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able remarks and 'communications presented this evening,
and the papers be referred to the Publication Committee.

- Donations were announced from the following :

To the Library — ^from J. Fiske Allen ; Thomas Pinnock ;
Misses King ; George Nichols ; E. M. Stone of Providence,
B. I.; M. A. Stickney ; Mrs. Mary E. Wheatland ; Montreal
Society of Natural History ; Wm. Brown ; Trustees Public
Library of Boston; Canadian Institute at Toronto; Mrs,
Geo. H. Chase ; 0. B. Richardson of New York ; M. Miles
of Lansing, Mich.; Geo. C. Chase ; H. M. Brooks ; John G*
.Felt ; and John Robinson.



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To the Cabinets— from 8f. Q. Felt; Geo. P. Ires; Abiel
Mf Wardwell ; Stephen Cloutmau ; John BobiiUMHi ; Ohas*
BbcMtening; M. Miles, Laasing, Ifieh.; A. G. Qoodett, Jr4

A^unieck

Mifkdav^ Mutch 24, 1862.

Meeting this evening at 7 1-2 o'clock. In the absence of
the President and Vice Presidents, A. C. Goodell Jr., wAs
called to preside.

Eecords of the preceding meeting read.

Letters were announced from Chas. W. Felt ; S. Jillson q£
^tonvitle ; C. H. Manning ; and J. Wingate Thornton dt
Bbston.

Bev. J. B. Felt read a valuable communication on the early
piracies on this coast, with a particular reference to those of
dipt. William Kidd. (See Historical Collections of the In-
stitate, vol. iv. pi^ 80.)

Bemarks were offered in connexion with this subject, by
the chair, Messrs. G. C. Beaman, G. D. Phippen and ofh^
members.

On motion of Mr. Phippen it was

Voted^ That the thanks of the Institute be tendered to lfr»
Felt, for the communication read this evening,and that a copy
be placed at the disposal of the Publication Committee.

Donations were announced from the following : —
To the Libra/ty — from N. J. Lord, Montreal Society of
Natural History ; Boston Society of Natural History ; lb*
seum oi Comparative Zoology at Cambridge ; W. B. Clout-^
man; Chicago Historical Society; J. Wingate Thornton of
Boston ; George F. Bead, James B. Curwen.



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3b ik$ CbMi^^r-firopft John G. Cliadwick ; William li.
WeUi ; Sanuiel A« Greene ; Charles W* Felt ; E. D. Hopes;.
O. H. Saunders.

Adjourned.

Monday, April 7, 1862.

Meeting this evening at 8 o'clock ; in the absence of. the
President, George D. Phippen was called to preside.

Becords of preceding meeting read.

Letters were announced from the Trustees of the New
15d9k State Library ; American Geographical and Statistical
Seefetf ; Horace Binney of Philadelphia ; Historical Society
of Pennsylvania ; Maine Historical Society; Connecticut
Historical Sodety ; F. S. Pease of Albany ; Solomon Lin*
coin of Hingham ; Jonathan Pearson of Schenectady N. Y.;

C. M. Tracy of Lynn ; A. E. Verrill of Norway, Me.



CM. Tractt of Lynn gave an interesting and instructive
laeture on nyUotaxis — ^the arrangement of the leaves on
the stem, the uses of the leaf in the vegetable eopupmy —
the variety of the forms in the different plants, mode c^e-
vcliq»nent, Ac.

Bemarics up<m the lecture were ofiered by the chair, Rev.
0. O. Beaman, and others.

On motion of Mr. Beaman, the thanks of the Institute
were tendered to Mr. Tracy for the lecture, which he has
pIBesented to our eonsideration this evening.

Ilonations were announced as folld^s :

T^IM Ubrary — ^from James Cook of San Francisco;
Cincinnati Mercantile Library Association ; Fhiladelfdiia
Academy of Natural Science ; New York Lyceum of Natur
i:il History ; Jona&an Pearson of Schenectady, N.Y.

To the CaMnets — ^from N. Ingersoll ; Gteorge Gassey of



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South Danvers ; W. L. Welch ; Charles H. Manhihg ; Ga-
lena Volunteers in the 21st Reg., Mass. Vols., by A. F, Wai;^
cott; 0. H. Saunders. : . i */

Adjourned.

