several species that have been attributed to Maine, because
I have no direct informatiom concerning them.
Cathartes aura, 111. Accidental. — 6. A. Boardman.
Archibuteo lagopus, Gray. Winter ; perhaps resident; not
Brachyotus Cassinii, Brewer. Resident; not uncommon.
Nyctale Richardsoni, Bon. Not common ; perhaps resident
northward. — G. A. Boardman.
Picoides hirsutus, Gray. Winter; not common. Calais,
Me. — G. A. Boardman.
Anthus ludovicianus, Licht. Autumn ; occasionally in
flocks — G. A. Boaj'dman.
Geothlypis Philadelphia, Baird. Waterville ; in July with
young. — Prof. C.E.Hamlin.
Helmitherus vermivoruSy Bon. Summer; southern Maine ;^
.Helminthophaffa peregrina, Cab. Very rare; Headwaters
of the Penobscot in June. — ^W. H. Hall. H. celata, is
also attributed to Nova Scotia by Audubon.
Dendroica pinus, Baird. Summer ; rare.
Dendroica comileay Baird. Very rare. — J. J. Audubon.
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Dendroica tigrina^ Baird. Calais, Me.; in summer ; rare. —
O. A. Boardman.
Ampelis garrulus^ Linn. Accidental in winter ; rare.
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
Ttreo noveboracensisj Bon. Very rare ; summer. — J. J.
Vir eo flavifronsy YieiW. Summer; not common. Wator-
ville in July.— Prof. C. E. Hamlin.
Laphop/umes bicolor^ Bon. Very rare. — J. J. Audubon.
Pa/rus hudsonicus^ Forster. Winter ; not rare. Resident
near Calais. — G. A. Boardman.
JEgiothus canescens, Cab. Winter ; rare.
Plectrophanes lapponkuSy Selby. Winter ; rare.
Cotumiculus, passerinus, Bon. Summer ; rare. — G. A,
Guiraca casruleaj Sw. Accidental ; common in the spring
of 1861 at Calais. — G. A. Boardman.
Siurnella magna^ Sw. Southern Maine in summer ; not
Hcterns spurius^ Bon. Southern Maine in summer ; not
Zencedura carolinensisj Bon. Southern Maine ; not com-
mon. Probably breeds.
Lagopus albus, Aud. Northern Maine in winter ; rare.
Ardetta exilis^ Gray, Southern Maine ; rare.
Butorides virescens, Bon. Coast ; common in summer.
Nyctiardea Ga/rdeni^ Baird. Summer ; common ; mostly
near the coast; breeds in large numbers at Trenton,
JS^alitis vociferusj Cass. Coast in autumn ; not common.
JE. melodus, Cab. Coast in summer ; abundant ; breeds.
JE. semipalmatiiSy Cab. Coast in autumn ; abundant.
Squatarola helvetica^ Cuv. Coast in autumn ; not common.
Strepsilas interpres, 111. Coast in autumn ; rare. — G. A.
Recurvirostra americana, Gm. Coast in spring ; one in-
stance. — G, A. Boardman.
Himantopus nigricollis, Vieill. Coast in spring ; one in-
stance. — G. A. Boardman.
Phataropus hyperboreus, Temm. Bay of Fundy, as early at
least as August ; abundant in autumn ; possibly breeds.
Gallinago Wilsoni, Bon. Summer ; not rare near the
coast ; breeds.
ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 20i.
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Macraf'harnplms griseus^ Leach. Coast in summer and au-
tumn. — G. A. Boardman.
Tringa canuius^ Linn. Coast in autumn ; common.
Arquatella maritima^ Baird. Winter ; abundant. — G. A.
Ancylocheilus subarqvMus^ Eaup. Coast in autumn ; not
common. — G. A. Boardman.
Pelidna americana, Coues. Coast in autumn ; abundant.
Actodromas minutilla, Coues. Coast early in autumn ; very
A Bonapartii^ Cass. Coast in autumn ; common.
Calidris arenaria^ III. Coast in summer ; abundant.
Ereunetes pusilla, Cass. Coast in autumn ; abundant.
