Lachlan Shaw.

The history of the province of Moray. Comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the county of Inverness and a portion of the county of Banff,--all called the province of Moray before there was a division into counties online

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Online LibraryLachlan ShawThe history of the province of Moray. Comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the county of Inverness and a portion of the county of Banff,--all called the province of Moray before there was a division into counties → online text (page 15 of 37)
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affluxerunt, et liberis ingenue educatis floruere ; pie, juste, et
sobrie vixerunt, et sic in Domino mortem obiere, ilia Anno
Domini U)94, retatis suae sexagesimo.

Trahslath'U. — In this tomb are laid the remains of Alexander
Duff of Keithmore, and Helen Grant, his dearly beloved wife,
who lived in a happy and fruitfid union for more than 40 years,
ijoth were well born, he being very nearly and lawfully
<lescended from the most noble Thanes of Fife, through the
old family of Craighead, not long extinct, and she deriving her
origin, in like manner, from the renowned and powerful family
of Ihc Grants. Of distinguished birth, yet more illustrious for
their virtues, they abounded in wealth, were happy in a flourish-
ing family of liberally educated children, lived piously, justly,
and soberly, and so died in the Lord, the A.u. 1694, in the 60th
year of her age.

" JoANNis Faid me fecit" is cut on the monument.

The property of Keithmore was a wadset which Dutf
receiveil from the Marquis of Huntly about 1G40-6. It
is in Auchindoun, and the house commands a good view
of the ruin and of the vale of the Fiddich, &c. It belongs
to the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Two slabs on the
farm arc ]3ointed out; one dated 1(J80, with the Alexander
Dutf initials, arms, and family motto — Virtute et opeija
—as well as the "strj^pe of water," by the side of whicli
Iveithmore's wife, fearing the approach of King William's
(h-agoons, had a bag of gold and silver coins secreted by
" her grandchild, old Lesmurdy, a boy then 17 or IS years
(jf age."

II. Another marble tablet near the Keithmore monu-
ment l)ears: —


M.o.v.s. : M''.'. Hugonis Innes, filij houorabilis viri Joannis
limes de Leichnet, qui, cum annos triginta quatuor sacra in hoc
templo peregisset obijt anno Christi MDCCCXXXII, natus
annos LXVIII. Posuit hoc nionunientum pia ac dilectissinia'
conjux Eliz. Abernethie, fiha domini dc Maycn.

Translnfinii.—S-Mved to the memory of ^Ir. Hugh Innes, son
of an honoural)le man, John Innes of Leiclniet, who was
minister of this church for 34 years, and died in 1732, aged 68
years. His pious and dearly beloved wife, Elizabeth Abernethy,
daughter of the Laird of Mayen, erected this monument.

Anecdotes are narrated of the superior bodily strength
oi' the above shepherd, often exhibited in herding his
flock. Mrs. Innes, of Mayen in Rothiemay, is buried at
ISanfF. Her husband's successor, Rev. Walter Sime, who
died in 1763 of })utrid fever, was one of 13 victims to an
uncommon mortality then in the parish of that malady,
Avhose bodies lay unburied at the same time. The frost
was so intense that fires had to be kindled in the church-
yard to soften the ground for digging the graves.

A most desirable operation would have been to have dug
to the foundation of the walls of the oldest part of the
church. Excavations were made to a depth of 9 feet
below the present surface, but without reaching the
foundation, or revealing anything new. Bones were
exhumed, but there was nothing to indicate who the
persons were.

At the north-east angle of the nave, an iron " joug ''
attached to a chain, which had been fixed in the wall,
was dug u[). It is hung on the east wall of the nave.
The excavations would have been made in a more thorough
manner but for the cost, antiquarian research not being
among the objects contemplated b}^ the heritors- and con-
gregation, who provided the funds.

During the operations, the whole series of inscribed
stones catalogued in the Minute-book of the Kirk-Session
of the parish in 1811 by the Rev. Wm. Cowie, then school-
master at Mortlach, afterwards minister at Cairnie, were
looked for. They were all found with one exception.
The whole of those found have been laid in the fioor of
the east nave. Mr. Cowie did good service in cop^ang
the inscriptions, which, if not now, Avill soon be beyond


III. Among them is a slab upon which is cut a cross, of
the wheel-pattern, and a sword, with the following : —

2jir. jacct. honorabtlis. bir. Johannes. (Sorbon. be. ^'roblanb. qui.
obiit. aptib. ^orhrom. anno. ^ni. mb.v.v.vitj.