Friday, April 25, 1862.

Meeting this evening at 8 o'clock, the President in the
chair. ^ ^

Records of preceeding meeting read. -

Letters were announced from Samuel A. Green, Surgebn
24th Reg. Mass. Vols.; F. H. Lee of 23d Mass, Vols.; and
A. F. Walcott of 21st Mass. Vols.; W, Barry, Sec'y Ghio^o'.
Historical Society ; S. H. Grant, Lib. N. Y. Mercantilei* Li-
brary Association ; Solomon Lincoln of Hiagham ; B. S^
Waters. :)

A. C. Goodell Jr., read a paper on the history of the Pu-
ritans, with especial reference to the distinction between the
Separatists, or Independents of Plymouth Golcmy, and flie.
Non-conformists of Massachusetts Bay. . ',

Beginning with a brief review of the progress of the AngU-.
can reformation up to the time of the Marian. persecutions,:
he described the difficulties in the church of the exiles at
Frankfort, in 1664, as the origin ofPuritai^isminthe Churcli^
of England ; though the name Puritan is not known tp hare
been used before 1564.

He then traced the origin of the Old Separatists to the
year 1566 ; of the Brownists to the year 1582 ; of the Semi-
Separatists to the year 1602 — from whom sprang the Ply-
mouth Colonists, or " Pilgrim Fathers ;" — and of the Non-
conformists to the year 1669, of which class were the Puri ";
tans of Massachusetts Bay.

In conclusion, he entered into an examination of the doc-
trines and of the ecclesiafitical systems of the two colonies,



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and concluded that the difference between them was chie%
in their respective origins and ecclesiastieal traditions, and
not in any essential variance respecting matters of doctrine
or discipline, which will account for the rapid and complete
nnion of the two colonies in all ecclesiastical matters, and
for the harmony with which both labored to build up a
church system which was peculiar, and which combined in
some measure the characteristics of the of the politics of the
three great classes of dissenters ; the Presbyterians, the
Erastians, and the Independents of Old England. (See Hist.
Coll. of Institute, iv : 145.)

P. W. Putnam gave a brief outline of the Animal King-
dom, with especial reference to the principal elements that
mark the Branch, the Class, the Order, the Family, the
Genus, the Species, and Variety. He also explained the
mode of instruction in Zoology adopted by Prof. Agassiz at
his school in Cambridge, and proposed to adopt a similar
course, so far as circumstances will admit, with the class of
young pupils which he was then about forming at the rooma
of the Essex Institute.

The chair presented to the society the lancet case formerly
belonging to the late Dr. Micajah Sawyer of Newburyport,
in behalf of Dr. Stevens of New York, — announcing the
same with appropriate remarks on the character of Dr. Saw-»
yer and his distinguished patient theBev. George Whitfield.

Donations were announced as follows : —

To the Irfftrar^— from Samuel G. Drake of Boston ; Pea-
body Institute of South Danvers ; American Philosophical
Society; Canadian Institute at Toronto; H. M. Brooks ; J.
J. Rider ; Miss Lydia Pope ; Geo. P. Read ; N. Silsbee ; J^
Perley, Jr.; L. Bemis of Boston; E. P. Shepard; R. H»
Wheatland.

To the Cabinets— ChQ8. B. Elwell; Q. Cooke; W. L.



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Welch; Henry Merritt; OeoigeCassey ti Souih B«av«»;
O. H. Sauuders ; A. fl. Stevens of New York.

On motion of Rev. E. 6. Willson the thanks of the Insti-
tute were tendered to Messrs. Goodell and Putnam for their
interesting remarks.

Adjourned.

Wednesday, May 14, 1862.

Annual meeting, this day, at the rooms, Plummer Hali^
at 8 P.M., Vice President, S. P. Fowler in the chair.

Records of the preceding annual meeting read.

Donations since the meeting of the 25th ult. were an-
nounced from the following : —

To the Library— from S. G. Wheatland ; J. B. AH^,
M. G. ; WilUam Briggs ; John L. Sibley of Cambridge ; E.
B. Willson ; J. J. Rider ; Mrs. O. H. Chase ; Charles F.
Barnard of Boston.

