Lachlan Shaw.

The history of the province of Moray. Comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the county of Inverness and a portion of the county of Banff,--all called the province of Moray before there was a division into counties online

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used for. We have never seen anything of the kind
described in any work on archseology; yet we are certainly
of opinion that it is ancient. It was found in a piece of
ground called the Carrachs. After the moss had all been
removed, it was resting in the bed of clay, which proves
that it is not a thing of yesterday.

The most important article, however, comiected with
the Bronze Period fovmd in Glenlivet has yet to be men-
tioned. It is a chalice or cup. It was found underneath
what uiust have been a very large monumental cairn, in
a lieight near the farm-steading of Auchdrcgnie. Tlie
cairn having been driven away for the purpose of build-
ing a bridge and other purposes, this magnificent article
of the Bronze Period was discovered. It was beautifully
ornamented with flowers and other devices. Its great
peculiarity was that it had neither handle nor stalk. It
is probable, however, tliat the stalk might have been
broken away. It was long kept at Auchdregnie, and
only very lately went amissing. Not very far from the
same spot was found part of a bronze spear, which was



ARCHEOLOGY OF GLENLIVET. 203

last seen keeping together a rent in a post of a sheep-
flake. Such is the fate of many objects of anticjuity ; a
melancholy fate indeed, when we consider that by these
objects alone the degree of advancement of our early fore-
fathers can be traced.

About 50 years ago, a man was busy trenching in a
piece of ground called Betavochel. His spade came
suddenly into contact with something hard, which, on
examination, turned out to be a slab. The man (Far-
quharson) went immediately and told his brother, Dominie
Farquharson, a man who acted as schoolmaster in the
Braes. The dominie heard his brother's tale, and advised
him to say nothing about the discovery until night, when
they would go in company and lift the slab, when he
doubted not but that as much gold would be found as
would be a fortune to each. The shadows of night slowly
fell, by far too slow for the impatience of the gold-seekers.
Quietly they left their dwelling and proceeded to the spot.
The ponderous slab was slowly lifted, disclosing four small
apartments, in one of which was an earthen jar. Eagerly
the dominie grasped it, and dashed aside the small flat
stone that covered it. The surprise and disgust of the
learned man may be better imagined than described, when
he found that it only contained dust, human dust, the
dust of centuries ; but that did not move the dominie.
He dashed the cinerary urn to the ground, smashing it in
pieces, and fled from the spot, followed more slowly by
his brother, doubtless equally disappointed. Next day
other three slabs were taken out. This had no doubt
been the burial-place of a family, at least the divisions
inside would lead us to suppose so ; but the family must
have found another resting place, and this one alone was
left to tell a tale of the past ; and the dust was rudely
scattered to the four winds of heaven, and the casket that
had held it for ages was broken because it did not con-
tain gold.

So far as we are aware, none of the tumuli in Glenlivet
have been opened for scientific purposes. Those that
have been opened have been opened accidentally. These
tend to show that the burials have been made after the
order of cremation. The long barrow, so far as we have
yet seen, is altogether unknown in the district. Round
barrows are pretty numerous.] (J. G. Phillip.)



204 THE AVON, LIVET, AND TRIBUTAEIES.



INVERAVON.