Trmiskifiini. — Here lies an honourahle man, John Gordon of
Jiroadland, wlio died at Buchrome in the year of our Lord 1533.

IV. Another slab, which lay under the stair, had only
the name of (Oorbon legible, but was supposed to be of
the same century.

From the passage was taken the stone which, in 1811,
bore these words round the margin, having the Innes coat
of arms : —

^jic. iacrt [? consjtabblaviu!?. be. balbrnir. qlii. obiit. bic.

nunsis anno. bni. mccc.x.v. . . . n. spousa nna.

innr:?. cius. que. obiit bic. mcnsis. bcccmbris. anno. bin.


Tm/i.-</(ifioii.—E.eTe lies constable of Balvenie, who

died on the .... day of ... in the year of our Lord li'20.
Here also lies spouse . . . xna Innes, who died Dec. 1429.

V. Fiom under the Pitty vaich seat a slab was found : —
.... ;r. rcsurvrrtionis. hie. in. pace, rrquicsrunt. cincrrs. a.
Trdnshifhiii. — Here rest in peace the ashes of ... . till the

resurrection. . . .

W. Four marble tablets within the church are respect-
fully inscribed :^ —

Saci'od to the memory of Major Ludovick Stewart, Pittyvaich,
and formerly of H.M. 24th Regt. of Foot, who died on the 25th
of Dec, 1848, aged 66 yt-ars. Also, of his wife, Margarkt
Fraskk, who died on the 17th of Oct., 1859, aged 62 years.
Their children, (Jordon Elliot, Lieut. 22n(l Pegt.. IJomlniy,
died 12tli Jan., 1849, aged 24 years.

[Two daughters named.]

VI!. Sarjcd to the memory of Mrs. Ann Stewart, Kite of
Pittyvaich, whose remains arc deiw.sited in this clnirchyard.
She died 5th Feb., 1823, aged 81 years.

The title "of is vaingh)rious. The Stewarts were
proprietors of Nothing, being merely tenants of Pittyvaich,
of which the Earl of Fife is the proprietor. Even to the
grave, some peoi)le carry empty vanity and poor pride, the
cause of the fall.


VIII. Sacred to the memory of the Kev. Morris Forsyth,
minister of the Gospel at Mortlach, who departed this life 1 9th
Feb., 1838, in tlie 68th year of his age, and 33rd of his

IX. A tablet built into the east wall : —

To the memory of Major John Cameron, CB., E.I.C. Native
Infantry, on the establishment of St. George, who, nfter serving
his country in India for 32 years, botli in a civil and military
capacity, and particularly in most of the principal events during
that period, died on the 15th of June, 1838, while officiating
as President at the court of Hyderabad, aged 42 years.

This tablet has been erected to his memory, and placed in
the church of his native parish, by a few of his friends in India,
as a mark of esteem and affection for his pul)lic and private

X. Probably the oldest slab in the churchyard is one
wnth a bold carving of the Farquharson arms near the
centre. An inscription, closely run on, and oddly arranged
toward the close, is cut in relief round the margin. The
sequel is not far from the original, difficult to make out —

>U Ivic jacct honontbilis Uivrobcrtus furquh;trsonbc laurhtttbuinj qui
obiit mar ic qunt" mtri anno bni mo quo sexto nxm sna pvapiquict.

Translation. — Here rests with his kindred an honourable man,
R()BERT Farquharson of Lauchtitvany, who died at noon on
the [5th or 15th] of March [1417 or 1517].

Before the loth century the Cumings owned Lochter-
landich and other property on the north side of Glenriinies,
as well as in Glenlivat, which prove that the above tomb-
stone relates to some of the Cumings who took the name
of Farquharson, after Cuming of Kellas was refused burial
in the ancestral tomb at Altyre,

XL A flat slab, which lay in the passage towards the
west end of the church in 1811, now in the churchyard
near to the south wall, presents a shield in the centre
with the Moir and Reid arms impaled. The following
inscription is round the sides of the stone : —

Hehi. LYES. Ane. Honest. Man. called. Iohne. ]\Ioir.

