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of the nest of the Humble-Bee, an insect only imperfectly
understood, as indeed are too many of our common animals
even yet. It has been estimated that there are six thousand
six hundred and thirty-five species, oi animals inhabiting New
England. Mr. P. added some explanation of the geologi-
cal record of animal life, and argued that the evidence



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of any species changing its character at any period, or
passing into another was not yet sufficient to warrant the
statement.

A few other gentlemen offered appropriate remarks, after
which on motion of N. J. Holden, Esq. of Salem the thanks
of the Institute were tendered to Rev. Mr. Pike, the Messrs.
Smith, Prime, Harris, Hills, and Richards, as well as Mrs.
Pife and Mrs. Lambert, with others whose kindness to us
had been so untiring. The Institute then adjourned.

Monday, Dec. 8, 1862.

Meeting this evening at the rooms, Plummer Hall, A. 0.
Goodell, jr..one of the Vice Presidents in the chair.

Records of the preceding meeting read.
Donations were announced from the following :
To the Library — from J. W. Thornton of Boston ; S. A.
Green, Surg. 24th Reg. Mass. Vols.; J. Morrisey of Boston ;
J. B. Felt; Daniel Barnes of New York ; Jeremiah Colburn
of Boston ; O. C. Marsh ; B. S. Parker of Groveland ; H. P.
Shepard ; Boston Society of Natural History ; Mrs. N. D.
Cole ; S. B. Peabody ; Trustees of N. Y. State Library ;
Smithsonian Institution ; John L. Sibley of Cambridge ;
Miss A. M. Hemmenway, of Ludlow, Vt. ; A. B. Almon;
0. B. Richardson of New York ; Theron Metcalf of Boston ;
George Livermore of Cambridge ; Philadelphia Academy
of Natural Science; A. B. Johnson of Utica, N. Y. ; Trus-
tees of Dartmouth College , H. L. Williams ; Zoologischen
Gesellschaft, Frankfort, a. M. ; D. C. Gilman of Yale Col-
lege ; Joel Munsell of Albany, N. Y. ; George B. Loring ;
Charles H. Dodge ; Montreal Society of Natural History ;
W. P. Tucker of Brunswick, Me. ; R. Manning.



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To the Cabinets — from Mrs. H. Brown ; Amos Stillman ;
C. H. Norris ; S. Barden of Rockport ; E. Peabody ; Ed-
mund Lovett of Kinsemby, W. C. A. ; H. Brown ; Edward
J. Porter ; Daniel Cudner ; James II. Emerton ; John
Saul ; J. Choate : John H. Towne, Sierra Leone ; Edmund
Larcom, Beverly.

The Chair presented in the name of Hon. Allen W.
Dodge, of Hamilton, three volumes : — 1st, by William Hol-
loway, " The Peasant's Fate," published in 1803 ; 2d, by
John Searson, published in 1798, ^" Art ol Contentment" ;
3d, a volume by Rev. Samuel Willard, containing 1st,
" The Fountain Opened," and 2d, a Sermon on Christian
perfection, from the text, " Be ye Perfect ^^^ &c. Mr. G.
gave a short biographical sketch of Rev. Mr. Willard and
brief notices of the other publications.

A letter was read from Hon. Robert Hooper of Boston,
presenting to the Institute, six MS. volumes, consisting of
five camp journals and one letter book, which were the
property of the late Brigadier General .lohn Glover, of
Marblehead, a distinguished officer in the army of the Rev-
olution, in the name of his descendants. Also a letter from
W. R. L. Ward, Esq., of New York, announcing the trans-
mission to the Institute of a volume originally belonging to
the same set which was in his possession. These valuable
and highly interesting records were referred to by W. P.
Upham, to prepare a report in relation thereto, to be read at
some future meeting.

A letter from Hon. Nathaniel Silsbee, tendering to the
Institute a donation of two paintings, by the late George
Ropes, of this city,— one a view of Crowninshield's wharf,
(now Phillips') as it was some fifty years since — the other,
the launching of the ship Fame.