[Situation, Soil, Climate. — The river Avon, having
escaped through a narrow pass from the parish of Kirk-
michael, holds on its course in the same northerly direc-
tion, through the midst of this parish, for almost 14 miles,
dashing into the Spey about a mile higher up on that
river than the church : the name of the parish importing
in the Gaelic this particular of the termination of the
Avon. From the eastern limits of Cromdale to the
western borders of Aberlour, the length of the parish
along the Spey is 9 miles. The Avon having taken pos-
session of the southerly quarter of this parish for about
the course of 2 miles, receiving the stream of the Livet
from its own valley of Glenlivet, extending easterly into
the mountains with its lateral branches, the Tervie,
Crombie, and Aultchoilnachan, for the space of 12 miles,
forming a detached district of the parish. In the lower
part of the country, the soil is light and dry, naturally
producing broom. About the influx of the Livet, it is a
fertile loam, and higher up in this district there is a marie
pit. In some places the soil is moorish, in others it is
clay on a bed of limestone, and everj-svhere over the
whole parish, there is abundance of peat earth, furnish-
ing in a dry season a sufficient compliment of fuel. Ex-
cept one opening toM^ards the north, where the country is
washed by the Spey, it is everywhere environed by hills.
The mountain of Benrinnes, rising on the eastern borders
to the height of 2800 feet above the level of the sea, gives
more cause, in general, to complain of the excess than of
the deficiency of rain. On the banks of the Spey and on
the plains of Ballnadallach, the climate is early and mode-
rate. It is colder in the higher district of Glenlivet, the
snow lying oftentimes pretty deep in the spring, when
the sowing is diligently prosecuted below.

State of Property. — The family seat of Ballnadallach
[Ballindalloch] {tJiC toivn of the level rale) is pleasantly
situated on the banks of the Avon, not farther i\-o\\\ its
confluence with the Spey than to maintain the connection
with both rivers. The exterior of the building, and the
artificial embellishment of the natural beauties, bespeak
it the residence of opulence united with the most correct
taste. The present great proprietor, (ieneral Grant, has



THE HOUSE AND PROPERTY OF BALLINDALLOCH. 205

expended almost £7000 sterling on decoration, united
with permanent improvement. Similar to many of the
seats of ancient families, the House was originally placed
in the vicinity of very swampy ground, which has been
completely laid dry by a number of costly but perennial
drains. He has enlarged the park over a great extent of
waste ground, rising on the eastern side of the valley,
named badnaglashan, the tufted boggy pasturage, origi-
nally of no value, but now reduced to a state of such
complete cultivation as might be easily let for a corn-farm
of more than £200 sterling of rent. A long reach of an
unsightly, precipitous, and craggy bank, which commanded
the principal front of the House, hath been clothed with
the delicate and rich variety of verdure which a luxuri-
antly shooting grove of different species of trees can pro-
duce. The park extends up the Avon for a considerable
space, where it is terminated by a handsome bridge of
three arches, connecting it with the other side. The
highway bends behind the eastern limits of the park,
across the bridge, and down along the margin of the
western bank, exhibiting the delightful landscape below
like a fair and animated painting, till it regains the less
decorated country along the course of the Spey. In the
Cess Book of the county of Banff", the valued rent of the
domain in this parish, including that of Moreinch, Kil-
maichly, and Pitchashe, is £1383 6s. 8d. Scots: but the
House itself, with the park, and two or three of the
adjoining farms, are placed, by their political connection,
in the county of Moray, valued at £292 8d. Scots.

The rest of the parish is the property of the Duke of
Gordon, and in the county of Banff, valued at £2200
Scots : extending the total valuation to £3965 7s. 4d.
Scots. Though there are a number of the possessions but
small, there are also many farms of very respectable ex-
tent. In the year 1768, the real rent of the whole was
proved in the Court of Tithes to be £1148 sterling: since
that time it may have increased nearly to the double of
that amount.

State Ecclesiastical. — Inveravon falls into the Presby-
tery of Aberlour, which was erected into a separate inde-
pendent jurisdiction from the Presbytery of Abernethy in
1709. Under the Prelatic dispensation, Inveravon was
the seat of the Chancellor of the Diocese. The stipend,



