leon ha
Nierenberger and consort Frau Froniga; and probably also : 1580.
Willibald Imhof the Elder; and 1588. Michael lensinger.

Many of the medals formerly ascribed to Wenzel Jamnitzer
belong in reality to Valentin Maler.

- 548 -

Besides the above-mentioned cast medals, Maler is the author of
numerous struck pieces, most of which, says Erman, were made
for sale, but some also as Presentation-pieces for princes, as the oval
badge of Charles II. of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Zeits.fur Num.,
XI, pi. 2). These struck medals are by no means inferior in style
to the cast pieces, but are usually signed V.M. or still more frequent-
ly : V.M. CVM PRIVILE. CAES. ; and also FA. V.M.C. PRIVILE (Faciebat
Valentin Maler cum Privilegio). The following struck medals bear
Valentin Maler's signature ; they however represent but a portion
of the artist's productions in that category : Jakob Scholtz (one of
the artist's earliest medals, the dies of which were formerly preserv-
ed at the Joachimsthal Mint); Portrait-jeton of Valentin Maler;

Maximilian II., J^L. Eagle supporting orb in its claws (sev. var.);

- Coronation Medal of the Emperor Rudolph II., 1576 and 1589
(sev. var.) ; Medal of the Prince-Electors, $.. MANE NOBISCVM
&c. (sev. var.) ; Medal of the Augustine friar Gottfried, of Raab,
1 60 1 ; Leonhard Dilherr von Thummenberg, of Nuremberg ; Se-
bald Haller von Hallerstein, 1 5 69 ; Stephan Brechtl, mathematician,
of Nuremberg; Wolff von Breuningen; S. Ludovicus Schau-
blein(?); Homage to the Emperor Rudolph II. and his ancestors,
1590 and 1594 ( sev - var -) j Nuremberg New year's Medal, 1 5 So ;
Building of the Fleischbrucke on the Pegnitz, by the Nuremberg Urban
Council, 1598 ; Accession of Prince-Elector Christian II., Duke of
Saxony, 1601 ; AT. Jewelled Badge of Duke Augustus of Saxony,
circ. 1574 (2 var.); - - Medallic Thaler of Christian, Duke of
Saxony, 1590; The Prince-Elector on horseback; fyL. Arms; -
Commemorative Medal of the Shooting Fete at Nuremberg, 1592 ;

- Birth of Princess Claude of France, a presentation piece to
Nuremberg notabilities, 1580; - Medal of 1599 struck in honour
of the Burgomaster and Aldermen of Frankfort-on-M. (sev. var.);

"Shooting" Thaler of Frankfort-on-M., 1582 (sev. var.); -
Capture of the Fortress of Raab (Schwarzenberg), 1598; -
Various Religious medals ; Jakob Fugger the wealthy (attributed
to Diirer by Erman); - Bishop Johann von Speyer (the last two
medals are very similar in style), &c.

At the Dresden ' Kunstgewerbe-Ausstellung ', 1906, the following
medals by Valentin Maler were exhibited, and they are described in
Prof. D r B. Pick's catalogue : Andreas Imhoff, 1569 (lead, uniface);
Jakob Muffel, 1 5 69 (lead, uniface); - Wenzel Jamnitzer, 1571
(lead, uniface); Julius Echter, bishop of Wurzburg, 1575 (^R.
gilt); Another, smaller (^B-.)j Georg Mylius, of Augsburg
($L. Martin Luther), 1584 (/R.. gilt. Gotha); Wenzel Jamnitzer,
1584 (lead, Gotha); Sigismund Feierabend, of Frankfort, 1585
OR.) ; - - Hieronymus Paumgartner, 1598 (/EC. gilt). All the
above are cast medals, whereas the following are struck specimens :


Emperor Rudolf II., undated (JR.. Gotha) ; - - Prince-Elector's
medal, 1589; King David. Medal of David Weiss of Augsburg ;
Balthasar Paumgartner, 1592 (lead, uniface. Gotha). The last
may be by Val. Maler, and is a cast piece.

Johann Neudorffer, by V. Maler.

Some interesting notes are given by D r Julius Calm in his
article on German Renaissance Medals (Num. Chron., 1904, p. 41) :
" So far as the technical work of medals of the German Renaissance
is concerned, the masters of the sixteenth century preferred casting,
only few examples of striking being in existence. It is well known
that casting is the nobler and more artistic method of producing

Andreas Imhoff.
(Portrait-medallion in wax).

medals, and among all nations the best work in this branch of art
has been done in this way.

"The models were, as a rule, first carved in wood, the 1
being afterwards fastened on. Many of these wooden models are


still preserved, and serve as ornaments of our collections. A good
many medals were also executed in honestone. The art of model-
ling in wax came into use later, but, once known, was soon in
general favour. The finished cast was often worked over with the
chisel, in order to bring out details. But there are also in existence
most successful casts which have not been touched. The metal in
general use was bronze ; silver was less used at first, and one must
not de surprised to find that many of the medals are of lead. The
first casts, which were at the same time the proofs, were always
produced in the less valuable metal, and of many medals we possess
only these casts in lead. "

Valentin Maler, says D r B. Pick, modelled his medals in wax,
and many of his Portrait-medallions in wax are still in existence.
One of Andreas ImhofT (illustrated) was formerly in the Felix

The artist was employed also by various mints, as Wurzburg,
Nuremberg, &c., to engrave coin-dies. A rare Guldenthaler ot
Wurzburg, dated 1593, bears his initials.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Erman, op. cit., p. 55. Mummenhof, An^. J. Ktinde d.
Vor^., 24, p. 253. Heller, Bambergische Mi'in^en,pp. 27, 28. Ammon, op. cit.,
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Bahrfeldt, Mun^en der Fnrstentbumer Hohen^ollern . Katalog der Miin^en-und
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