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Letters were also read from J. H. Hickcox of Albany,
N. Y. ; D. C. Gilmaii of New Haven, Conu. ; Augustus
Towne of Boston ; J. Munsell ol Albany, N. Y. ; Pennsyl-
vania Historical Society ; Trustees of N. Y. State Libi-ary ;
Maine Historical Society ; Museum of Comparative Zoology
at Cambridge ; Corporation of Harvard College ; American
Philosophical Society ; American Geographical and Statisti-
cal Society ; M. A. Stickney ; N. W. Uazen of Andover ;
C. B. Kichardson of New York ; J. K. Wiggin of Boston ;
J. C. Hilgard of the Coast Survey ; W. C. Binney of Ames-
bury ; and S. F. Haven of Worcester.

On motion of Rev. C. C. Beaman, the thanks of the Insti-
tute were presented to the several donors.

F. W. Putnam presented a paper containing a list of the
reptiles of the county, accompanying the same with some
remarks upon the distinctive characters of the several orders.
By the above list we learn that the whole number of species
is 40, viz : — Salamanders, eleven ; Frogs, five ; Tree Toads,
three ; Toads, two ; Scaphiopus, one ; Snakes, eleven ; Tur-
tles, seven.

The Chair mentioned that a gentleman interested in anti-
quarian lore, had authorized the Secretary to purchase on
his account old MSS. prior to 1700 at the rate of one dollar
per pound ; from 1700 to 1750, at fifty cents per pound ;
from 1750 to 1800 at twenty-five cents per pound ; the same
to be deposited in the library of the Institute. After some
general remarks upon the importance of the preservation
of old papers, and the probability that much valuable ma-
terial may be sold to the paper-makers on account of the
high price of this article in the market, the Institute ad-
journed.



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224

Monday, December 22, 1862. •

Meeting this evening, the President in the Chair.

Records of the preceding meeting read.

Letters were read from J. H. Hickcox of Albany N.Y.;
George W. Wheelwright and W. P. Poole of Boston ; Mas-
sachusetts Historical Society ; Trustees of the Boston Ath-
enaeum ; S. P. Fowler of Danvers ; S. H. Grant of the
New York Mercantile Library Association.

Donations from the following were announced.

To the Library — from Canadian Institute at Toronto ; C.
B. Richardson of New York ; Joshua Coffin of Newbury ;
W. S. Hiltz ; Boston Society of Natural History ; American
Antiquarian Society.

To the Cabinets — from J. C. Leo ; Shove S. Symonds.

The Secretary mentioned that several, specimens of the
Snow Owl {Strix nyctea) had been taken in this vicinity
during the present season. In this connection extracts were
read from the Canadian Journal, a publication printed in
Toronto, under the direction of a Committee of the Canadian
Institute, respecting the abundance of these birds on the
shores of Lake Ontario, and of their habits. Mr. S. Passa-
more, a well known taxidermist in Toronto, under date of
17th of November 1862, speaks of having some forty or fifty
specimens which had been shot within the past two or three
weeks, in that neighborhood, some measuring five feet four
inches from wing to wing. Similar numbers are stated to
have appeared in 1^37. Mr. Passamore gives 1833, 1839,
1853, as abundant years.



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Mr. A. C. Goodell, as Chairman of the Curators of His-
tory, proposed for the consideration of the Institute the sub-
ject of " New England's Heraldry." The following is the
substance of his remarks :

Alter alluding to the well known fact that it is claimed
by the Southern Rebels that they are of better extraction,
in the feudal sense, than the people of New England, he
proceeded to show that this claim, though utterly unfound-
ed, is beginning to be treated, at home and abroad, as a
matter of some consequence in considering the probable
event of the struggle which agitates the country.