206 ROMAN CATHOLIC ESTABLISHMENT AT SCALAN.

by decreet 1769, is £71 9s. and 48 bolls of meal, including
the Commimion-allowance. The glebe consists of little
more than 4 acres, of which a little less than 3 are arable.
Sir James Grant of Grant, Bart., is the patron of the
parish. There is a commodious slated school-house in the
vicinity of the church : the salary is 12 bolls of oatmeal, with
the fees of nearly 40 scholars, and the emoluments of the
office of session clerk. The Society for Christian Know-
ledge have established a school in Glenlivet, migratory
about 8 miles from Deskie to Badnavochle : the appoint-
ment is £15 sterling. The number of scholars vibrates
from 20 to 90 : but from the versatile state of the estab-
lishment, it is not possible that any useful knowledge can
be attained. The Royal Bounty supports a Missionary
clergyman in the district of Glenlivet, with the pittance
of £25 : he conducts the ordinances of Divine worship for
live successive Sundays at Auchbraek, about 2 miles above
the influx of the Livet. On the sixth, at the distance of
7 miles farther up among the hills, Avhere the country is
thinly peopled, where there is no accommodation of a
chapel, where one party is not pleased, and where the
other is dissatisfied.

In Glenlivet, also, there has been a Roman Catholic
establishment for almost 100 years, on the banks of the
Crombie, in a very sequestered situation among the
mountains which separate this district from the parishes
of Cabrach, Glenbucket, and Strathdon, It was chosen
on the account of its being so much removed from public
view, in those times when the Christians of the Chiu'ch
of Rome were, by the civil law of Britain, and both its
reformed churches, exposed tc persecution. Its Gaelic
appellation scalan, implies an obscure or shadoivy 'place.
It may be translated, the dark or gloomy km cl ; and it
denotes also the place where, in the days of other years,
the hunter stalked in ambuscade for the boiniding roe of
the hill.

The school is properly the Bishop's seminary for edu-
cating a few of the Catholic youth in the principles of
grammar and morality, and training them to a regularity
of discipline, in preparation for the colleges on the conti-
nent ; where they are, in general, entered into holy orders :
although, on some occasions, the sacrament of ordination
lias been administered in the Scalan. The school at pre-



TOMBEA ; FOOLISH LAIRDS ; BATTLE OF GLENLIVET. 207

sent contains from 8 to 12 students, under the care of a
clergyman, who conducts their education, and superintends
the management of the farm and the house. It is now
proposed to remove this seminary to the vicinity of Aber-
deen, where it is to be established on a more respectable
foundation, and conducted on a more enlarged and com-
prehensive scale.

Upon the farm of Tombea, on the banks of the Livet,
at the influx of the Crombie, the pastor of the people of
the Catholic communion resides. Near his residence, the
chapel, a neat, clean, slated fabric, is placed.

The contributions for the poor from the parochial and
missionary churches amount to nearly £7 sterling in the
year, distributed among 38 indigent individuals of the
national Church. The Roman Catholics support their
own poor, by funds of their own formation. Their num-
ber is nearly equal to that of the poor of the Establish-
ment, the whole members of which amount to 1394, and
those of the Church of Rome, the only dissenters in the
parish are 850.

Miscellaneous Information. — The proprietors, inatten-
tive to their concern in the provision established by the
statutory law for the poor, disregarded an application in
the year 1780 by the Session, to take a loan at legal in-
terest of £100 sterling, accumulated by the most parsi-
monious and frugal management, unremitted for the space
of many years. The Session therefore disposed of this
capital, with the utmost caution, between two gentlemen
of landed property, in other parishes ; but though justly
elated, no doubt, by their own provident address, they
were taught the mortifying lesson that " riches are not
always to men even of understanding." In a few years
the affairs of both debtors fell into ilisorder, and their
capital was in a great measure lost.

