Lachlan Shaw.

The history of the province of Moray. Comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the county of Inverness and a portion of the county of Banff,--all called the province of Moray before there was a division into counties online

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West from Speymouth lieth


This parish stretcheth upon the firth to the
Eiver Lossie 4 miles, and 2 miles in breadth.

The Church standeth near the south end, 8
miles west from Speymouth, 1 mile north from
Langbryde, and 8 east from Elgin ; the south
and east parts are called the Lordship of Urqu-
hart. They were a part of the lands of that
priory, and were created into a temporal lordshij)
in favour of the son of Lord Winton, Chancellor
of Scotland and Earl of Dunfermline, anno 1591
(Vid. Eccles. Hist.), and were purchased hy the
Duke of Gordon about the year 1780.

Noi-th from the Church is the barony of Innes.
The House of Innes is a fine modern building,
siuToundc'd Avitli gardens, inclosures, and plant-
ing. In the year 1787 it was all consumed by


lightning, but is now for the most part repaired
and well finished.

West of Innes is the barony of Leuchars.
This was anciently a part of the Earldom of
Moray, and came to Sir Alexander Dunbar of
Westfield as a part of his patrimonial estate.
About the 1570 a daughter of Westfield married
to Innes of Crombie, brought Leuchars and a
half coble of fishing on the Spey into the family
of Innes ; and now it is the heritage of Captain
John Innes, a branch of the family.

Here let me give some account of the name and
family of Innes.


This is a local sirname. Inis in Irish signifieth
an island, or a peninsula, such as a part of the
lands of Innes very probably was. The antiquity
of this family, possessed of the barony of Innes
for 600 years, appeareth from the original charter.
Beroaldus Flandrensis, who obtained this charter,
either was a Flandrian, according to Sir James
Dalrymple, or was one of the ancient Moravienses,
and having been for some time in Flanders was
called the Flandrian. Thus the ancestor of
Fraser of Foyer, having been for some time in
France, was called Hutcheon Francach. Many
such instances are obvious, I incline the rather
to this opinion because the Morays, Sutherlands,
Innesses, and Brodies have all the same paternal


arms, viz., stars differing only in the tincture ;
whence it is probable they were anciently Mor-
avienses. The charter now mentioned was
granted by King Malcolm IV. [in 1157], and
though the original is lost there is extant a
transcript of it under the subscription of Gavin
Dunbar, clerk register in the reign of King James
V. The form of this charter showeth it ancient.
Our Kings had at that time (and not before King
William) used the plural Nos, and ancient char-
ters had no particular date, j^et the date of this
charter may be nearl}' fixed by observing that
William, Bishop of Moray, was made Legate
anno 1159, and died anno 1162 {Cliron. Melr.)^
which bringeth the date within three years.
King Alexander 11. by his charter, 1st January,
anno regni l^mo, 1226, confirmed the lands of
Innes, Walter© filio Joannis filii Berwaldi'" (Pe/t.
Inn. [in the possession of Innes]). (4) Sir Alex-
ander Innes succeeded his father Walter, whose
son (5) William was the first of this family
designed Dominus de Innes in an indenture
betwixt him and Simon, prior of Pluscardine,
in or before the year 1298. His son (6) AVilliam
de Innes, is one of the witnesses to an agreement
betwixt the town of Elgin and the monks of
Pluscardine, dated the -Itli of December, 1330.
He is therein designed Baro de I/tfie,s. His son

* Tramlation. — To Walter, the sou of John, the son of


(7) Eobert de Innes is designed Dominus ejusdevi
in a charter of King David the II. of the Forrestry
of Boyne. This charter is without date, but it
appears, by the other witnesses mentioned in it,
to have been granted before the year 1360. His
son (8) Alexander had three sons and a daughter :
Sir Walter, the eldest son, died unmarried ;
John, third son, was, on January 23, 1406-7,
consecrated Bishop of Moray, and died in April,
1414. He advanced the rebuilding of the Cathe-
dral, and began the building of the great steeple.
On his tomb is this inscription : — " %\t jacct
P^bcrciiims in Qlhrista J3atev ct x). D. Jolutnncs be
Innes, hujus calcsiiC %i6C0|JU6, rjui hoc notabiU^
opus inxicpit, ti per septcnnium potcntcr jcbifi-
cabtt." '"■ The daughter, Giles, was married to
Ferquhard M'Intosh of that ilk. The second
son (9), Sir Kobert Innes, succeeded his brother.
He married Dame Janet, daughter and heiress of
Sir David Aberkerder, Thane of Aberkerder, now
Marnoch, with whom he got a great accession to
his estate. By this lady he had a son (10), Sir
Walter Innes, who got a charter of confirmation
of his mother's lands from King James the II.
anno 1450. He married, 1st, Eupheme, daughter
of Hugh, first Lord Lovat, by whom he had three
sons and two daughters — Sir Kobert, his heir;

* Translation. — " Here lietli the Eeverend Father in Christ
and Doctor of Divinity John of Innes, Bishop of this Church,
who began this distinguished work and for seven years assidu-
ously continued the building."


