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be noted X". 7. This has been recognised as Athene,
with the usual attributes of that goddess. It was excavated
from the site known as Rani Ghat on the Buner border.
(Plate VI.)



M

On the Wall B, to the left of the entrance to the
Sculpture Gallery, will also be noted a remarkable seated
figure, No. 3, which has been called an Indo-Scythian king,
but more probably represents Kubera, the Indian god of
wealth. The features, especially the eyes, the pose and
general character of this sculpture, are very striking. It
was found at Tahkal near Peshawar. (Plate III.)

Other Interesting Specimens. — The following
specimens are of lesser interest or striking characteristics
than the preceding, but will repay observation : —

Wall Case A.

All the sculptures in this case were among the first
to be brought down from the Gandhara country many years
ago, and no records exist as to their origin or history —
Compartment I. —

No. 209. — The Great Renunciation —

Upper panel : Buddha leaving his wife Yasodhara.
Lower panel : Buddha riding out of the city gate of
Kapilavastu (Foucher, page 354).
No. 261. — Birth of Buddha.
Compartment II. —

No. 101. — The hermit Asita-devala foretelling the
future greatness of the infant Buddha (Foucher, page

3H).
No. 538.— The host of Mara (Foucher, page 400).

No. 567. — Prince Siddhartha renouncing the world

and leaving his palace.
Compartment III. —

No. 30. — Buddha subduing the black serpent at the

request of king Bimbisara (Foucher, page 453V
No. 543. — The host of Mara (Foucher, page 400).
No. 600. — Buddha subdues the elephant let loose

against him by his wicked cousin Devadatta(Foucher

page 542).
Compartment IV. —

No. 464. — The disciples of the three Kasyapas endea-
vour to quench the fire of their fire-temple (Foucher,

page 448).
Compartment V. —

No. 205. — The seven princes returning to their homes

with relics of Buddha (Foucher, page 592).
No. 234. — Naga dancers and musicians.

Wall B.

The same remarks apply to the figures on this wall as
for the preceding wall case : their exact origin is unknown —




Oandhara Sculpture (the Goddess Athene).



'5

No. 2. — Large statue of Buddha.

No. 3. — Kubera, the Indian god of wealth. (Seepage 14.)

No. 780. — Head, with elaborate head-dress.

Wall Case C.
The origin of all the sculptures in this ease is unknown —
Compartment III. —

No. 148. — The ashes of Buddha being taken into the
town of Kusinagara. (Foucher, page 585).

Compartment IV. —

No. 384. — Fragment of a frieze with two panels sepa-
rated by Indo-Corinthian pilasters : —
Right panel : Buddha, on his way to the Bodhi tree,
receives from the grass-cutter Svastika a bundle
of .grass.
Left panel : Buddha lays the grass at the foot of the
Bodhi tree, from which the tree spirit issues in
an attitude of adoration. (Foucher, page 389.)
No. 802. — Fragment of a frieze, with two scenes —
Right panel: Buddha mounted on his horse Kanthaka,

leaves Kapilavastu.
Left panel : Buddha exchanges his royal dress for
that of a hunter. (Foucher, pages 354 and 366.)
Compartment VI. —

No 399 — Buddha presented with four golden bowls by
the guardian gods of the four quarters.

Compartment VII —

No. 143 — Buddha's first sermon in the deer-park at

Benares.
No. 376— Nirvana of Buddha.

No. 590 — Lower portion of a pediment, with three
panels —
Upper: Buddha confounds a naked ascetic.
Middle : Buddha subdues a snake in the fire-temple

of the Kasyapas.
Lower : Buddha shows the Kasyapas the snake
caught in his alms-bowl, (Foucher, page 447.)

Compartment VIII. —

No. 61 — Buddha seated in meditation and attended by

two worshippers inside a chapel. (Foucher, fig. 52,)
No. 390 Representation of a stllpa, an elaborately

carved fragment.