H^•SBAND. To. Elspet. Eeid. who. was. killed

Efence. of. his. ovin. Hovs. At. the. Talk. Miln. of.
Balvenie. the. 13. day. of. October. 1660. Memento.



According- to tradition, Moir, who was reputed rich, was
attacked by "the cateran band" and killed by a gun-
shot while barricading the duor of his house. WHiether
" lohne " had been an ancestor of Dr. Alexander Moir, a
native, and once schoolmaster of Mortlach, who so gene-
rously left the interest of £600 for educational purposes to
the })arish, is uncertain, though not improbable.

XII. Upon a slab, with mortuary emblems : —

Hir lys the corps of the decessed Xanax Ca'itach, vho
departed this life luly 3, 1751, spovs to lohn Mackeiidie in
Kelniern, hir age is 72.

XIII. Upon a broken table-shaped stone is : —

Here lies the body of Alexander Cantlie, late in Newton
of Clunyniore, who died IGtli .June, 1807, aged — years.
Done by the care of his brother, Francis Cantlie. masson.

XIV. John Spencc, Balandy, d. 1777, a. 8i'.

My God who gave me strength to walk

The world to and fro,

And by his mighty handy work.

I'm here interred l)elow.

So in the silent grave 1 \y

Along with many more,

Until the day that I appear

My Saviour Christ before.

XV. Rudely cut upon a flat, undressed granite boulder —

Heir lies the dust of Alex. Farquhar, who lived at Priests-
well, and died Maj- '22, 1733, aged 76 years. And of Barl)ara
Gordon, his spouse, who died Nov. 1736, aged 70

XVI. This stone is erected by Alex. Anderson, Ottieer of
F>xcise, in memory of his spouse, Helen (ioiiDoN, who died 3rd
^larch, 1810, aged 23, daughter of John Gordon in Tomnavollan,
who left 3 children, John, Alex., and Margaret.

In memory of John Gordon, in Tomnavollan, wlio died Gth
.lune. 1831, aged 92 years. KH.S.

►J-i His .spouse. MAraJAitET (iuiinox. died l.ltli July, 1844,
in the 78th year of her age, mid left no family alive but an
only son William.

[This William died on Saturday, the *30th Jan., hSTo,
?et. 84. He was my 2nd cousin. He bad no sympathy
with modern ideas of advance. For half a century the


whole steading was of the most primitive make-shift
caste. Tartioid, as he was called from the farm, in his
garb was equally unadorned, the same tattered rags
having done duty for years gone by. However, on higli
occasions, as rejoicings connected with the Duke of Rich-
mond on the marriage of the Earl of March, he a[t])eared
bon-fon at the dinner given in honour of the event at
Toraintoul. While most penurious, when " an auld
acquaintance " paid him a visit at the roadside farm-house
(if such it could be designated) Tamoul was kind an(.l
hospitable, setting down bread and cheese and a bottle of
" real Glenlivat." He held the appointment of collector of
seat-rents for the Roman Catholic Chapel at Tombae, and
was proud of the original mode in which he ke)it the roll,
somewhat puzzling to all but the patentee. The contri-
butors were classified in three separate divisions — Goud.
Bad, and Indifferent. He was a rigid dunner, and after
Mass pursued delinquents with foot and tongue. He
lived in celibacy, nevertheless he left the fruits of his
loins. The popular mind of the district magnified his
ample means into an immense horde, which, at his death,
amounted to about £7,000.] (Ed.)

XVII. Here lies the body of "William Kelnian, farmer in
Lessmurdie, who died April 26, 1793, aged 80; and HelcM
M'Barnat, his spouse, who died 1st Dec, 1785, aged 75.

XVIII. In memory of Mr. Alexander Thomson, who taught
the school of Mortlach 23 years, and died March the 21st, 18U4,
in tlie 57th year of his age. This stone is placed here by his
friends and pupils, as a mark of respect for his character as a
worthy member of society, and an unwearied teacher of youtli.