To the Cabinets — from J. J. Rider ; Henry F. Shepard ;
Joseph Short of Philadelphia ; James B. King; J. G. Trask
.of Gloucester ; Eben Sutton of South Danvers.

Letters were read from the Trustees of the Public Library
^f Boston ; New Jersey Historical Society ; S. A. Allibone
.of Philadelphia ; Henry M. Brooks.

Also from W. O. White of Eeene, N.H., tendering to the
Listitute a portrait of his father, Hon. Daniel Appleton
White, our late lamented President — a vote of thanks was
unanimously passed to Mr. White for this valuable acqiiisi-
Him to the collection of portraits.

Report of the Secretary was read and aeoepted.

Report of the Treasurer was read and referred to the H*
nance Committee.



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F. W. Putnam, made a verbal report on the condition of
the collections of Natural History.

Prom these reports the following abstract is presented,
giving a cursory view of the doings during the year.

Pour resident members have deceased : —

1. John Pelt Webb, son of Benjamin and Sarah (Pelt)
Webb. Born at Salem, Peb. 9, 1811, died at Southampton^
England, Oct. 20, 1861. Educated at the old Latin school,
under master Eames; thence into the counting-room of
John Forrester, one of the prominent merchants of Salem,
in his day ; afterwards supercargo and commander for sev-
eral years ; and finally established himself abroad, where ho
resided, with occasional visits at home, a large portion of
his time, as a commercial Agent, principally at Zanzibar ; at
which latter place he was for many years U. S. Consul. He
was a man of strongly marked character, and was highly
Esteemed for his probity, intelligence and uniform self-
reliance, and was exemplary in all the relations of life,
especially as a son, a brother and a friend.

2. William Macmullen, son of John Macmullen,
was born at Salem. In early life he went to Zanzibar,
as a commercial Agent, and was for some timt the
U. S. Consul, at that place. A few years since he re*
turned to Salem and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He
died at Salem, Peb. 9, 1862, aged 35 years and 11 months,
leaving a wife — Harriet, daughter of Thomas Perkins^ — and
three children. He was a person highly esteemed and pos-
sessed active business qualifications.

8. Henry King Fbttyplacb, son of Thomas and Han*
nah (Devereiix) Pettyplace. Bom at Salem, Jan'y 28, 1820.
Educated at the High school ; for some years a clerk in one
of the Salem Banks ; afterwards went to Mobile, Ala., and
engaged in business,where he had resided for more than twen*

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 24.



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ty years, 'vrith the exception of occasional visits to the north
during the summer montlis. He died at Salem, March 10,
1862. Ug was highly esteemed for his perfect integrity and
sense of honor in all business transactions.

4. The news of the death of the fourth reached us, a few
days sinco; — William Ouveb Potteb, Capt, of ship Cut-
water — washed oyerboard during a storm near Capo Horn,
on his passage from San Francisco to Boston, 18th March,
1862. He was son of Jesse and Susan (Punchard) Potter.
Born at Salem, Oct. Y, 1820, educated in our schools, and
soon after entered upon a maritime life. As a shipmaster
he was possessed of rare excellence, sagacious judgment in
matters of business, persevering and energetic. In private
life he was much endeared to his friends, generous, cheerful
and affectionate.

Meetings have been held as in previous years ; some
doubt was expressed as to the practicability, owing to the.
staic of the country ; it was deemed, however, best to con-
tinue in the same path as circumstances would admit ; the
success has more than realized the expectations. Five Field
Meetings have been held at Boxford ; South Lynnfield ;
Kettle Cove, Gloucester ; Gravesend, Lynn; and Middleton ;
and eleven Evening Meetings during the winter months.

Publications. The Historical Collections have been
printed as usual — ^Three volumes have now been issued.
The first number of Vol. IV, is ready.

To the LiBRARr, have been added 3492 volumes— 9801
serials and pamphlets, exclusive of incomplete files of news-
papers unbound. With few exceptions, donations, and have
been received from twenty-seven societies, or depai'tments
of state and the national government, and seventy-seven
individuals. — ^The principal addition was the bequest of oup



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late President, Hon. D. A. White, which numbered thirty-
three hundred volumes, and eight thousajid pamphlets or
serials — comprising works in the various departments of
history, literature, and science — many are rare and exceed-
mgly valuable to the historical student.