I OMPARTMEOT X. —

No. 1493 Bacchanalian scene showing figures engaged
in plucking and pressing grapes. There is also what
appears to be a young Bacchus riding on a leopard.



i6

Compartment XI, —

No. 413 — Small fragment showing men riding on camels.

Wall Case D.
The sculptures in this case were excavated from the
following sites : —

Sikri, Compartments I to XI.
Yusufzai, Compartments XII to XVI.
Charsada, Compartments XVII and XVIII.
Compartment II. —

No. 2058 — Four defaced Buddha figures with atten-
dants. (Foucher, fig. 136.)
No. 2 1 14 — Piece of decoration showing lotus flower.
No. 21 18 — A figure of Hercules. (See page 13.)
Compartment IV. —

No. 2088 — Stele, with three scenes —
Upper panel : Buddha measured by a Brahmin.
Middle panel : Conversion of Ugrasena, the rope

dancer (?).
Lower panel : The gift of a handful of earth by Jaya
and Vijaya. (Foucher, pages 517, 520 and 521.)
Compartment VII. —

No. 2169 — Ananda and the Matangi girl. (Foucher,

page 499.)
No. 2335 — The dream of Maya, mother of Buddha.

(Foucher, page 291.)
No. 2340 — Buddha dismisses his servant and horse.
(Foucher, page 361.)
Compartment VIII. —

No. 2100 — Hariti, the goddess of fertility. (Seepage 13.)
Compartment IX. —

No. 2099— The "Fasting Buddha." (See page T3,
also Plate V.)
Compartment XII. —

No. 1056 — Row of eight Bodhisattva figures.
Compartment XIV. —

No. 1060 — Marriage of Buddha with Yasodhara. (Fou
cher, page 334.)
Compartment XV. —

No 1022 — Fragment of a frieze with two scenes —
Right panel : Buddha married to Yasodhara.
Left panel : Marriage procession. (Foucher, page 2>?>4>)
Compartment XVI. —

Nos. t 227-30 — Parasols or finials of a stkpa.
Compartment XVII. —

No. 1625 — Figure of Hariti. This sculpture also con-
tains a Kharosthi inscription. (See page 13.)



17

No. 1183 — Fragment of an ornamental frieze, with
cupids carrying garlands. (Plate VIII, No. 2.)

Wall E.

The sculptures on this wall were obtained from Sikri,
Karamar Hill, Sahri Bahlol and other places —

No. 1 — Large statue of a richly costumed figure re-
presenting a Bodhisattva. The jewellery and perso-
nal adornments of this sculpture are very remarkable.
Nos. 941 and 1632 — Portions of Corinthian capitals.

Wall Cas eF.

The sculptures in this case were excavated mainly
from Dargai, Karamar Hill and Jamalgarhi —

Compartment III. —

No. 1 1 55 — Bas relief, with two scenes —

Upper panel : Buddha measured by a Brahman.
Lower panel : Buddha visited by the Naga Ehipatra.
(Foucher, page 502.)
No. 1 182 — Fragment of a stele containing three
panels, of which the upper one depicts the entry of
Buddha into Rajagriha. (Foucher, page 455.)

Compartment IV. —

No. 911 — Buddha's first sermon in the deer-park at
Benares Buddha is represented by the symbol of
the three jewels. (Foucher, page 427.)

Compartment V. —

No. 730 — Buddha waylaid by robbers. (Foucher,
page 541.)

Compartment VI. —

No. 916 — Pedestal of a statue of Buddha, relief, the
Nirvana of Buddha. (Foucher, page 555.)

Compartment VII. —

No. 865 — Small figure of a female, with Grecian
draperies. (Plate VII, No. 2.)

Compartment VIII. —

No. if 37 — Upper part of a niche containing a figure
of Buddha, traces of which can still be seen beneath
the ogee arch. The sculpture depicts three rows of
Buddha and Bodhisattva figures placed in chapels
separated by pilasters

COMPARI WENT IX. —

No. 1 134 — Bas-relief showing Buddha in the attitude
of expounding the law, surrounded by various Bud-
dhas and Bodhisattva. In the lowest compartment is

a row of eight Buddhas, the seventh being the histori-
cal Buddha, and the eighth the Buddha who Is to



i8



appear in the future. The name of the latter is
Maitreya, and he is recognizable from his ointment
vessel. (Foucher, page 259.)