Symphemia semipahnata^ Hart. Coast in summer ; no
Philomachus pugnax. Gray. Accidental; one or two in-
stances. — G. A. Boardman.
Limosafedoa^ Ord. Coast in autumn ; rare.
Limosa hudsonica^ Sw. Coast in autumn and spring ; not
Numenius iongirostris^ Wils. Coast in fall and spring ; not
JV". hudsonicusy Lath. Coast in fall and spring ; rare.
N' borealis^ Lath. Coast in fall and spring ; rare. — G. A.
Rallus virginianus^ Linn. Summer ; not common ; breeds.
fulica americana, Gm. Coast in spring and fall ; not im-
Anser hyperboreus, Pall. Winter ; very rare.
Dafila acnta^ Jen. Winter on the coast; rare.
Neition carolinensis, Baird. Fall and spring ; frequent.
Spatula clypeata, Boie. Coast in autumn ; rare.
Chaulelasmus streperus^ Gray. Coast in spring and fall;
Mareca americana^ Steph. Spring and fall ; rare.
Fulix marila^ Baird. Spring and fall ; very rare.
F. affinis^ Baird. Spring and fall ; more common than the
Histrionicus torquatus, Bon. Spring, fall, and winter ; com-
mon on the coast.
Camptolcemus labradorius^ Gray. Coast in winter; very
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Melanetta velvetina, Baird. Coast in winter ; common.
Pelionetta perspicUlata^ Kaup. Coast in winter ; common.
Oidemia americana, Sw. Coast in fall and winter ; frequent.
Somateria mollissima^ Leach. Coast in fall, winter, and
spring ; common ; a few breed on the islands in the Bay
S. spectoMliSj Leach. Coast in winter ; rare.
Erismatura rvMda^ Bon. Coast in winter ; rare.
Mergus serrator^ Linn. Coast in fall and winter ; common.
Lophodytes awullattis^ Reich. Coast in autumn ; rare ; a
few breed in the northern part of the state.
Pelecanus erythrorhynchus^ Gm. Accidental on the coast ;
very rare. — G. A. Boardman.
Sula bassanaj Briss. Coast in fall, winter, and spring ; rery
Phalacrocorax carbo^ Gray. Coast in winter ; common.
Graculus dilophuSj Gray. Coast in winter ; not common.
'Thalassidronia Leachii^ Temm. Coast ; very common ;
breeds abundantly on many of the islands along the coast,
from Mount Desert to Grand Menan, and is much moro
numerous than any other Petrel.
T. WUsoniy Bon. Coast; not common. I have never found
this species breeding.
T. pelagicaj Bon. Off the coast ; rare.
Puffintis major^ Bon. Coast ; common in fall, winter and
P. anglorumj Tenmi. Coast ; common from August to
P. fuliginosusj Strick. Coast ; common from August to
Stercorarius^ pomarinus^ Temm. Autumn and winter on
the coast ; common.
S. parasiticus^ Temm. Coast in winter ; common.
8. cepphtis, Lawr. Coast ; common from August to spring.
Larus leucopierus^ Fabr. Coast in winter ; rare.
Larus marinvs^ Linn. Fall and winter ; not common. A
few appear to breed on the Islands in the Bay of Fundy. —
G. A. Boardman.
L, delewarefisisj Ord. Coast in fall and spring ; not com-
ChrooBcocephalus atricillus^ Lawr. Resident on the coast ; a
few breed on the islands ; not common.
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Rissa iridaetpla, Bon. Coast in autumn and winter ; com-
Sterna hirundo* Linn. (S. Wilsoni, Bon.) Coast in sum-
mer ; common ; breeds abundantly in some localities.
8. macraura, Naum. Common on the coast in summer ;
breeds abundantly on some islands.
Thalasseus caspius^ Boie. Coast in winter ; rare.
Hydrockelidon JissipAs, Gray. (H. plumbea, Lawr.) Coast
in autumn ; not common.
Colymbus sepientrionalis, Linn. Coast in winter ; conunon.
Podiceps HolboUi, Reinh. (P. griseigena Auth.) Coast in
winter ; common.
P. cristaius, Lath. Summer visitant ; breeds about lakes
near Calais. — G. A. Board man.