The wholesale charge of John Arthur Ro*5buck, the mem-
ber of Parliament for SheflSeld, that the North is composed
of a mixed population of people of low origin, of outlaws
and criminals, while the South, on the other hand, is largely
peopled by the descendants of the Cavaliers, who are there-
fore more nearly allied to the gentry and nobility of Great
Britain, had never, in the opinion of the speaker, met the
utter and general contradiction which it deserves.

On the contrary, the silence of the press and even the
positive admission of some public Northern speakers, such
as the Rev. Dr. Bellows of N. Y., has the effect of estabjish-
ing this error in the minds of our enemies and in the public
opinion of Europe. Tlie speaker said he was glad to know
that the newspaper press has, at last, begun to question the
truth of this invidious charge.

Dr. 0. W. Holmes, too, in the December No. of the
Atlantic Monthly, has protested against this error, in very
strong terms, in his article, " My hunt after the Captain ;"
also, Count Gurowski has met the accusation with a scath-
ing denial in his " Diary." It is to be hoped that these
indications warrant the belief that the public mind will soon
give this subject sufficient attention. The speaker was
happy to announce that in several states, persons interested
in genealogical and historical studies are at this moment
engaged in preparing articles, the effect of which will be to
prove incontestably that a far larger proportion of the peo-
ple of New England are from an ancestry of gentle and
noble consanguinity than of the people of the South. Mr.

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 29.



I



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W. H. Wliitinore of Boston, the author of the " Hand-book
of American Genealogy," is engaged in the preparation ot
a work which is intended to exhibit, as nearly as all known
accessible data will allow, the relative proportions of gentry,
yeomanry and nobility of the several American colonies.
In the course of his investigations, Mr. W. has found that a
large MS. volume, now in the library of Peter Force, at
Washington, D. C, copied from a similar book in the Ar-
chives of the State Paper Office, London, being exclusively,
a list of the names of criminals deported to the penal colony
of Virginia, contains many names of leading families of the
chivalry of the present day.

Mr. G. then proceeded to say that Bishop Meade's work
on the Old Churches and Families ol Virginia, was the only
record to which Virginia has hitherto appealed to prove her
general claim to Cavalier extraction. Yet we, quiet un-
pretending people of Massachusetts, can count more and
higher names in tlie list of our gentility without any special
effort ; and when Mr. Whitmore shall have given the subject
a thorough study, we shall undoubtedly, find that the pro-
portion of noble and gentle blood in the whole population,
stands,^ to that of Virginia, as ten to one.

Mr. G. then enumerated some of our old first families —
such as the descendants of Emanuel Downing of Salem,
whose son, Sir George, in 1664, united in marriage to the
JBowards (the family of the Duke of Norfolk,) and his de-
scendant of the same name, founded Downing College,
Cambj idge^ England. Also the Salem Curwens, who are
descended from the Helsiiigton branch of the Workington
Curwens, — at whose head stood Gospatric, Earl of Northum-
berland, — one of the oldest and noblest families in Europe.
Among our Puritan clergy, too, are to be found not only a
large number of distinguished graduates of Oxford and Cam-
bridge, but also many who were closely related to high
ecclesiastics in the English Church. Thus we have the
Nortons of Ipswich, were connected with Archbishop Cran-
mer ; the Rawsons and Wilsons, with Archbishop Griudal,
and the former also descended from Bishop Hooker ; the
Tales from Bishop Morton and Bonner; and the Chauucys
from Bishop Still.