Compartment X. —

No. 1 1 35 — Sculptured panel showing Buddha in the
attitude of expounding the law. The Enlightened One
is seated on a lotus flower rising from the waters, in
which Nagas, aquatic animals and water plants are to
be seen. The two devotees standing with folded hands
next to Buddha's lotus seat are presumably the donors
of the sculpture. All the remaining figures bearing
haloes are evidently celestial beings.

Compartments XIV to XVII. —

Plaster casts of sculptures from Swat, the originals
being in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Compartment XVIII.

A collection of masks in plaster-of-paris from Rokri. The
classic type of features in some of these may be noted.

Stand G. —

No. 7 — Athene. (See page 13 and Plate VI.)
No. 25.— Standing figure with inscription on the nim-
bus recording the name of the donor.

Stand H. —

The large stnpa from Sikri. (Seepage 13 and Plate IV.)

The following are the descriptions of the thirteen scenes
on this exhibit : —



1.

2.

3,



Conversion of the Yaksha Atavika. (Foucher,
page 507.)

Dipankara Jataka. (Foucher, page 273.)

Indra visits Buddha in the Indrasaila cave. (Fou-
cher, page 492.)

The gods bid Buddha to preach the law. (Foucher,
page 420.)

Buddha preaches the law in the heaven of the
thirty-three gods. (Foucher, page 483.)

Convent scene, probably the appointment of
Ananda. (Foucher, page 480.)

Meeting with Svastika, the grass-cutter. (Foucher,
page 389.)

The future Buddha in the Jushita heaven. (Fou-
cher, page 285.)

Buddha attended by Vajrapani meets the Naga
Kalika. (Foucher, page 383.)




v ">-*-.






\



/




.'■♦• -



19

io. Buddha's first meditation. (Foucher, page 340.)

11. Donation of a mango-grove by the courtezan

Amrapalf. (Foucher, page 486.)

12. Buddha presented with a bowl of toddy by a

monkey. (Foucher, page 512.)

13. The offering of the four golden bowls by the

guardian gods of the four quarters. (Foucher,
page 415.)

Stand J.

This stand contains a collection of massive stone
bases of classic outline, and part of an Ionic capital and
column. The latter was found at Shah-ki-dheri (Old Taxila)
by General Sir A. Cunningham. This column is made of
"kankar" concrete and was no doubt plastered. Its origi-
nal height was probably 23 feet.

Cases K, L, M.

Contain pieces of Gandhara sculptures and plaster
fragments from a variety of sources.

Case O.

A brass statuette obtained from a dharmsala^at Fateh-
pur, Nurpur Tahsil, Kangra District. It represents a seated
Buddha in the act of teaching the law. The elaborate
pedestal is provided with a dedicatory inscription, from
the character of which it appears that the image must be-
long to the sixth century. It is of special interest both on
account of its age and workmanship and is, moreover, the
only specimen of its kind to be found in any Museum in
India.

JAIN SCULPTURES.

A number of sculptured fragments, in what is known
as the " Jain " style, are displayed on two stands, marked
R and S. Those on stand S are all from one site, Murti
in the Shahpur district, Punjab. Stand R exhibits a num-
ber of miscellaneous sculptures in this style from various
parts of the Province. The main features of this particular
kind of carving are the almost entire absence of any natural
floral elements, and the constant use of a trailing conven-
tional form, produced in such a crisp method of relief as to
look as if the pattern, instead of being cut in stone, were
modelled in clay. Another important characteristic is that
the various figures depicted are nearly always more or less
nude. Carving of this particular type, and having these pe-
culiarities, is known as the Jain style, as it is found on the
temples of the Jains, a sect of heretics or non-conformists
to the Brahmanical system of Hinduism.