Beroaldus Innes of Hatton, from whom several
of this name in Caithness are descended ; his
third son, John, was Bishop of Caithness ; Isabel,
eldest daughter, was married to James Dunbar,
Earl of Moray ; Margaret, the second to Patrick
Maitland of Netherdale. Sir Walter, by his
second lady, had a son, John Innes of Ardmilly,
from whom several families of the name are
descended. (11) Sir Robert Innes succeeded his
father, and was infeft in all his father's lands
anno 145G. He was a man of great personal
bravery, and remarkably distinguished himself in
the service of his King on many occasions, par-
ticularly at the battle of Brechin anno 1452.
His lady was a daughter of the Baron of Drum-
lanrig, by whom he had three sons and two
daughters — James, his heir ; Walter, second son,
ancestor of the families of Innermarkie, Balvenie,
Coxtown, Innerbrakie, Ortown, Auchintoul, &c. ;
Robert, third son, progenitor of the Innesses of
Drainie ; his eldest daughter, Margaret, was
married to Sir James Ogilvie, ancestor of the
Earls of Findlater; the second was married to
Barclay of Towie. (12) James Innes of that ilk
succeeded his father, to whom he was retoured
heir anno 1464. He married Lady Janet Gordon,
daughter of Alexander, Earl of Huntly, and with
her had a numerous issue. The male issue of
Alexander, the eldest son, failed in the i)erson of
his grandson, John, who was succeeded by the


grandson of (13) Eobert Innes of Cromby, second
son of James ; which Eobert was father of (14)
James Innes of Eathmakenzie, who died fighting
gallantly in the defence of his country at the
Battle of Pinkie anno 1547, and was succeeded
by his son (15) Alexander, who, by right of blood,
as well as by mutual entail, succeeded to the
representation and estate of this family. By his
lady, Isabella, daughter of Arthur Forbes of
Balfour, and niece of John, eighth Lord Forbes,
he had a son (16) Eobert Innes of that ilk, who
succeeded him ; and by Elizabeth, daughter of
Eobert, third Lord Elphinston, he had two sons
— Sir Eobert, his heir ; and Sir John, father of
Sir Eobert Innes of Muirton. (17) Sir Eobert
Innes of Innes was a great favourite of King
Charles I., who created him a Baronet of Nova
Scotia, with destination to his heirs male what-
ever, by patent dated at Whitehall the 29th of
May anno 1625. He afterwards sided with the
Covenanters, and was appointed one of the Com-
mittee of Estates anno 1641. He married Lady
Grizel Steuart, daughter of James, Earl of Moray,
by whom he had three sons and five daughters —
Sir Eobert, his heir ; James of Liclmet, second
son ; William, a Captain in the Guards ; his
eldest daughter, Elizabeth, was married to John
Urquhart of Craigtown ; the second daughter,
Mary, was married to James Steuart of Eosyth ;
his third was married to Sir Eobert Innes of


Muirton ; his fourth, Barbara, to Eobert Dunbar,
Sheriff of Murray ; his youngest daughter was
inanied to Alexander, first Lord Duffus. He
(lied before the Eestoration, and was succeeded
by his eldest son (18) Sir liobert lunes of Innes,
who married Mary, daughter of James, fifth Lord
Ross of Halkhead, by whom he had (19) Sir
James Innes of Innes, who by his lady, Margaret,
daughter of Henry Lord Kerr, ai^parent heir of
Robert, Earl of lioxburgh, had his son and
successor (20) Sir Henry Innes of Innes, Baronet,
who married Jean, daughter of Dimcan Forbes,
of Culloden, Esq., by whom he had Sir Henry,
liis heir, and John Innes of Inchbroom, Esq., an
officer in the army, and two daughters. (21) Sir
Henry Innes of Innes, Baronet, married Anne,
daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, by whom
he had James, his heir, and Eobert, who went to
the East Indies. He had also five daughters,
Anne, Jean, Margaret, Sopliia, and Ludovica.
(22) Sir James Innes of Innes, Baronet, succeeded
his father, Sir Henry. He is the sixth Baronet
of this family, the 22nd generation in a direct
male line from Beroaldus, and the second in pre-
cedency of the order of Baronets of Nova Scotia.
This family had for many years a very opulent
estate. They were proprietors of the baronies of
Innes, Luchars, Kelmalenmock, in Moray county;
Crombie, Eothmakenzie, and Abercherder, in
Banff coimty, and miicli land in the county of


Caithness. They early embraced the Eeforma-
tion of EeHgion, and Wilham, Laird of Innes,
was a Member of the Parhament in 1560 which
estabhshed that change.