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Then we have, in the history of New England, such
names as Lady Arabella Johnson, Lady Deborah Moody and
her neighbor (who was nobly descended and married a
daughter of the Earl of Lincoln,) John Humphrey of Lynn ;
also, the knights and baronets, Saltonstall, Vane, Phipps,
Pepperell and Sir John Temple of Ten Hills farm. Maiden,
who was descended from the same stock as the Viscounts
Palmerston. Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst it will be remem-
bered is a Boston boy. We have, too, many old families of
gentry, such as the Appletons, who go clearly back to the
year 1414 ; the Bruens, to the year 1230 ; the Lawrences to
the year 119©, the Adamses and others. The Thorntons,
also, who are descended from two Mayors of York ; the
Sewalls from Henry Sewall, Mayor of Coventry ; and the
Salem Brownes, from the Brownes of Browne Hall, Lan-
cashire, England, a family, some of whose members removed
from Salem to Virginia, and one of whom married a grand-
daughter of Bishop Burnet. Another family which Salem
contributed to Virginia was that of the Fairfaxes. The
Hon. Col. William Fairfax was a resident of Salem before
he went to Virginia, in 1734. Here he married a lady,
born in Salem, Deborah the daughter of Francis Clarke, .
Esquire, and from this union were Bryan, Lord Fairfax,
and other descendants who are considered the very cream
ofthe"P. F. V."

Col. Fairfax was Collector of the Port and lived in the
house, still standing on the corner of Cambridge and Essex
streets, and his wife's father lived and died in the old house
which formerly stood on the Eastern corner of North and
Essex streets. " Letters and souvenirs from the Fairfaxes,
dating from about 1750 to 1820, are still in possession of a
descendant of the Clarke family in this city.

Mr. Goodell spoke also of the numerous coats of arms ex*
tant among members of our old families, and engraved on
tombstones in the old burying-grounds and expressed the
hope that all persons possessing such heir-looms would make
their existence known to the Institute that they may be
copied for Mr. Whitmore's work.



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In reply to a suggestion from Rev. Mr. Beaman, Mr. G.
continued his remarks by saying that doubtless many of the
leaders of the rebellion will be found, like Slidell, Davis,
Stephens and Hammond, to be of obscure northern birth or
descent. So that the argument of superior blood by the
South not only failed but was even turned against them by
the facts of history.

Remarks were ofTered on this subject by Rev. Messrs,
Beaman and Felt, Mr. G. D. Phippen, and the chair.

Adjourned.

Monday^ Jamiary 12, 1863.

Meeting this evening, the President in the Chair.

Records of preceding meeting were read.

Donations were announced.

To the Library — from A. D. Bache, of the U.S. Coast
Survey ; American Academy of Arts and Science ; J. Col-
burn of Boston ; Samuel H. Scudder of Boston ; Mrs. N.
D. Cole ; Caleb Poote ; Trustees of Boston Public Library ;
Trustees o\ Newbury port Public Library ; Robert Manning ;
Miss E. K. Roberts ; Misses Mulligan of Newburyport ;
John Chapman.

To the Cabinets — from S. W. Boardman of Milltown,
Me.; R. Manning ; David M. Balch ; Miss M. J. Scobie ;
G. C. Chase.

A letter was read from Dr. George Chandler of Worcester,
presenting to the Institute, in the na«me of the Misses Mulli-
gan of Newburyport, the Diary of Rev. Samuel Chandler,
in iour volumes of inter-leavcd almanacs of the years 1746,
9, 50 and 51, at York, Maine ; and of the years 1751, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 at Gloucester, Mass.



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A brief notice of Rev. Mr. Chandler was given. Rev.
Samuel Chandler was the son of Josiah Chandler of Ando-
ver, where he was born in 1713, graduated at Harvard Col-
lege in the class of 1735, ordained minister of the church
in York, Maine, in 1742, where he remained, occasionally
teaching a school in addition to his ministerial duties, till
his removal to Gloucester in 1751. In 1755, he went as
ChaplaiM to Col. Iclmbod Plaisted's Regiment, in the expe-
dition against Crown Point. He died after a long and
severe sickness, on the 16th of March, 1775, aged sixty-two.