20

Jainism originated about the same time as Buddhism,
both being a revolt against the state of Brahmanism, as that
religion existed in the fifth and sixth centuries, B.C. These
two movements existed side by side, but Buddhism, the
more powerful of the two, overshadowed its rival until its
decline, when Jainism, being less diametrically opposed to
the victorious orthodox creed of Brahmanism, survived,
and in some degree took its place.

The principal buildings of the Jains are temples and
shrines, and the most important examples of the Jain style
of architecture are at Delhi and at Mount Abu in Rajpiitana.

Principal Jain Sculptures.

Stand S. — The most numerous Jain fragments in the
Museum are from one building, probably a temple situated
at Murti in the vicinity of Choya Saidan Shah, in the Salt
Range, Shahpur District of the Punjab. This building,
when discovered, was so ruined as to be almost unrecog-
nizable, and the remains now in the Museum represent
practically all that is left of what must at one time have
been a very beautiful and richly carved edifice. The terribly
shattered condition of all the stones tends to indicate that the
building was at some time or other intentionally destroyed.

All the carved fragments of any value near this ruin
were collected and deposited in the Museum by Dr Stein,
who has identified the site on which they were found as the
ancient town of Sinhapura, mentioned by the Chinese
traveller Hiuan Tsiang, in the account of his travels through
India in the seventh century a.d.

Jain Sculptures From Murti.

Stand S.

No. i — Portion of a pillar, characteristic design and

carving.

No. 2 — Probably a finial to a niche. ■ -

No. 3 — Fragment of a baluster, characteristically carved.

Stand R. BOiS

These are from various localities in the Punjab, and
chiefly collected by the late Mr. Rodgers when Archaeological
Surveyor to the Province —

No. 4 — Large pillar in centre of stand, excavated from
a great mound at Jhelum, Punjab, by Sir Alexander Cunning-
ham, Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of
India. It was found along with the remains of 23 pillar
bases, which are thought to have formed portion of a Jain
temple erected in these parts about 600 or 800 a.d.



ai



No. 5 — Panel in high relief, beautifully carved, in the
centre is a representation of a Jain Tirthankar. A Tirthan-
kar (or Jaina) is to the Jains what Buddha is to the Buddhists.
This sculpture was obtained from the Sarbhangi Monastery
at Bohar, 4 miles south-east of Rohtak, Punjab.

No. 6 — This specimen illustrates the vicissitudes
through which some of these sculptures have passed.
Originally a pilaster in a Jain temple, on the destruction of
that edifice, it was built into the gateway of a Muhammadan
graveyard at Thanesar, District Karnal, Punjab. The carved
front was turned inwards, and the stone formed a lintel,
on which was carved the Arabic inscription seen on the back.

No. 7 — This is a similar case to the above, the stone
being obtained from Hansi, Hissar District, Punjab.

Nos. 8 and 9 — These two specimens show the principle
on which small domes were constructed in Jain temples.

BRAHMANICAL SCULPTURES.

Stand U contains a number of sculptures, mostly frag-
mentary, found in various parts of the Punjab and deposited
from time to time in the Museum. They are a somewhat
miscellaneous collection, but nearly all of what may be
called a Brahmanical type.

Brahmanical architecture, as its name implies, refers to
all buildings erected by the followers of the oldest and most
powerful form of Hinduism in India, namely, Brahmanism.
Very early examples of this style are of course in existence,
but it was probably at its zenith between the ninth and
fourteenth centuries a.d.

The majority of the specimens on this stand are from
the Kangra District, Punjab, and probably date from about
the fifteenth century a.d.

PRINCIPAL BRAHMANICAL SCULPTURES.

Stand U.

No. 1 — This is a large " lingam " decorated with a head
of Shiva. It is the most striking object in the gallery.

No. 2 — Figure of Vishnu. Found at China, a small
village 10 miles from Amritsar. China is believed to be the
" China Patti " mentioned by the Chinese traveller Hiuan
Tsiang in his writings of the seventh century.