XIX. Within an enclosure : —

The Rev. Alexander Grant, late minister of Glenrinnes, was
interred here, Aug. 1, 1806, and his mother in 1777. This
stone was repaired in 1807 by George Grant in Drumfuri'ich.
Here lie also the remains of the said George Grant, Ijrother of
the Rev. Alexander Grant, who departed this life at Elgin, 23
April, 1816, aged 85, in memory whereof this inscription has
been added by desire of his son, Alex. Grant, late of the Island
of Jamaica, on visiting his native county from London in Aug.,
1829. Janet Donaldson, relict of Geo. Grant, Drumfurrich,
died 1834, aged 78. By lier son, Alex. Grant, Aberlour, 1844.

The above-named Alex. Grant, of the Island of Jamaica,


bought tlie estate of Aberlour from James Gordon, Esq.
A sister of Mr. Grant's married Dr. ^I'Pherson, farmer,
(Jarbity, and their daughter, Miss M'Pherson-Grant, suc-
ceeded by lier uncle's will. (See under Auerlouii.)

XX. From a table-stone : —

In memory of Robert Lorimer, senior, who departed this
life at Glenbeg in a good old age, about the year 1702. His
.sons, William, James, and Thomas, all died unmarried. His
fourth son, Robert, junior, lived in Myreside. and died there.
This monument was erected by his grandson, Dr. John Lorimer
of London, in the year 1795.

Dr. Lorimer left £200 for the maintenance of a bursar
at the school of Mortlach, and a like sum to enable him,
if so inclined, to prosecute his studies at JMarischal College,

XXL Upon a table-shaped stone, enclosed by a railing: —

This stone was placed here by John M 'Junes, Dandalicth,

in memory of his parents, John M 'Junes, Braehead, who died

21st Nov., 1816, aged 84; Margaret Luke, his spouse, who

died 4th Feb., 1813, aged 74 John M'Innes, died at

DandaKeth, 19th May, 1850, aged 74, and is here interred.

XXIL A monument of Peterhead granite bears : —
This stone is erected by James Sturm of London in memory
of his parents, Alexander Sturm, merchant, Dufftown, who
died 7th April, 1848, aged 65 ; and Margaret Murray, his wife,
\\ho died 6th May, 1847, aged 75.

The erector of this monument, who died at Hampstead,
.May 7, 1809, aged 57, was sometime a clothier in Aber-
deen. He afterwards became a furniture dealer in London,
and left upwai'ds of £25,000. Besides handsome legacies
to relatives and friends, he left £500 to each of eight
charitable institutions in London. He also left a legacy
of £500 to the National Life-Boat Institution, directing
that a boat, named James Sturm, should be employed on
the coast of his native county. He betpicathed £2,000 to
found two scholarships for live years each in the Univer-
sity of Aberdeen, for natives of ^lortlach, of the age of
fifteen years, who have been taught in the school of that
])arish ; also £500 for the education of females of Mortlach
in the principles of the Established Churcli of Scotland;
and a farther sum of .£500, a ])(irti(in of which, and


interest, to be expended for the relief of infirm poor
])ersons of the village of Dufftown.

XXIII. Here lys in hoije of a blessed resurrection Barbarii
Barren, spouse to John Barren, clyster in Menelock, who
departed this life the 12th of January, 1779, her age forty-one.
Also there son George, who de])arted the 13th of Oct., 17G9,
in the fifth month of his age.

The above John Barren gifted a pewter-basin to the
kirk, which is thus inscribed : — " Given by John Barren,
elder, to the Kirk of Mortlach. Mr. John Tough, minister,
17G8." Some profane wag has scratched a verse of
doggerel rhyme upon the basin, the first couplet of which
runs thus : —

" This hasen was presented by me, John Barren,
Who ever took the Scripture for my warran'."

XXIV. Helen Clark, mentioned in the next inscription,
was a sister of the late Sir James Clark, M.D. : —

*^ In pious memory of John Gordon, who succeeded to the
farm of Tullochalum, 1771, and died there 1820, aged 82.
Mary Dawson, his spouse, died 1824, aged 72. And of their
children, William, who died in Jamaica, 1802; Anne, died at
Tullochalum, 1811; Thomas, Capt. 92nd Eegt., "Gordon
Highlanders," died in Jamaica, 1819; James, died at Aber-
deen, 1824; Eev. John, died at Edinburgh, 1832; George,
S.S.C., Edinburgh, died at Paisley, 1868. Also of Helen
Clark, the beloved wife of Alex. Gordon, who died at Tulloch-
ahim, 1822, aged 28 years. E.I.P.