This parish in 1594 was distinguished by one of those
events, the Battle of Glenlivet, which in the present times
would be accounted peculiarly outrageous. The extremely
imbecile administration of James VI. had at that time
involved the nation into complicated misfortunes of the
most inveterate anarchy. The Church, with the presump-
tion not uncommon among upstarts, weakly interposed
in the affairs of State, which were at the same embroiled
by the contending interests of discordant nobles, and the



208 THE BATTLE OF GLENLIVET.



imperious but selfish politics of the English Queen. Three
noblemen, the Earls of Huntly, Errol, and Angus, from
causes unnecessary to be stated liere, had still persisted
in the religion of their ancestors. By the incredible
calumny of a conspiracy with the Spanish Monarch, the
King, obliged to submit to the necessity of the times,
reluctantly decreed their banishment and forfeiture ;
and excommunication, for the good of their souls, was
added by the sentence of the Church. From a previous
enmity to Huntly, the Earl of Ai'gyle was appointed his
Majesty's lieutenant to execute this mild correction, and
his preparations for this holy war were aided and spurred
on by the pious endeavours of Bruce of Kinnaird, a clergy-
man of Edinburgh. By their united influence and the
hope of the plunder of the north, almost 10,000 rapacious
warriors from the AVestern Isles, and all the coast from
Kintyre to Lochaber, took the field. Elated with their
own numbers, and gaping for the spoil, they hastened on
through Badenoch towards the richer region of Strath-
bogie. In the vale of Glenlivet, their march was inter-
cepted by a little band of scarce 1200 cavalry, which
Huntly and Errol were only able, on the spur of the occa-
sion, to muster. It is rather common than surprising,
that an army presumptuous from their number should,
by the resolution and caution of their condemned foe,
have been foiled. The field of battle was the southern
declivity of the valley, through which the brook of
Aultchoilnachan winds its course, at the bottom of a
heathy precipice almost perpencUcular, upon the margin
of which the forces of Argyle were marshalled, having
the advantage of their enemy on the sloping ground
below, which was however compensated by the effect of
two small field-pieces, almost equally unknown among
the forces of Argyle as among the powers of Montezuma,
or the armies of Peru. Tlic disorder which these occa-
sioned was completed by the van, of 400 of the most
gallant horsemen, led rovnid tlie end of the precipice by
Errol, charging the footmen furiously with the spear.
The left wing had been without consideration entrusted
to the command of a chief among the Grants, yet the
vassal and friend of Huntly, who, by a previous concert,
turned, at this crisis of the engagement, against the cen-
tre, which was led on by Argyle himself. Notwithstanding,



SIR GEORGE MACPHERSON-GRANT's EPITAPH. 209

the battle for more than two hours was maintained ; but
the centre at last gave way, under the vigour of Huntly's
attack. Their rout left the van or right wing, whicli
had commenced the fight, unsupported, which retreated
unbroken and in order, though their leader, the chieftain
of the Macleans of Mull, was slain. The attempt of
Argyle to rally was in vain; and the whole of their
baggage, the greater part of their arms, and more than
700 slain, were left upon the field, while 12 only of the
opposing party fell. The carnage of the pursuit was pre-
vented by the roughness of the ground. The whole
country around was by this victory delivered from rapine
and destruction. The ancestor of the Abyssinian traveller
was grieved, and the King secretly rejoiced.] (Survey of
the Frovlnce of Moray.)

CHURCHYARD EPITAPHS OF INVERAVON.

The Church, eretited in 1809, stands on the south bank
of the Spey ; and S. Peter's Well, which was once con-
sidered an efiectual cure for most diseases, is about 400
yards south-east of the Chvirch. At no distant date, votive
ofierings were found in the Well ; and Peter Fair, now
held at Dalnashaugh, stood near the consecrated fountain.

A sculptured Stone, with a raven and other carvings,
lies within the site of the old church. The burial-aisle of
Grant of Ballandalloch, a recent building, stands apart
from the church. It contains three tablets. The first,
which is of Peterhead granite, bears : —

I. A tribute of filial affection and grateful esteem to the
memory of Sir George Macpherson-Grant of Ballandalloch
and Invereshie, Baronet. Born 25 Feb., 1781 ; died 24
Nov., 1846.