No. 3 — A much broken scene representing Shiva and
Parbati riding on the bull Nandi. The carving of this is
carefully executed. The sculpture has evidently been
purposely mutilated, all the features, kc, having been
destroyed.



22



Case O.
No 4^Brass statuette obtained from a dharmsala
at Fate'hpur, Nurpur Tahsil, Kangra District. It repre-
sents Vishnu standing, four-armed. Two hands hold a
lotus flower and a conch. The other two rest on the
heads of a male and female attendant, who carry fly-whisks.
An inscription incised on the pedestal contains the date,
Sam. 23 j(y)estha ba. ti. 5, which must refer to the
Saptarsi era. The character is a late type of Sarada.



q



*i



INSCRIPTIONS.

The number of inscribed stones deposited in the
Museum is over 150 They are all numbered and will be
found on the stand marked W and in the case marked X,
in the body of the Sculpture Gallery. About nine-tenths of
the collection have been obtained from the Peshawar Fron-
tier, mainly through the efforts of the Hon'ble Lieutenant-
Colonel Sir Harold Deane, C.S.I., K.C.S.I., Chief Commis-
sioner of the Frontier Province. The remainder have been
procured through a variety of sources from different parts
of the Punjab and surrounding country.

The value of this collection of inscribed stones may
be realized when it is recognized that "Indian inscriptions-
more so even than those of any other country — are the real
archives of the annals of its ancient history, the contempo-
raneous witnesses of the events and of the men whose deeds
they hand down ; and their authenticity renders them most
valuable for the historian, and deserving of careful record.
They supply important data bearing on the chronology,
geography, religious systems, affiliations of families and
dynasties, taxes, land tenures, magistrates, customs,
manners, organization of societies, language, and systems
of writing of ancient times. Hence the great need for
collecting and publishing them with the best translations
and comments that modern scholarship can supply. The
early pioneers of Indian research fully recognized this, and
men like Wilkins, Colin Mackenzie, Colebrooke, Babington,
Drs. Mill and Stevenson, Wathen, W. Elliot, and J. Prinsep,
laid the foundation of, and made important contributions to,
Indian paleographic study." (Epigraphica Indica, Volume I.)

Classification. - With regard to the Lahore Museum
collection, Dr. M. A. Stein, Inspector-General of Education,
Frontier Province, has so identified himself with the classi-
fication and publication of these inscriptions, that no mention
of this section, however brief, can be complete without a
reference to Dr. Stein's work in this direction. In the
Museum Library will be found .1 complete lisl oi the Museum
inscriptions tabulated by Dr. Shin in 1899, and brought up
to date by the writer.



24

The collection may be divided into the following: —
(i) Inscriptions in Indian Scripts.

(2) Arabic and Persian inscriptions.

(3) Armenian Inscriptions.

(4) Unknown Inscriptions.

INSCRIPTIONS IN INDIAN SCRIPTS.
These are represented by writings in the following
characters : — Brahmi, Kharoshthi, Nagari, Sarada and
Tibetan.

(a) Brahmi. — This method of writing formed one
of two kinds of script known in ancient India. The other
character is the Kharoshthi. Brahmi is the true national writ-
ing of India, because all later Indian alphabets are descend-
ed from it, however dissimilar many of them may appear
at the present day. The complete alphabet consists of 46
letters and was evidently worked out on phonetic principles
by the learned Brahmans, probably in the sixth century,
B.C. The stones, numbered 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9, are Sanskrit
inscriptions written in the Brahmi character. No. 7 is dated
in the reign of Maharaja Toramana Jauvla, and records the
construction of a Buddhist monastery.

(b) Kharoshthi (lit. ass's lip, because of the supposed
resemblance of the characters to the elongated lower lip of
that animal). — This script was employed in Gandhara from
the fourth century b. c, to 200 a.d., and is therefore the
writing used by the builders of the Gandhara monasteries,
which are so fully represented in this gallery. A Sanskrit
inscription in Kharoshthi character will be observed on a
Gandhara figure in Case D, Compartment XVII, No. 1625.
Specimens Nos. 1 and 2 are Pali inscriptions written in
Kharoshthi characters.