Sir James Innes (son of Sir Harry, who died
in 1762) sold the estate of Innes in 1767 to
James, Earl Fife.

[In a few years thereafter, Sir James Innes,
heir apparent by Lady Margaret Kerr, mentioned
above, at 19, succeeded to the title and fortune
of the Duke of Eoxburgh. He had been previ-
ously married to the daughter of Captain Charle-
wood, the mother of his Grace— James Innes
Kerr, yet a minor. The Balvenie Baronet is now
represented by Sir John Innes of Edingight
(pronounced Edinoeith), the Baronet of Coxton
by Sir Hugh Innes, and the Baronet of Orton by,
it is said. Sir David Innes.] {GraiiVs Edition.)

The arms of Innes are, Argent, three stars, each of six points
azure, with the badge of Nova Scotia in the centre. Crest,
within an adder disposed circle ways, a castle triple towered
proper. Motto, Prudentia et vi.* Supporters, two grey
hounds argent, each having a collar azure, charged with three
stars of the first.


[Situation, Soil, and Climate. — The parish of Urquhart
may ])e understood to extend across the lowlands of
Moray, from the sea upon the north to the mountain on
the south, about 9 miles, though in this space one farm of
the parish of Speymouth intervenes. So little of the
cultivated ground lies on the southern side of the post
road that it may be considered, in a general view, as
forming its boundary as it passes from Elgin at the west
to the River Spey at the east for the length of 4 miles,
* Transhdim. — By Prudence and Bravery.


parallel almost to the firth, at the distance of 8 miles on
the north. The sea coast, which is about G miles in
extent, is low and sandy, and as no brook or rivulet falls
in between Spey and the water of Lossie there is no creek
or landing place of any kind. Grain, which is the only
article of exportation, is shipped in the harbours of Spey-
mouth or Lossiemouth. Coal, the great article of import-
ation, must be carried over-land from the same harbours,
the former at the distance of 4 and the other of G miles.
In addition to what has been already said of the climate,
it is only to be observed that its suj)eriority over that of
the high country is most remarkable in the spring
months. While all the operations of husbandry are going
forward in the low parts of Moray they meet with a total
interruption in the high country, distant only a few
miles, by the intenseness of the frost or tlie depth of the
snow. The winters likewise in general are so temperate
that several plants, commonly ranked in the hot-house
division, stand throughout that season in the gardens of
Innes House, losing little of their verdure. It may like-
wise be observed, as another evidence of the excellence of
this climate, that in the famine which prevailed over
Scotland for 7 years in the end of the last century, owing
to the cold and wet seasons, the land in j\Ioray was all
that time so productive as to sjmre considerable quantities
of grain. It is well ascertained that in those ye-ars of
dearth people came from the county of Angus to buy oat
meal at the rate of £1 10s. the boll, to be carried across
the Grampian Mountains, at the distance of about 100
miles. Towards the north-west part of the parish the
land is low and flat, and a few feet only above the level
of the sea, of which, at a remote period, it has been the
bottom, as there are evident marks of the sea having
receded from the coast. The soil here may be accounted
loam. In the other quarters of the parish the ground is
greatly more elevated, and of an unc([ual waving surface ;
and the soil, though in general sandy and light, is of a
kindly and fertile nature, well adapted for turnij^, potatoe,
barley, and all kinds of artiticial grasses, and a consitler-
able ])art would be extremel}- lit for wheat, could manure
in sufficient quantities be produced.

^7(//^; of Propertij. — Four-fifths of this parish aie the
property of the Earl of Fife. About i^G years ago his


Lordship, being proprietor of considerable estates in the
adjacent parishes, purchased the estate of Innes. He
hitely acquired the lordship of IJrquhart, partly by an
excambion with the f\imily of Gordon, and partly by the
purchase of several small feus, which had originally
thereto appertained. He thus became possessed of so large
a track of contiguous property, comprehending a great
variety of ground, that he became enabled to complete
plantations of a very large extent, which add much to the
ornament and convenience of the country. Some moors
and hills of great extent are planted, and a number of
little rising grounds are covered with singular good taste,
making their appearance with relation to each other
extremely beautiful. In all these plantations the Scots
fir at present predominates, but many of these are yearly
cut down and the voids filled up with deciduous trees.
Previous to the year 1779, when about one half of these
plantations were formed, 3,000 Scots firs were planted on
each acre, but since that time 1,200 only. Lord Fife has
also enclosed many fields by hedges and hedge-rows,
which are carried in part along the highways, aSbrding
considerable warmth and utility.