Historical Department. — In December, the Curators is-
sued a circular requesting cooperation in making a collec-
tion of any matter relating to the present war which may
serve to illustrate its causes, origin and progress. In response
to the same, valuable contributions have been received from
Messrs. W. G. Welch, B. E. Shaw, Henry Merritt, J. 0.
Chadwick, G. F. Austin, G. P. Ives, Salem Yolunteers in
21st Mass. Reg, by A. F. Walcott, Mark Lowd, Mrs.
J. Chamberlain, Charles Davis of Beverly, William Hulin of
Rockford, 111., John Robinson and others.

Mrs. F. G. DePeyster of New York, has presented the
portrait of her uncle Jonathan Goodhue, an eminent mer-
chant of New York. He was the son of Benjamin Goodhue,
and was born at Salem, June 21, 1783, and died at New
York, on Friday the 24th of November, 184C.

Donations have also been received from Mrs. H. M. Col-
cord of South Danvers, W. 0. Potter, John G. Felt, J. J,
Rider, Charles Hoffman, Mrs. D. A. White, C. P. Williams,
Henry M. Brooks and others.

Department op Natural History. — It is noticed that
our sea-faring friends have continued active in filling the
cans with choice and rare specimens, Messrs. B. D. Ropes,
William Crandall and others may be mentioned.

Addison Flint of North Reading, presented a living speci-
men of Emys Blaudingii ; Prof. M. Miles, a collection of
Pishes and Reptiles of Michigan. Miss S. A. Chever, a
collection of Shells from East Indies. Miss R. Johnson,
Shells from Aspinwall. Mrs. T. S. Greenwood of Ipswich,



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a fasciculus of pressed Sea-weeds. Mrs. F. H. Creamer, fruit
and leaves of the great California Pine. C. Cooke, a fas^
ciculus of pressed plants from Zanzibar. N. IngersoU, J. G.
Waters, G, H. Devereux, W. S. Daland, S. Barden of Bock-
port, Joseph Short of Philadelphia, E. B. Cherer, J. Cleaves,
C. W. Felt, A. H. Wardwell, S. Cloutman, Minerals.

Tbeasuber's Statement of the financial condition for th»
year ending. May 1862. ^

General Account.

Debits.

Atlienseum — ^Rent and one-half fuel and attendance, $457 75

Cases, 9300 ; Books, $10 ; Stationery, $11 95, 321 95

Printing, 396 15 ; Gas, 4 53, . - • 400 68

Express, Postage, Ac, 21 46

Department of Natural History ... 50 12



$1,251 9&

Credits.

Balance of accounts of 1861, - - - - 55 61

Assessments, 574 00 ; Webster Bank, 30 00 604 Oa

Salem Savings Bank, - - - - - 300 00

Sale of Publications, - - - • - 233 8a

Historical Account 32 13 ; Sundries, 7 50, - 39 68

Balance, 18 92.



$1,251 9a

Historical Account.

Debits.

Books, 10 00 ; PubUcations, 32 13 ; Sundries, 9 87, $52 0».

Credits.
Naumk«ag Bank, 12 00 ; Mich. Cent. B. B., 40 00 52 0*



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Natural History and Horticultural Account.

Debits.
Taxidermy 9 87; Books 4 00; Preservatives, 11 19 25 06
Glass 62 47 ; Sundries 14 59, - - 77 06



102 12
Credits.
P. S. & P. R. R., 12 00 ; Lowell Bleacheiy, 40 00, 62 00
General Account, 50 12



1102 12



The following officers were elected lor the year ensuing
and until others shall be chosen in their stead, viz : —

, President — Asahel Huntington.
Vice Presidents — Samuel P. Fowler, James Upton, Abner

C. Goodell, Jr.

Secretary and Treasurer — Henry Wheatland.

Librarian — John H. Stone.

Cabinet Keeper — Richard H. Wheatland.

Finance Committee — John C. Lee, E. S. Rogers, George

D. Phippen, Henry M. Brooks, James Chamberlain.
Publication Committee — A. C. Goodell, Jr., Henry

Wheatland, George D. Phippen, Lra J. Patch, John H.
Stone, George M. Whipple.

Library Committee— J. G. Waters, David Roberts, A.
Crosby, N. J. Holden.