(c) Nagari. — This was evolved from the Brahmi, and
is one of a group of Northern scripts which gradually
prevailed in all the Aryan dialects of India. It is the
character in which most Sanskrit is written, as well as
Marathi and Hindi. The oldest inscription engraved
entirely in Nagari belongs to the eighth century a.d.
There are several Sanskrit inscriptions in the collection,
written in the Nagari character, the most interesting of
which is No. 22, This stone was discovered built into the
wall of a house at Pehoa (Karnal District, Punjab), and
records the building of a triple temple of Vishnu. It is
considered by authorities to have been incised between the
dates a.d. 882 and a.d. 917. (See Epigraphica . Indica,
Volume I, page 242.)










PLATE X.



wm






I^SwfefT;



•"'^v,vs -It



i'"- - - >wvl j j x '\_ ■ — fa



■•^c^sJ.n.q



-] i. f i. ;> C^-T












fc&






'Xf't.'.l



■■■l'"lsK : i'll



ll^kl









Inscribed atones.



*5

(d) Sarada. — This script is one of the types of the
Brahmi family, and came into use in Kashmir and North-
East Punjab (Kangra and Chamba) about 800, a.d. Stones
numbered 25-A and 43, are Sanskrit inscriptions in Sarada
characters.

(e) Tibetan. — This writing is Indian in origin, and
specimens of it may be seen on stones Nos. 11 to 21, in
Case X. They are mostly votive inscriptions containing the
words " Om mane Padma horn," and are written in the
Tibetan language.

ARABIC AND PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS.

(a) Arabic. — There are several specimens in the
collection of Arabic writings. No. 6 is a good example, and
interesting, as it is a bi-lingual inscription, the upper part
being in Arabic and the lower part in Hindi, written in the
Nagari character. It bears the date " 1566 a. d.," and was
found during the dismantling of a gateway at Khokra Kot
in the Rohtak District of the Punjab.

(b) Persian. — Specimens Nos. 87 and 88 are Persian
inscriptions. The latter dates from the time of the Emperor
Aurangzeb.

ARMENIAN INSCRIPTIONS.
These are numbered 144, 155, 156 and 157, and were
discovered in the Thai Chotiali District, Baluchistan. Traces
of an Armenian colony having existed here in the beginning
of the seventeenth century have been found. The inscrip-
tions bear dates of the Armenian era corresponding to 1606
and 1 618, a.d.

UNKNOWN INSCRIPTIONS.

These are very remarkable, as the characters which
appear in the great majority of them, have prevoiusly been
wholly unknown and differ strangely from any known
system of Indian writing. As a brief account of these may
be of interest, the writer has drawn on some notes
published by Dr. Stein for the following details : — ■

Most of these inscriptions are from the sites of the
ancient countries of Gandhara and Udyiina, having been
brought in by wandering Pathan " Mullahs " and " Talibs "
(disciples).

Individuals of this class, being aware of Sir Harold
Deane's interest in epigraphical remains, have from time to
time been in the habit of bringing to him any inscribed
stones which they Game across and could conveniently
carry along. By these means practically the whole of this



26

series of interesting writings has been obtained. Some of
these stones contain large numbers of characters which are
likely to prove important in the eventual decipherment of
these puzzling inscriptions. Up to the present, however,
not a single " bi-linguis " has come to light, and in the
absence of such a guide the first step in that direction re-
mains as difficult as before. So little is known of these
inscriptions that it is impossible to determine in most cases
the position in which they are to be read, i.e., which is the
top and which the bottom. Some few were found in their
original position, but for the great mass of stones no direct
evidence of this kind is available. They have, therefore,
been arranged either with reference to certain peculiarities
in the actual shape of the stones which suggests a particular
position, or by the still less safe guidance of the direction
of the writing which the characters themselves seemed to
exhibit.

Chief Examples of Unknown Inscriptions.

The following are some of the most interesting speci-


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