Mr. David Nichols presented to the Institute, two photo-
graphs of Washington ; one, of a small size for g,lbums — the
other considerably larger for framing. He then gave a brief
history of the original from which these photographic copies
were obtained ; it has been in his wife's family for many
yoars, and is presumed to be the only one of the kind known.
Upon removing it from the frame recently, the following
endorsement was found upon the back : — " This was done
in New York, 1790, and is acknowledged by all to be a very
strong likeness. B. Goodhue." Benjamin Goodhue was a
native of Salem, son of Benjamin and Martha (Hardy)
Goodhue, born Sept. 20, 1748, graduate of Harvard in the
class of 1766 ; first Representative to Congress from this
distnct, and was a member of that body as a Representative
or Senator from 1789 to 1800. This portrait was shown to
many aged persons, who had seen and might remember
Washington's appearance, and they all coincided in the
opinion of its correctness so far as the recollection of nearly
three quarters of a century could be relied upon, fietters
were read from the venerable Josiah Quincy ex-President
of Harvard University, Jared Sparks, Esq., and others, in
relation to the subject.



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Mr. Qiiincy, in a letter to Mr. Nichols, thus writes :—

"The portrait of Washiugton, certified by Benjamin
Goodhue, Esq., on which you ask my opinion, certainly
satisfies my recollections of him, as he appeared in 1789 and
1790. At that time I saw him twice or thrice, and after-
wards several limes in 1795. The certificate of -Mr. Good-
hue is also almost conclusive, in my mind, for he was the
last man who would sign such a certificate lightly. The
common likenesses of Washington, like those ol Stuart,
which were painted subsequently to 1789, give a false ex-
pression to his mouth, owing to having at this period, false
teeth — the dentists of that day having not the skill to con-
ceal their work, like those of the present time. I regard
the portrait in your possession as quite valuable ; and if, as
you state, it was a sketch of St. Memin, it has great preton*
tions to correctness. I well knew that artist. He had great
merit, and if it be from his hand, its correctness may be
depended upon, and it is worthy of preservation."

In connection with this subject, Mr. H. M. Brooks exhib-
ited several Washington medals, some of which were very
beautiful. Mr. Brooks has had medals or coins with the
impression of Washington struck from some two hundred
different dies — the earlier ones were all complimentary.

An interesting discussion then followed on this subject ;
after which the Chair gave an interesting account of the
designs of the Mount Vernon Association in Essex County,
and also of a visit he made to Ashland, the heme of Henry
Clay, in the summer of 1861.

Adjourned.

Monday^ January 26, 1863.

Meeting this evening, the President in the chair.

Records of preceding meeting read.



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Letters were read from Historical Society of Pennsyl-
vania ; J. P. Lesley of American Phil. Society ; N. S. Howe
of Haverhill ; A. E. Verrill of Norway, Me. ; W. P. Poole of
Boston ; W. P. Upham ; H. Curwen.

Donations to the Library and Cabinet^ were announced —
from Richard H. Wheatland; N. J. Lord; C. P. Preston,
Secretary of Essex Agricultural Society ; John S. Ives ;
James Upton ; C. B. Richardson of New York, N. Y. ;
Portland Society of Natural History; S. M. Worcester;
James A. Gillis ; Horace Brown ; Thomas H. Johnson ;
Henry M. Brooks ; George 0. Chase ; Stillman Barden of
Rockport ; Joseph Hammond.

Rev. S. Barden of Rockport, being called upon by the
Chair, gave a very interesting and instructive account of
his researches among the quarries in Rockport. These
quarries have long possessed a great reputation for the
excellent building material furnished — specimens of which
may be seen in the principal cities of the Union. In
the extensive quarries worked by Eames & Co., can be
seen some of the best and purest granite in the country,
there is almost an entire absence of hornblende. Granite con-
tains quartz, feldspar and mica — sienite, quartz, feldspar and
hornblende ; frequently the four ingredients are found com-
bined together, viz. : quartz, feldspar, mica and hornblende ;
hence the rock of this region may be termed sienitic granite.