Curators of Natural History— In Botany— C. M. Tracy ;
Mammalogy and Ornithology — ^F. W. Putnam ; Herpetology
and Ichthyology — ^R. H. Wheatland ; Articulata and Radi-
ata — C. Cooke; MoUusca and Paleontology — ^H. F. King;
Comparative Anatomy — Henry Wheatland; Geology — ^H,
F. Shepard ; Mineralogy — D. M. Balch.



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Curators of History — Ethnology— Wm. S. Messcrvy, M.
A. Stickney, F. H. Lee ; Manuscripts — Henry M. Brooks,
Ira J. Patch, L. R. Stone, G. L. Streeter, S. B. Buttrick ;
Fine Arts — P. Peabody, J. G. Waters.

Curators of Horticulture — Fruits and Yegetables — ^James
Upton, John M. Ives, J. F. Allen, J. S. Cabot, John Ber-
tram, R. S. Rogers, George B. Loring, C. P. Putnam ;
Flowers— F. Putnam, W. Mack, C. H. Norris, B. A. West,
George D. Glover.

A Committee was appointed consisting of Messrs. Allen
W. Podge of Hamilton, C. M. Tracy of Lynn. S. P. Fowler
of Danvers, John M. Ives, R. H. Wheatland, C. C. Beaman,
and C. H. Norris, to ari^ange for the Field Meetings the
coming season.

A committee was also appointed to arrange Lectures for
the ensuing winter if expedient, also the evening meetings.
Messrs. A. C. Goodell, Jr., C. C. Beaman, W. J. Rolfe,
H. M. Brooks, C. H. Norris, E. B. Willson, F. W. Putnam,
and James Kimball were appointed on said Committee.

Voted^ That the Curators on Horticulture be authorised
to arrange for the holding of several exhibitions of Fruits
and Flowe:fs during the ensuing season, if advisable.

Donations since the meeting of the 25th of April, were
announced.

To the Library— from S. G. Wheatland ; J. B. Alloy, M. C;
William Briggs ; J. L. Sibley of Cambridge ; B. B. Willson ;
J. J. Rider; Mrs. G. H. Chase ; Charles P. Barnard of
Boston.

To the Cabinets — from J. J. Rider ; Henry F. Shepard;
Joseph Short of Philadelphia ; James B. King ; J. C. Trask
of Gloucester ; Eben Sutton of Squth Danvers.

Adjourned.



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Wednesday^ July 2, 1862.

-•Field Meeting at South Danvbi^s. The location of
this, the first gathering of the kind this season, had been
placed at the pleasant little village of " Rockville" near the
notable erratic called " Ship Rock", which, as often before
stated, has been for several years preserved to the uses of
science by the protection of the Institute.

A considerable number attended this meeting, arriving by
railroad from the several towns most usually represented,
and stopping at Newhall's Crossing, where a rather enter-
prising saw-mill works busily away under the influence of
Gold th wait's Brook. Many of the old familiar faces of our
friends were found with us on this occasion, testifying, bet-
ter than words could do, what enduring satisfaction is to be
had in the study of nature in her own undisturbed retreats.

The various divisions of the company having pushed their
explorations in this that and the other direction, as far as
time or inclination would allow, and gathered all matters of
interest which the circumstances made available, the lunch
was despatched in true pic-nic style.

The afternoon meeting was subsequently called to order in
the village chapel, at three o'clock, by Vice President,
Samuel P. Fowler, of Danvers.

Donations, since the annual meeting in May, were
announced.

To the Library — from the New Jersey Historical Society ;
Montreal Society of Natural History ; J. F. Worcester ; N,
J. Holden ; Maryland Historical Society ; Messrs. Daland ;
Boston Society of Natural History ; Philadelphia Academy
of Natural Science ; Henry F. Shepard ; American Statisti-
cal Association ; C. B. Richardson of New York ; E. P.
Robinson of Saugus ; Massachusetts Legislature ; American.



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Antiquarian Society ; American Academy of Arts aad
Science ; Pitch Poole of South Dan vers ; Smithonian Insti-
tution ; New York Mercantile Library Association ; Miss A.
M. Hemmenway, of Ludlow, Vt. ; W. P. Tucker of Bruns-
wick, Me. ; Luke Bemis of Boston ; John B. Alley, M. C. ;
Allen W. Dodge of Hamilton.