Utamania torda, Leach. Fall and winter on the coast ; com-
mon ; a few breed about the Bay of Pundy.
Mormon arctica^ 111. Resident on the coast ; common ; a
few breed on the islands about Grand Menan.
Jtf. cirrhata, Pall. Winter ; rare.
M. glacialis, Leach. Grand Menan. — ^Audubon. Very rare.
Uria giyUe^ Lath. Resident on the coast; abundant,"
breeds on rocky islands from Mount Desert eastward.
Catarractes troille, Bryant. Fall and winter on the coast ;
conmion ; a few breed about the Bay of Fundy.
C. ringvia, Bryant. Fall and winter ; common.
C lomvia, Bryant. Fall and winter ; rare.
Mergvlus alley Vieill. Winter; common.
Mr. S. H. Scudder, of the Zoological School at Cambridge,
being called upon, stated that he had been examining the
collection of butterflies in the Museum of the Institute, a few
of wliich he had brought in for examination. The collection
was a valuable one, the specimens mostly Brazilian. He
entered into some details of the structure of the wings of
butterflies, and explained how the special arrangement and
direction of thenervures afforded good characteristics in
assisting the Naturalist to determine the aflSnities of these
♦For a very complete revision of the Terns of North America, see A Review of
the Tems of N .A. \)y Elliott Coues. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Phil. Dec. 1862,
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animals, and their groupings into families, genera &c*, illus-
tniting his remaorks by the specimens exhibited. In closing,
Mr. S. presented the following list of the butterflies of New
A List op the Butteeplibs op New England.
BY SAMUEL H. SCUDDEB.
In the following list, I have made mention of every species of
diurnal Lepidoptera of which I have seen specimens from New
England ; I enumerate eighty-one species ; in the recent edi-
tion of Harris's Treatise on Insects injurious to vegetation fifly*
four are mentioned ; a portion of this difference is made up
of those of which only asingle individual or two have been seen,
and are only occasionally found here, being more abundant to
the southward ; but there have been added also very many spe-
cies which may properly be said to belong to the New England
Fauna. Of such as are new, or have been confounded with
others distinct from them, or have been incorrectly described,
I have given short descriptions ; these are mostly found
among the Hesperidae, where also are to be found the prin-
cipal additions to the number of our Butterflies in the recent
edition of Dr. Harris's Treatise ; whenever names are given
different from those used in Harris's Treatise, I have given
his as synonyms to avoid any confusion which might arise,
and these are the only synonyms I have given, except in
those cases where it was evidently necessary (e. g. Hesperia
Egeremet). In all cases I have stated to the extent of my
knowledge their comparative rarity or abundance, and have
frequently mentioned whether they were more abundant in
the northern or southern portion of New England. I have
endeavored also to place in a succinct form what knowledge
of each species we yet possess as to the haunts of the imago,
the number of broods each year, their times of appearance,
and the food-plant of the larva ; this is given rather to stim-
ulate further detailed enquiry by showing the paucity of our
knowledge, than as any material addition to what has here-
tofore' been published ; with the hope that it may render
some [Service in this direction it is offered to the Institute for
ESSEX INST. PBOCBED. VOL. iii. 21.
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1. Papiuo Astebias Drury. Open Fields and upon flow-
ers ; common ; there are two broods each year, the first
appearing in early June, from the eggs of which the cater-
pillars are hatched, which are the young of those appear-
ing early in August, but as the perfect insects are long-
lived, they may be found nearly the whole summer long ;
the larva feeds upon parsley and other umbelliferae.
2. Papiuo Tboilu^ linn. Skirts of woods; not common;
there are probably two broods of this species, appearing
about the same time as the preceding ; they are found
from June to October ; larva feeds on Laurus, Sassafras,
8. Papiuo Turnus Linn. Upon flowers, especially on
Lilacs ; very common in the northern and more elevated
portions of New England ; one brood each year, imago
June, July ; larva feeds on the apple tree.
4. Papiuo Philenob Drury. A few specimens have been
taken at Cambridge, Mass., about the Botanical Gardens,
undoubtedly introduced with some southern plants^ and
they have also been taken once or twice in other parts of
Eastern Massachusetts ; last of September.