In a valley bending north and south stands his seat of
Innes House,* in a park of considerable extent, diversified
by groves of full grown lofty trees, young shooting plan-
tations, verdant fields, and a small winding river, expanded
in some places into a lengthened lake, and at others con-
tracted into a neat cascade, decorated by a waving gravel
path and several Chinese bridges. The approach to the
house bends in a winding course through the grove, and
terminates in an open lawn, having a very extensive but
irregularly-formed garden on one side, in which are long
reaches of fruit- wall, covered with the richest variety of
fruitage — pears, cherries, plums, nectarines, and peaches.
There are also many lofty forest trees, among which
numbers of common fruit trees luxuriantly mingle. In
the house are conjoined the magnificence of the Gothie
castle to the elegance of the modern seat. It rises to the
height of four stories. It makes two sides of a square,
but of unequal length, having a square tower in the angle,
which is occupied by the staircase within ; it rises higlier
than the building, and is completed by a small round
* Innes House is in the parish of Lhanbryd. (Ed. )
VOL. I. 21


turret, opening into its level roof, which is surrounded by
a secure stone ballustrade ; and instead of the dead-wall
lieavy masonry, of which the chimney-stacks of modern
buildings are composed, each vent springs lightly from
tlie blue roof in its own separate airy column. The
ground floor is occupied by the necessary household
accommodations. The first floor contains a suite of three
magnificently superb rooms, in which are a number of
portrait pictures of Kings of England, Princes, and Queens,
and of other personages of distinguished memory, many
of them large as the life, and in the various dresses of
their respective generations. There are also a few
historical and other paintings, and several ancient historic
prints of the largest size, in very costly frames, with
plates of the most transparent mirror glass. The storeys
above are occupied by the bed-chambers ; among them is
one splendid dressing-room, finished with paper richly
painted in the Chinese manner, on which a variety of
trees of exotic growth shoot from the floor to the ceiling,
their branches animated by numbers of tropical birds, in
various attitude, size, and form, each, however, of the
most delicate plumage, and of the most vivid colours.

The only other heritor is John Innes of Leuchars, who
has about one-fifth of the real rent of the parish, which
he acquired about the year 1781 from another gentleman
of the same name, who had built a handsome house and
given some attention to the draining of the land. Since
the present gentleman became the proprietor he has been
attentive to raise hedges and stripes of plantation about
the fields round his house, of the best kinds of deciduous
trees, such as oak, ash, witch elm, and a great proportion
of larix, besides several clumps of Scots fir, similar to
those executed by Lord Fife. The fai'ms are in general
rather small for encouraging substantial improvements in
agriculture — there are a few that may contain from GO to
100 acres, but the common run is from 20 to 30. The
rent of the land varies according to the nature of the soil
— there are some fields let for 20s. the acre, while others
are below 10s., the average may be from 10s. to 15s.

The valued rent is £5,507 15s. 3d. Scots, of which
apj)ertains to the estate of Leuchars £437 3s. 3d.

Ecclesiastical State. — The Earl of Fife acquired the


patronage from the family of Gordon in the excambion
that has been ah-oady mentioned. The stipend, by decreet
Feb. 1793, is 8 chalders victuab £4'0 sterling, including
£5 for Communion elements, and a glebe consisting of 5
Scots acres. The schoolmaster's salary is 12 bolls of oat-
meal and G bolls of barley, the other emoluments are
similar to those of Speymouth. The funds for the support
of the poor are some bequeathments, yielding £2 lis. 4d.
sterling of yearly interest, and the donations collected
from the congregation of the Parish Church, amounting
to £10 yearly, which are divided among the poor enrolled
in the parish list, being 20 in number at an average.
The members of the Established Church are l,OoO ; the
dissenters are 20, consisting chiefly of anti-burghers.