To the Cabinets — from Joseph Short of Philadelphia >
Eben. B. Symonds ; Henry Merritt ; W. 0. Potter ; Henry
P. Shepard.

Letters were read from Maine Historical Society ; Mer-
cantile Library Association, ^Boston ; American Geographi-
cal and Statistical Society ; New Jersey Historical Society ;
Pennsylvania Historical Society ; Smithsonian Institution ;
Minnesota Historical Society ; Henry Barnard of Hartford,
Conn.; Fitch Poole of South Danvers ; S. H. Grant of New
York ; Miss A. M. Hemmenway of Ludlow, Vt.; E. P. Rob-
inson of Saugus ; Department of the Interior, Washington ;
W. R. L. Ward of New York ; A. A. Smith ; C. B. Rich-
ardson of New York ; C. M. Endicott ; S. D. Bell of Man-
chester N.H.; C. M. Tracy of Lynn ; P. W. Putnam ; S. P.
Fowler of Danversport ; W. S. Cleveland ; Isaac M. Long.

P. W. Putnam of Salem, from the Committee appointed
last year to investigate the character and habits of the Army
Worm, submitted a detailed report on the subject, prepared
at his request, by Mr. Shubtleff of the Cambridge Museum:
As a preface to the Report, Mr. P. stated some of the lead-
ing facts as to the ravages of this worm last year, and also
that it had appeared again this season, but not to the same
extent. At the close of the reading, on motion of Mr.
Goodell of Salem, the thanks of the Institute were voted to
the Committee for their very instructive report.



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Report on the Army Worm, Leucania unipuncta Haw.
By Carleton A. Shurtleff of Brooilline.

The nation was not more surprised at the audacity and
wickedness of the Southern traitors last year, than were
the farmers at the appearance and ravages of the Army
Worm last Summer ; thoy came in such myriads and wert
so voracious that they threatened the destruction of the en-
tire grain crop where they appeared. Most persons consid-
ered them entirely new, and to many uneducated in the laws
^recording to which nature works they appeared to be spon-
taneously created from the earth itself.

But we find this visitation is not unparalleled ; they often
appear at the South and do immense damage ; and we have
had them here before ; they have visited Massachusetts on
a number of occasions in the olden time ; I take Dr. Fitch's
dates from the Boston Cultivator.

" In 1743 there were * millions of devouring worms, in
-armies threatening to cut oflf every green thing.' Flint's
2d Report, Agric. of Mass. p. 36.

" In 1770 a black worm about an inch and a half long,
devoured the grass and corn. They all moved in one direc-
idon, and when they were intercepted by furrows in ploughed
land, they fell into them in such numbers as to form heaps.
They sought shelter in the grass, a hot sun being fatal to
them ; they disappeared suddenly about the close of June
.and beginning of July.' — Webster on Pestilence vol. 1,
p. 259.

** Eleven years afterwards the same kind of worm ap-
peared again, but they were few in number." — Cultivator,
10th Aug.

" 1790 — Millions of the same black worm reappeared in
Hartford and Norwich, Conn."

" 1817 — ^It appeared May 22d in Worcester ; also in Al-
bany." It is stated in the Albany Argus that it attacked
flax particularly. Now as I have seen it stated that the
army worm of 1861 did not attack flax, these may have
been different species, though they may have been harder
pushed for food then, than in 1861. Everything else wo
know of their habits goes to show that they were probably

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 25.



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the same species, and all our entomologists I believe consider
them so ; but wo have no definite proof that I know of on
either side.

They have not been noticed generally since 1817 in this
part of the coimtry, but it must not be supposed that they
have lain dormant during all that time, nor that they were
then exterminated and now recreated ; they have undoubt-
edly appeared every year since then, but in small numbers,
and in places unfrequented by those who would be likely
to observe them. In 1860 I took two moths and then con-
sidered them quite rare, never having taken them before.
This shows that they did not increase quite so suddenly as
most persons think, but were more numerous in 1860
than in the years preceding it, and therefore laid more eggs
for 1861.

Dr. Pitch (and Mr. J. Kirkpatrick and other observers


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