5. PiERis OLEBACEA Boisd. PouHa oleracea Harr. In gar-
dens and open shady spots ; common only in the northern
and elevated parts of New England ; there are two broods
of this species, the first in May, the second in July ; larva
feeds on turnips and cabbages.
6. CouAS Philodicb Godt. Everywhere in open places ;
the most common species of butterfly, but most abundant
in the warmer parts of New England ; there are two broods
of this species, the first appearing in April and May, the
second late in July ; the butterflies are to be seen all sum-
mer though very rarely in June ; laWa feeds on clover.
7. Tebias Lisa Boisd. About bushes; found only and
very rarely in the southernmost portions ; September.
8. Tebias Deua Boisd. Same as T. Lisa.
9. Ghbysophanus amebicana D'Urban, Canad. Nat. v: 246.
LycoBna americana Harr. Fields, on clover, and in high*
ways ; very abundant everywhere ; there are I think three
broods each year, the butterflies of the first appea ing in
the early spring, April and May, of the second late in Jun«
and early July, and of the third after the middle of August ;
larva feeds on sorreL
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10. Chrysophands Thoe Westw. Meadows ; quite rare ;
11. Chrysophanus Epixanthb Westw. Lycaena Epix-
a/rUhe Harr. Meadows ; very i-are ; July.
12. PoLYOMMATUS PoESENNA nov.* sp. Above brownish
black. Primaries with two connected, large, triangular,
falvoiis spots, the inhe,i: one largest with its. apex fit the
base of the wing, and divided from the apex n^iore than
half way down the niiddle by a black club-shaped dash ;
the outer one with its base towards the lower half of outer
border, notched in th^ middle of the side toward the
apex of the wing. Secondaries having the outer third,
except at outer angles, fulvous, with a submarginal series
of unequal brownish spots, largest toward inner, angle.
Beneath cinnamon-brown. Prirkaries with the disk yellow-
ish, a subcostal series of four reddish-brown spots bordered
with white, increasing in size outwardly^ the outermost
near the apex and triple, two large brown spots near the
anal angle, and a clubbed streak of same color, corres-
ponding in position to that above, but much broader.
Secondaries entirely covered with spots like the central
ones of the subcostal series of primaries. Expanse of
- wings 1 1-3 in.
This species is exceedingly closely allied to P. Tarquinius
Boisd. and Lee. from which it may readily be distinguished
by its range and by having many of the spots of the under
surface larger and more distinct ; the condition of my
specimens of P. Tarqmnins will not now allow of a
detailed comparison. I have seen only males of either;
the male of P. Tarquinius is figured by Abbot in Boisduval
and Leconte, and that of P. Porsenna by HjBwitson in
Doubleday and Westwood's Genera ; in some uiipubUshed
drawings of Abbot's in the Library of the late Dr. Harris,
now in possesion of the Boston Society of Natural History,
is figured the female also of P. Tarquinius ; it difiersfrom
the male in wanting the band along costal border, with the
exception of anarrow stripeon the sub-costal, haying asmaU
square spot just beyond its termination near ihe middle of
the wing, and a transverse series of dots below the latter ; tho
band on the outer border is also broken upintoalarge squaro
apical spot, an interrupted, rather narrow, marginal border,
Digitized by VjOOQIC
and a rather large dash at the Oliver apgle along the inner
border ; on secondaries the marginal series of small spots
is wanting, save the central one ; the upper surface only
Having taken P. Tarquinius only in i^orida, and
knowing of it only from the extreme south, I was much
surprised when this spring, specimens of a butterfly were
shown me by Mr. Packard from Aroostook Co., Me. and
by Mr. Verrill from Norway, Me., which bore a most
striking resemblance to P. Tarquinius; subsequently and
since this paper was written, I have heard of it from other
northern localities and have myself taken it ; Mr. Emory
of Springfield took it near Manchester, N. H. ; specimens
are in tiie Museum of Comparative Zoology from the
White Mountains, a little north of which, at Berlin Falls, I
have taken it and have seen a specimen from near the same
place collected by Mr. Treat ; the British Museum speci-
men comes from Nova Scotia, and latterly (see Canadian
Naturalist, vii: 398) it was exhibited at a gathering of
entomologists by Mr. Billings, of Prescott, Canada West.