XXV. F]-om a stone in the east wall of the church-
yard :—

Erected in memory of William M'Connochie, late farmer in
Boghead of Auchendown, who died 13 Dec, 1824, aged 81.
Done by his son John —

Omnes eodem cogimur : omnium
Versatur urna, seriiis, ocius,

Sors exitura, et nos in seternum
Exilium impositura cymbse.

The above, from Horace's Ode to Dellius, is thus trans-
lated by Dr. Francis : —

" We all must tread the paths of Fate ;
And ever shakes the mortal urn.
Whose lot embarks us, soon or late,

On (liaron's boat, ah ! never to return."


XXVI. A table-shaped stone (enclosed) bears : —

This stone Awas placed here by the Parishioners of Mortlach
us a mark of respect to the memory of the Rev. George Grant,
who discharged with fidelity the duties of a minister of this
parish for the space of eleven years, and died 10th Oct., 1804,
In the 44th year of his age. Also interred here the remains of
Harriet Ann Stuart or Grant, thereafter Irvine, widow of tlic
.said llev. George Grant, Avho died at Aberdeen, 5th Sept..
1847, in the 69th year of her age.

Erected by a few friends in memory of John Utley Wignall.
Inland Keveuue Officer, who died at Dufftown, 17th Jan., 186G.
aged 27 years.

XXVII. Within the church is a stone efhoy in armour.
It is built into the north wall, in an upright posture.
This had at first formed part of a recess-tomb, like those
at Fordyce ; and being placed near to the old Kininvie
sepulture, the figure in all probability represents Alexander
Leslie (a descendant of the fourth Baron of Balcpihain),
who acquired Kininvie from the Earl of Athol in 1521.
Four years later, Leslie built the House of Kininvie, part
of which building still stands, and dying about 1549, he
was interred within the Kirk of Mortlach, where the
family long continued to bury. Their tomb is now outside
the church. The first Baron of Kininvie left several sons.
Walter, the eldest, who succeeded to Kininvie, died in
1562, and the third son, George, received the lands of
Drumnmir from his father. It was a grandson of George
of Drummuir who became Earl of Leven; and the eldest
(laughter of the fifth Leslie of Kininvie was mother of
Archbishop Sharp.

XXVIII. The following, from a tablet at Mortlach, erected
by the Archbishop's uncle, is in memory of hi.s (the sixth
laird's) wife : —

Here lyeth the pious, verteous gentlewoman, Helen Giant,
goodwife of Kininvie, daughter to Belentom. wlio lived witli
her husband, John Leslie of Kininvie, 60 vears. and dejjarted
the 11 of IVIay, 1712, the 82 year of her age.

XXIX. The seventh laii-d, who was Provost of Banlf,
sold Kininvie and 'J'ulloch, in 1708, to his third brother,
James, who built the middle part of the House of Kininvie
in 1725, and died in 1782. He was twice married, and
the following insrii]ition relates to bis first wife: —


Here lyeth Helen Carmichaell, daughter to Carmichaell

of Clapertounehall, in the countie of Midle Lothian, and spous
to James Leshe of Tullich, wlio departed this hfe tln' 15 day of
.May, 1717. I.L : H C. Memor lethi fugit hora.

XXX. Another slab bears the name of a brother-in-law
of the eighth laird : —

Here lyeth the pious and voi'thie gentleman, John Grant of
Navie, who was married to Helen Leslie, daughter to Jolin
LesHe of Kininvie, Avho departed the last of Au2;ust, — 7 — .
J.G : H L.

The eighth laird of Kininvie and Tullich entailed the
estates in 1730, and dying two years afterwards he was
succeeded by his only child, James, as ninth laird. The
ninth laird married a daughter of Stewart of Lesmurdie,
by whom he had three sons and three daughters. The
first and third sons both succeeded. The first, who sold
Buchromb in 1795, had an only daughter, and the second
died unmarried in 1839, in which year the estates came to
the son of their eldest sister, Jean, by Robert Young,
factor and commissioner to Sir A. Grant of Monymusk.
This son, who was a solicitor in Banff, and took a leading
part in the afiairs of the county, married a daughter of
James Donaldson of Kinairdy in Marnoch, and a marble
tablet at Mortlach bears this record of their deaths : —

XXXI. Sacred to the memory of Archd. Young-Leslie of
Kininvie, who departed this life 31 Oct., 1841, aged 74. And
of his spouse, Jane Donaldson, who died on 30 Nov. of the
same year, aged 63. This tablet is erected hy their children.