Miscellaneous Information. — The people are in general
very sober and industrious in their several occupations,
which are as well directed as their situation and circum-
stances will permit. Within these 20 years a great
change to the better may be remarked in their clothing,
their cleanliness, and every other circumstance that tends
to make life more agreealDle. There is one lake in the
parish — the Loch of Cottes. Pike is the only fish it
contains; in winter it is frequented by a considerable
number of swans ; in the spring and autumn by flocks of
wild geese, ducks, and other water-fowls. In the upper
part of the parish the Lake of Lochnaboe borders upon its
limits at the west; the extensive plantations already
mentioned are carried round its banks, and with the
water, which is uncommonly limpid, forms a most delight-
ful scene. These improvements have, however, been
attended with one disadvantage. In some severe winters,
several years ago, a few stags and hinds from the forests
of Gleuflddich and Glenavon took up their residence in
the plantations round Lochnaboe and never returned to
their native forests, but increase in numbers every year,
by breeding and by fresh emigrants. They make a fine
appearance, and afford much amusement to the sportsman :
but they are hurtful both to the plantations and agricul-
ture. Throughout the summer, in the night, they pasture
on the corns ; in the winter, on the turnip ; and as the
crops of wheat and rye advance in the spring, they are
particularly destructive to these ; but the stem of the
potatoe seems to be their favourite food, as they pass


through fields of corn to browse upon them. Where the
corn fields lie so near to their haunts on every hand, it
will probably in a short time be found necessary to drive
them back to their original habitation, or, after the
example of the Earl of Moray in the west, to keep hounds
for the purpose of their utter extirpation. Although
these plantations have attracted the deer, they have not
been favourable to the increase of partridges, and hares,
owing to the protection which they afford to beasts and
birds of prey. Were small premiums to be provided for
the destruction of such vermin, it would prove more
effectual for increasing the quantity of game than all the
restrictive laws that ever were or ever will be enacted.]
{Survey of the Province of Moray.)


[King David I. in 1125 founded the Priory of Urquhart.
It was a cell of the Monastery of Dunfermline, and occu-
pied by Benedictine Monks, called Black Friars, from llie
colour of their habit. It was liberally endowed with
lands, now called the Lordship of Urquhart, the village of
Fothopir, or Fochabers, with a fishing that belonged to
the Thane of Fothopir, Penid, near Auldearn, the lauds
of Dalcross, ice, with all the rights that belonged in
Moray to the Monks of Dunfermline. The Chartulary is
lost, and there is no account of its revenues. The ruins
of the buildings are to be discovered with difficulty in a
hollow north-east of the present Church of Urquhart.]
(See my Monasticon, vol. i., p. 325.)


The churchyard is kept in a very uninviting condition.
Monteith gives the following in his "Theater of Mortality."
not apparent now : —

I. Here lyes John, David, Gilbert, and David Marschells,
the last died in December, 1G27.

This about the sides of the stone, and within, as
follows : —

Here lies father and son,

Goodsire and grand,

Who liv'd and died

Upon a poor twelfth-part of land.

The explanation whereof is this : the lands of Urquhart


are cast into 12 parts, every feuer has one or more of
these 12 parts, each paying 30 bolls victual.

Mr. Alexander Gadderer, minister at Girvan, is the
lineal successor by his mother, and now proprietor of that
portion above mentioned. Here follows his epitaph : —

II. In spem resurrectionis Hie requiescit vir reverendus et
eruditus Mr. Alex. Gadderer Parochise de Girvan qui prsefuit
ad annum 1688 ecclesise in regno Scotiae. . . .

Translation. — In hope of resurrection, Here rests a reverend
and learned man, Mr. Alex. Gadderer, who had the charge of
the Church and parish of Girvan, in the kingdom of Scotland,
in the year 1688. . . .

III. Here. lyes. Ane. Honest, man. called. John. Leslie, sme.
Portioner. of Mavirstoun. Who. Died. The 6 of February
1662 G. M.

Memento Mori.
[Small cross bones.]

IV. Here. Lyes. Elspet. Adam, spouse, to. Andrew. New-
lands, sura. tim. Dueller, in. Glenach. Who. departed, this. lif.
the. 28 Jun. 1674.

Death thou puts an hend unto wealth Beauty wit and
Strenth until we appear before the Lord at Length.
A. N. Blessed are the dead, &c.

E. A

V. Here. Lyes. Janet Chalmers. Spouse, to. Eobert. Chalmers,
of. Tippertait. who. Died. the. Z. of. December. 1688.

With their children Margaret George and Mariore Chalmers.

VI. Here. Lyes. John. Amy in mauerstoune who died the

11th day of November 1689 .... spouse Chester

who departed the 20 day of May 1691.

VII. This Stone is placed here in memory of David Thomson
who .... the * . . . . the * day of ... . and his spouse
Marjory Grant.

D. T. M. G. H. T. I. T.

VIII. Here lyes the body of Lachlan Innes son to Robert