My specimens were taken Aug. 13. (This paragraph was
appended after the presentation of the paper to the Insti-
Porsenna was an ally of the Tarquinians on their
expulsion from Rome.
13. Lyc^ena neglegta Edw. Polyommatus pseudorgiohis
Harr. (Fig. 106). About thickets ; rare ; June, July.
14. Lycena Lucia Westw. Polyommatus Lucia Harr.
(Fig. 106). About thickets and in shaded places ; veiy
rare ; found mostiy in the elevated and more northern
regions ; April, May, June.
15. LYCiENA CoMYNTAS Westw. Polyommotus Comyntas
Harr. Boad-sides and pastures by woods ; quite common ;
there are at least two broods of this ; it appears first veiy
early in the spring, in April ; I have taken it qarly in
June, and it is conunon from the middle of July to the
middle of September.
16. Thecla Falaceb Harr. Near thickets ; not common ;
last of July and first of August ; larva feeds on Hawthorn.
17. Thecla strigosa Harr. Near thickets; very rare;
18. Thecla humuli Harr. About bushes and hop-vines ;
the most common of the Theclas ; July, August ; larva
feeds on the hop.
Digitized by VjOOQIC
19. Thecla auburniana Harr. On flowers near woods ;
rather rare ; early May and early August.
20. Thecla Niphon Boisd. and Lee. On flowers of Gna-
phalium, by shady road-sides ; rare ; early May.
21. Thecla Mopsus Harr. Strymon Mopsus Hiibn.
very rare, in southern portions only.
2i2. Thecla Augustus Kii-by. By thickets ; rarely found
except in the northern portions where it is common ; May.
23. Danais Erippus Doubl. Danais Archipptis Harr.
On flowers in meadows ; rather common ; it makes its
appearance about the last of July and continues through
the following month ; larva feeds on Asclepias.
24. Limenitis Missippus Harr. in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat.
Hist, vii : 189. Nymphalis Dissippe Harr. in Treatise.
Fields ; common ; June and September ; larva feeds on
willow and poplar.
26. Limenitis Ursula Boisd. and Lee. Nymphalis Ephes-
tion Harr. Skirts of woods ; rather rare, only in south-
em portions ; two broods a year, about the last of June,
and in September ; larva feeds on scrub-oak.
26. Limenitis Arthemis Boisd. and Lee. Nymphalis Ar-
themis Harr. Skirts of woods and shady road-sides ;
abundant in the northern and elevated regions only ; June
and early July.
27. Argtnnis Idaua Godt. Open fields; not abundant,
most common southwardly ; last half of July and early
28. Argynnis Cybele Godt. I do not know that this spe-
cies is found in New-England, but I have seen it from the
Hudson River, and do not doubt it will be found in Con-
29. Argynnis Atlantis Edw. Proc. Philad. Acad. Nat. Sc.
1862 : 54. Road-sides and open fields ; lound only in
the elevated and northern portions of New-England ; very
abundant in the valleys about the White Mountains, N.H.;
last of July and early August; larva said to feed on the
30. Argynnis Aphrodite Fabr. Open fields ; very abund-
ant, about flowers, everywhere except in the most elevated
and northern portions ; it is not found about the White
Mountains ; July, August.
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81. Abgynnis Myrina Godt. Moist meadows ; not very
common ; June, August and September.
82. Abgynnis Montinus nov/. sp. Very similar to A.
Cliariclea Ochs. Above much like A. Myrina with fewer
black markings at the base of both wings. Below, Pri-
maries without any silvery sagittate spots, the markings of
the upper surface faintly repeated. Secondaries deep
cinnamon-red ; a broad faint submesial band, bordered
with interrupted black lines, of whitish ochraceous. scales,
deepest next the black border and conspicuous only be-
tween the costal and subcostal and between the median
and submedian nervures, elsewhere obsolete ; there is a
submarginal row of faint silvery lozenge-shaped spots,
largest to waids the outer angle, between which and the
mesial band is an arcuate series of round cinnamon-red
spots in a field of mingled ochraceous and cinnamon-red
scales, forming a band with serrated border. Expanse of
wings 1 3-4 in. The males and females do not diflFer.