Sir George, who was long M.P. for Sutherlandshire, was
created a baronet in 1838. He married Mary, eldest
daughter of Carnegy of Craigo, in Angus. Their third
son, Thomas, W.S., Edinburgh, succeeded to the valuable
estate of Craigo, &c., on the death of his cousin Thomas,
the last of the male line of that branch of the Carnegys.
Sir George's eldest son, John, to whom the next inscrip-
tion refers, only survived his father four years : —

II. This tablet is placed here by Dame Marion Helen
Campbell in memory of her beloved husband, Sir John

VOL. I. 14



210 THE INVERESHIE BRANCH OF THE MACPHEllSONS.

Macpherson-Grant of Ballaudalloch and Inveresliie, Bart.
Bom 3 Augt., 180-t; died 2d Dec, 1850.

The following, from a marble slab, records the death
of Sir John's wife, who was a daughter of Campbell of
Ballimore, Ai'gyllshire : —

III. This taljlet is placed by Sir George Macpherson-Grant
of Ballandalloch and Inveresliie, Baronet, in memory of his
beloved mother. Dame jMarion Helen Campbell. Born 12 Oct.,
1810; died 5 June, 1855.

The Inveresliie branch of the Macphersons claim descent
from Gillies, third son of Ewan Baan (the fair Ewan),
who lived in the time of Alex. II. He was of the Clan
Chattan ; and the succession of the clan having devolved
upon the sons of Muriach, a parson or priest, the family
is said to have assumed the name of Macparson, or son
of the parson. George Macpherson of Inveresliie and
Dalraddie married Grace, daughter of Colonel Wm. Grant
of Ballandalloch. , On the death of his descendant, General
James Grant, the Ballandalloch Estates came to George
Macpherson, nephew, and subsequently heir of William
of Inveresliie, when he assumed the surname of Macpher-
son-Grant, and, as above noticed, was created a baronet.
This family claim to be descended on the Grant side from
John (son of Patrick of Grant), who lived during the first
half of the 16th century. (See page 195.)

Besides the burial-aisle in the churchyard, a mausoleum,
now surrounded by wood, erected in 1807, occupies an
elevated position in the west corner of the Bowmoon
Park, overlooking Ballandalloch Castle and a great part
of Strathspey. Here, by special request, were deposited
the ashes of the above-named General James Grant. The
mausoleum is a square building of native granite, with a
column rising from the centre, overtopped by a vase.

IV. A marble tablet upon the base of the column is
thus inscribed : —

Memoriae sacrum Jacori Grant do fJallandallocli, in exc'rcitu
Brittannico Duels, undccimai peditum legionis Pra^fecti, atque
Castelli de Stirling Custodis, nati — die Novembris 1720, qui
decessit 13 die Aprilis, 1806. Hoc monumentum posuit
Georgius Macpherson-Grant de Ballandalloch.

The body of the General rests in the vault brlow. The



THE grants' epitaphs IN INVERAVON CHURCHYARD. 211

outer casing consists of a coffin-shaped tomb of light grey-
marble, set upon a large granite slab. Upon the top of
the coffin are the Grant arms and motto, surrounded by
nicely sculptured banners and other trophies of war.
The following inscription (of the same import as that in
Latin) is upon the top oi the tomb below the family
arms : —

V. James Grant of Ballandalloch, General in His Majesty's
Army, Colonel of the lltli regiment of foot, and Governor of
Stirling Castle, born Nov., 17'20, died 13 April, 1806.

Gen. Grant, who succeeded to Ballandalloch on the
death of his nephew. Col. W. Grant, about 1770, greatly
distinguished himself during the American War, and was
some years Governor of Florida.

VI. Heir lyes ane honest man caled William M 'Willie, who
livid in the Cories, who departed the 10 of Jvne, 1G85 ; and
Ketren Gordene, his spovse.

VII. Here lyes the James Stuart, late farmer in

Cottertown of Balindalloch, who departed this life the 3 of . . .
1749, aged . . .

