Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society.

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iest and betraying the eflect of the saline air by its fleshy
leaves ; the sea-rocket, afiected in the same way and ta-
king so much salt as to taste of it ; the hemp, well known for
its fiber, and closely akin to the Cannabis Ltdica^ or intoxica-
ting Indian hemp : the field clover, familiarly called " pussy
dover** from its wooly heads : and the dodder, whose truly

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parasitic habits make it, to us very remarkable, though it is
far from useful, one species injuring the flax-fields iu

Mr. William R. Dbane, ol Brookline made some, re^
marks pertinent to the occasion, in which he praised the
custom ol ladies joining in scientific and historical excursions
like the present, and expressed delight witli this pursuit of
the knowledge of nature, where

"Some pensive creep along the shelly shore,
Unfold the silken texture of a flower :
With sharpened eyes inspect a hornet's, sting,
And all the wonder of an insect's wing.
Others trace, with curioas search, the hidden cause
Of nature's changes, and her various laws :
Untwist her beauteous web, disrobe her charms,
And hunt lier to her elemental forms"

Mr. Horatio Gates Jones, of Philadelphia, after a few
general remarks, alluded to some of the botanists of Penn-
sylvania, among whom were Dr. WiUiam Darlington of West
Chester, recently deceased, author of several works on bota-
ny,, and William Bartram, of Philadelphia, who may be con-
sidered one of the pioneers of American botany. He then
alluded to some investigations that had lately been made by
him in the early history and statistics of paper-making, al-
luding to the Rittenhouse Paper Mill in f^hiladelphia, which
is presumed to be the first of its kind established in this coun-
try. It was built in 1690. He alluded to the fact that the
fibre of the poplar, after being converted by chemical means
into a pulp, is largely used in the manufacture of paper. '

Rev. Dr. J. C. Stockbridge, of Chelsea, made some pleas-
ant remarks of a general character.

A lobster just in the process of casting off its shell was
placed upon the table, and Mr. Eben Blatchpoed of Rock -
port, made some interesting remarks descriptive of this inter-
esting feature in this class of animals.

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Owf motion of the Secretary the thanks of the Institute
were tendered to the Citizens of Rockport for their kind
attentions ; also to the Proprietors of the Dniversalist Church
for the use of their commodious builduxg to hold this
meeting. A d jou rn ed.

Thvrsday, August 20, 1863.

The Field Meeting, on Salem Neck, this day, attracted
the largest audience ever assembled on an occasion of this
kind, numbering, it is estimated, not far from two thousand
people. The forenoon was devoted by the guests from oth-
er towns to an examination of the Library and Museum of
the Institute and the Library of the Athenaeum in Plummer •
Hall ; the rare collection of the East India Marine Society,
which was kindly opened by the Association for the gratijfica-
tion of the strangers ; the Court Houses, and other objects of
curiosity. A small party, interested in antiquarian studies,
visited, under the genial guidance of Mr. Vice-President
Goodell, various placey of historical note, including the for-
mer residences of some of our ancient worthies, the remnant
of the old First Church, Gallows Hill, and other points mem-
orable for their historical associations or for the relics which
they contain.

At noon vehicles were provided for the transportation of
the company to Hospital Point, which soon presented a spec-
tacle ol extraodinary interest and picturesqueness ; at this
place the refreshments were provided in pic-nic style ; and
the meeting was-held at 2.30 P.M. in a spacious tent erected
for the occasion.

The President Asahel Huntington presided and welcomed
the company in the most cordial manner. He gave a sum-
mary of the objects of the Institute and of the Field Meetings,
and happily styled the association the Grand Inquest of the
•County — not in relation to crime and misdemeanors,but in re-

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gard to whatever is to be found Upon or beneath its surface,
or relates to its natural or local history in every department.
He invited the people of the County to co-operate in these
objects, to become members of the Society, and to contribute
to its library and cabinets whatever of interest or value tiiey
were willing to spare for the purposes contemplated.

Records of the preceding meeting were read.

Donations were received, since the last meeting, as appears
by the report of the Secretary, from the following :

To the Library — Long Island Historical Society ; Henry
R. Stiles of Brooklyn, N. Y.; J. W. Thornton of Boston;.
Massachusetts Historical Society : W. P, Upham ; Beverly
Public Library; Oliver Carlton ; Joseph A. Groldthwait ; A^
Lincoln of Boston.