These quarries exhibit numberless varietH^in the color-
ing of the ingredients ; the quartz is shaded all the way
from a smoky color to a light watery hue, sometimes tinged
with red in a slight degree ; the feldspar of a half green
color ; the mica of an ebony black — occasionally some fine
atoms of the red oxide of manganese, and garnets are found



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232

intermingled. Granite is generally very chary of its con-
tributions of gems ; yet we have occasionally veins in which
the elements ol granite are crystallized in distinct masses,
amd in a variety of the most fantastic shapes, thp quartz
being mostly smoky or jet black ; the mica equally so ; the
feldspar, white, buff, and occasionally of the very richest
conceivable green. They always crystallize in a matrix of
quartz, and can only be successfully extricated by the very
greatest care and industry. There have been only some
three or four of these more prominent veins opened in the
above quarries within the space of some thirty years. Mr.
B. has found some seventy different varieties of minerals
during his researches.

Mr. F. W. Putnam called the attention of the meeting to
the late discovery of a most singular animal in the litho-
graphic stone of Solenhofen, and gave the different views
that are entertained in regard to it. This fossil is singular
in being a combination of bird and reptile, inasmuch as it is
provided with feathers like a bird, while many of its other
characteristics are reptilian. The fact of this animal's being
provided with wings and with hind extremities, having
but three toes and furthermore belonging to the same age
as the so called " Bird tracks" of the Connecticut valley and
other localities, supports the theory advanced by Professor
Agassiz some time ago, that the " bird tracks" were not
made by birds but by reptiles which were bird-like in their
characters, ifcofessor Wagner has given to this strange
animal the name of Griphosaurus, from the Greek word
meaning " enigma^'^ and " saurus^^ referring it to the order
Sauria in the class of Reptiles.

After some interesting remarks of a general character, —
Adjourned.



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23B

Monday^ February 9, 1863.

Meeting this evening, A. C. Goodell, Jr., Vice President,
in the chair.

Becords of preceding meeting read.

Letters were read Irom Maine Historical Society ; 0. M.
Tracy of Lynn ; A. Huntington ; P. W. Putnam ; H. G.
Somerby of Boston.

Donations were announced from the following sources :
To the Library — ^from W. D. Pickman ; James Upton ;

J. L. Sibley of Cambridge ; Mrs. E. A. Putnam ; A. Crosby;

S. H. Scudder ot Boston ; Mrs. B. Wheatland ; Mrs. L. P.

Johnson ; H. P. Filer, of Troy, N. Y. ; C. W. Upham ; A. B.

Yerrill of Cambridge; Chicago Historical Society; Wm.

Mack.

To the Cabinets - from Thos. R. Tannatt, U. S. Army ;
W. P. Goodhue ; William Wyman ; George P. Chever.

F. W. Putnam occupied the hour of the meeting in pre*
senting a series of interesting and instructive remarks upon
the natural history of the common cod, with some observa-
tions on the classification of Fishes. After passing a vote of
thanks to Mr. Putnam for his communication, and some
remarks from the Chair and others, the meeting adjourned.



Wednesdayj February 25, 1863.

Meeting this afternoon at 4 o'clock, adjournment from
noon ; Vice President A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair.

The chair presented the following resolutions, accompany*

ESSEX ll^ST. PROCEED. TOL. iU. 80.



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234

ing the same with appropriate remarks iii relation tu the
importance of the subject therein embraced : —

Resolved, That this Society heartily approves the recom-
mendation of His Excellency Governor Andrew, in his inaug-
ural addresses for the years 1861 and 1862, that the Legis-
lature provide for the " collection and publication, under the
patronage of the commonwealth, of the statutes enacted be-
tween the time of the union of the colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts Bay, under the charter of William and Mary,
in 1691, and that of the adoption of the Constitution in
1780 ;" and that this Society coincides with His Excellency
in the opinion that these statutes " are of inestimable value,
on account of their historical interest, their usefulness in
throwing hght upon subsequent legislation and the assistance
which they afford in the determination of many important
questions, mooted by the courts," and also in his represen-


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