An enclosure on the south side of the kirk contains a
number of tombstones to Grants who have tenanted
farms in Inveravon. From these the next two inscrip-
tions are copied : —

VIII. From motives of filial esteem and respect for the
memories of John Grant, formerly in Glenarder, who died 12
Nov., 1797, aged 84 years; and AViUiam Grant, who was some
time farmer at Dalnapot, who died 16 Jan., 1815, aged 39
this stone Avas placed over them by Peter Grant in Craigroy,
grandson of the former and brother of the latter.

IX. Here lies the body of Charles Grant, farmer at Boat of
Aven, who died Feb. 4, 1758, aged 76, and of his spouse, Anna
Gumming, who died April 20, 1736, aged 63. In memory of
them, John and Alex. Grants, their sons, erected this stone.

Those recorded in the last quoted Inscription were the
direct ancestors of James Grant, writer, Elgin, who was
fifteen years Provost of that city, and projector of the
railways from Elgin to Craigellachie, and to Lossie-
mouth, &c.

X. William Grant, Esq., many years tacksman of Tombreck-



212 EPITAPHS ON REY. WM. SPEXCE, CAPT. GEANTT, ETC.

achie, terminated his earthly course Avith high and well merited
esteem on Saturday. 3 June, 1815, at the advanced age of 85
years.

XI. Two separate and adjoining stones bear : —
James Grant, fanner, Pitgavenie, near Elgin, died 1771 :

He Avas a pious and honest man, a tender husband, a most
dutiful parent, and a good neighbour. His remains ly interred
under this stone, Avhich Avas placed OA-er them by his son, Mr,
James Grant, minister of InveraA'en, Avdio died 3 Feb., 1795, in
the 77th year of his age, and 43d of his ministry.

XII. Mrs. Margaret Macgregor, died 7 Dec, 1841, daughter
of Jas. Macgregor, Esq. of PittyA^aich. The EeA'. Wm. Grant,
minister of Inveravon, died 12 April, 1833, in the 75th year
of his age, and 41st of his ministry.

XIII. Within an enclosure : —

Sacred to the memory of Thomas SteAvart, Esq., late of
PittyA-aich, Avho departed this life 5 Feh., 1815, aged 74.

XIV. In area of the old Kirk : —

The Eev. Wm. Spence, minister of the Gospel at InveraA^on,
died 30 July, 1807, in the 4Gth year of his age, and 12th of
his ministry.

XV. This stone AA^as erected here liy John Hendrie, Avho died
the 24th Dec, 1815, in the 63rd year of his age, Avith the con-
currence of Penual Cameron, his spouse, Avho died 7 May, 1818,
in the 57th year of her age, &c.

XVI. Peter Hay, merchant and farmer in DalchAvrich, placed
this stone here on his burying place, and his remains are
interred under it. He died Dec 30, aged 73 years. He Avas
a fair trader, an honest man, and peacealjle neighbour. Death
is certain, sin is the cause of it, but Christ is the cure.

XVII. Upon a granite headstone : —

Captain Grantt, tacksman of AdA-ie and Molderie, interred
here May, 1828, a^rcd 90 years. He Avas the 7th in descent
from Duncan, the ffth laird of Grant, and 6th from Patrick
Grant of F>allandallocli, who held the lands of Advic, first in
wadset and afterAvards in tack. His youngest son, Capt. LeAvis
Grant of the 71st licgt., died May, 1812, of Avounds receiA'ed
at the assault of Fort Napoleon and in the Tagus, Avhen cheer-
ing and leading the Highlanders to victory. Ei'ccted by Col.
AV. Grant of Cloghill in memory of an honouralde father, and



CHARLES STEWART OF DESKIE AND FAMILY, 21:3

a gallant brother ; also to his grandson, Charles Grant Campbell,
Esq., Assistant Surgeon E.N., who died at Rio de Janeiro, S.
America, 6 Feb., 1851, in the prime of life, and faithful
discharge of his duty.

XVIII. This stone is placed here in memory of William
Falcener, late farmer in Pitchaish, who died at Mains of Kiner-