The above were the parents of the present laird, of
whose lady and a daughter there is the following record : —

XXXII. Sacred to the memory of Barbara King Stewart, the
beloved wife of George A. Y. Leslie of Kininvie, and daughter
of Gen. William Stewart of Elgin, C.B., who died 12th Aug.,
1853, in her 3Gth year; and Mary Jane, their infant daughtei-.

Mr. Geo. A. Y. Leslie had three sons and three daughters.
The eldest son, Archibald, an officer in the 23rd E. Welsh
Fusiliers, lately constiucted a famity tree, from which,
and notes kindly furnished by my friend, Robert Young,
writer, Elgin (author of excellent histories of Burghead,
the Parish of New Spyuie, kc), this notice of the Kininvie
famil}' is mainly compiled.] {Jervisc's Epitaphs. — Ed.)


Before I proceed to the next parish, I shall give
some account of


The family of M'Diiff, Earl of Fife (descended,
inmy opinion, of King Dnffus, who was murdered in
Forres ahout anno 965), Avas ancient and eminent,
and flourished until the year 1385. The sirnames
of Weem, M^I)itosJi, TosJieach, SJiaiv, Spens, Fife,
Duff, &c., are hranches of that great family. I
have before me a genealogical manuscript account
lately Amtten, deducing the Lord Braco from the
family of Fife. It consists of three successive

I. The Earls oi Atliole of the name de SfratJi-
holgie, descended of the Earls of Fife, thus : (1)
])avid, son of Duncan, the 6th Earl. In a dona-
tion to the See of Moray, by Malcolm the 7th
Earl, "David filius quondam Duncani Comitis de
Fife, frater mens, anno 1226," is witness. " Collatio
Malcomi Com. de Fyfe, Episc. Morav. Test. Dun-
cano et Davide fratribus meis. Conventio inter
Andream Episc. Morav. et nobilem virum Davi-
dem de Strathbolgie filium quondam Duncani
Comitis de F;y-fe, anno 1232." {Cart. Moray).

Trunslatiuii. — David my brother, the son of the hite Duncan,
Earl of Fife, in the year 122n. — The Contribution of Malcolm,
Earl of Fife, to the Bishop of jMoray, witnessed by Duncan and
David my brothers. The Covenant between Andrew, Bishop
of Moray, and the Nobleman, David of Strathbolgie, the son of
the late Earl of Fife, in the year 1232.


He was father of (2) John de Strathbolgie, who
became Earl of Athole in right of his wife Ada,
co-heiress of Hemy, Eaii of xVthole, and was
father of (3) David, who married Isabel, co-heiress
of Lord Chilam, and died 1284. His son (4j
John, executed at London, 1308. His son (5)
David, killed at Kilblain anno 1335, by his wife
Joan, daughter of John the Eed Cuming Lord
Badenoch, had several sons, whereof the eldest
(6) David, was forfeited for abetting the English
interest, and died in England anno 1375, without
male issue. This deduction of the Earls of
Athole is instructed from the Chartulary of
Moray and Sir Wm. Dugdale.

11. Branch, deduces the Duffs of Muldavid and
CraigJiead thus : (1) John, second son of David,
the 5th Earl of x\tliole, quitted the name of de
Strathbolgie and assumed that of Duff, and had
the lands of Muldavid and Craighead, &c. His
son was (2) David, ^c. The line was carried
do^Ti by eleven generations, to John Duff, writer
in Aberdeen, who died in Holland anno 1717,
without issue ; and in him the direct line of
Craighead became extinct. I confess all the
descents are well instructed, except the first. But
one will desiderate, how doth it appear, that
John, called the first of Craighead, was the 2nd
son of David, 5tli Earl of Athole ? Or was at all
his son ? That ever he bore the name of Strath-
bolgie? That he assumed the name Duff'? And


for what reasons he did so ? For aU, or any of

Online LibraryLachlan ShawThe history of the province of Moray. Comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the county of Inverness and a portion of the county of Banff,--all called the province of Moray before there was a division into counties → online text (page 15 of 37)