This species is found only on the lower half of the barren
summits of the White Mountains, N. H. I have taken
only a few specimens from July 21st to Aug. 18th around
bushes and in the road. It does not seem to be abundant.
33. Argynnis Bellona. Godt. Damp meadows ; conmion ;
last of May and from last of July through August.
54. EuPTOiETA Claudia Doubl. A single specimen of this
has been taken by Mr. ShurtlefF at Leomister, Mass, in the
middle of summer.
-35. Melit^a (Enone nov. sp. Above pale fulvous with
blackish brown markings. Primaries ; basal half of costal
border black, with a broad arcuate transverse band just
beyond the cell between the costal border and median
nervure, met at its inner border by a smaller triangular
patch having its base on the internal border ; the space
ibus enclosed at the base of the wing broken up into small
iBpots by irregularly disposed black lines; a very broad
anarginal band, leaving only a comparatively narrow ful-
vous band in the middle of the upper half of the wing ; an
arcuate row of small equidistant pale fulvous spots parallel
to the apical half of outer margin ; between the upper
branches of the median a submarginal pale fulvous sagit-
tate spot, with a dot just below it ; a narrow dusky band
Digitized by VjOOQIC
crosses the spaces on either side of the lowest branch of
median, parallel and close to the inner border of mar-
ginal band. Secondaries ; basal half dusky with irregular
small fulvous spots ; space between costal and subcostal
dusky ; marginal dusky border not very broad, with a
marginal series of scarcely arcuated, obsolete, orange
lunnles, bordered with black, and also a submarginal
series of obsolete pale fulvous crescents, generally most
distinct between uppermost branches of subcostal and
median nervures; next the marginal band a slightly
arcuate series of large round black spots, those between
branches of median, pupilled with pale fulvous ; the cen-
tral fulvous band cut in two by an arcuate transverse
Beneath. Primaries much more pale fulvous than above,
with the principal markings of the upper surface faintly
repeated, but with the subapical dots much larger, and
with the addition of a narrow marginal orange band bor-
dered with black and three apical pearly white, generally
confluent, spots. Secondaries pale straw yellow, with a
basal band of confluent pearly white spots, next to wl^ich
is a broad yellowish brown transverse band, darkest exter-
nally ; the margin, except at the outer angle, is broadly
blackish brown, with the submarginal row of round spots
of upper surface repeated and margined with orange ;
next the margin is a narrow orange band like that of pri-
maries, resting upon which is a series of pearly white lun-
ules, the two outer of which, with that between uppermost
branches of median, are very large, the others inconspicu-
ous ; the median broad pale yellowish band is divided into
two portions by an undulate ferruginous line ; fringe of
both wings white interrupted with black. Expanse of
wings 6 1 3-5 in, 9 1 4-5 in.
Quito rare ; I have only seen a few specimens from
. Lenox and Williamstown, Mass., and from Norway, Me.,
86. MEUTiBA Habbisii no>. sp. Melitrsa Ismeria? Harr.
(not M. Jbmeria Boisd. and Lee.) May be quickly distin-
guished from M. Oenone by the under surface of secon-
daries, which are cinnamon-red with bands and spots of
white margined with black, as follows : a broad mesial
band cut across externally with black ; a basal transverse
Digitized by VjOOQIC
spot, and midway between this and mesial band a narrower
interrupted band of spots ; a spot near the extremity of
the cell, and a sabmarginal row of nearly uniform lunoles.
Fields ; I have only seen two or three specimens, from
Norway, Maine, Mr. S. I. Smith, in the Museum of Compar-
ative Zoology ; from Pittsfield, N. H., Mr. Treat ; and from
Sutton and Princeton, Mass. ; mine was taken in July or
87. 'Meutma Thabos Boisd. and Lee. MelUwa Pharos
Harr. Meadows and pastures ; very abundant ; June and
early July, late August and September.
88. Meut^a Photon Boisd. and Lee. Low grounds and