' To the Cabinets— ¥. H. Lee : H. M. Biooks ; S. Q. Felt;:
B. 0. Peirce of Beverly ; Jauies H. Emerton ; J. A. Smith ;;:
Alfred S. Peabody; Capt. Robci-t Manning.

Letters were read from Trustees of New York State Librae-
17 ; Newburyport Public Library ; Henr^ R. Stiles of Brook-
lyn N. Y.; Benj. Greenleaf of Bradford: S. H. Scudder of
Boston ; W. R. Deane of Brookline ; H. G. Jones of Pliila-
delphia; Joel Munsell of Albany N.Y.; J. J. Babson of Glou-
cester ; Charles W. Felt.

As especially appropriate to the locality, the President first
called upon the Rev. Joseph B. Felt, LL. D., whose Annals
of Salem and other historical productions were complimented
for their completeness and thoroughness, for some informa-
tion concerning Salem Neck. Dr. Pelt then read a paper
containing many valuable memoranda and historical state-
ments respecting the Neck, Winter Island, and the fortificar-
tions — the p^ace being promineotly connected with the his-
tory of Salem from its earliest settlement. This paper is

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printed in the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute.
(See vol. V. page. 255.)

H. Wheatland, the Secretary, next read a list of the
minerals found on the Neck by the researches of some of
the young mineralogists of the Society. It appears that, a
few years ago, a beautiful blue mineral was discovered in a
quarry near Fort Lee, which was at first called cancrinite,
but when analyzed was found to be sodalite. It was then
thought to be exhausted, but subsequent and quite recent in-
vestigations have followed the vein in deeper and some very
good specimens have been obtained. The sodalite is found
in veins of eloeolite, which is itself rare in this country, it
being known only in Arkansas. It has been found vpih so-
dalite and cancrinite at Litchfield, Me., but is believed to be
now exhausted. Last fall a large vein, of eloeolite was dis-
covered near the other but it has not yet been found to con-
tain any sodalite. The following minerals, in small quanti-
ties, have been extracted from these veins, viz.: zircons,
white iron pyrites, black mica in crystals, hornblende crys-
tals, magnetic oxide of iron, small seams of opal, and per-
haps, fluol- spar and molybdenite.

Rev. Stillman Barden of Rockport spoke very eloquently
upon his favorite subject, and remarked upon the rarity of
some of the minerals named. He urged the importance of
having our eyes open and of learning more. of the wonders of
nature immediately about us. One .of his friends, he said,
had written a charming book of Science, entitled " A Walk
in my Garden.'' He did not need to go even so far
as his garden; on his own doorstep he found deep
themes for study and contiem^plation. He felt grateful to Grod
«very day that He has provided so many beautiful things to
look upon, investigate and enjoy. He complained that sci-
entific collections were not thrown open with suflScient lib-

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erality to the publio. For his part he was always ready to
promotp the cause of Sciende by ^ving the freest access to
his collections.

Rev; €r. W. Skinner of Gloucester exhibited a number of
beautiful crystals some of them closely resembling diamonds^
and explained the wonderful process of the formation of tho
crystals of oxide of silicon — how granite was decomposed by
great and continuous heat — and how the crystallic force in
nature was ever active. His remarks were very interesting
and attentively listened to, and the audience were thankful
with him that we could now investigate these mysteries of
nature without being denounced as heretics or hanged for

Brief remarks were made by Messrs. Wiluam B. Deanb^
of Brookline, and Wiluam B. Trask, of Dorchester, the
Ifitter a descendant of Captain William Trask, one of the ear*
ly planters of Salem.

Mr. David Pulsifeb, the distinguished antiquarian, of
Boston, formerly of Salem, made some very earnest remarks^
and referred to recent purchases of the original Solenm
League and Covenant signed by the Covenanters of Scotland
in 1638, and of some rare folio volumes of the Bible, printed
in 1469 — ^which had been secured at high prices to be pro*
served in this country. He spoke with enthusiasm of the Ift»
bors of the members of the Institute, and of the richness of
the old county of Essex in materials of historical interest
and value.

At this point the roll of thunder and indicati<ms of a
heavy shower became so threatening as to cause a speedy ad^
joumment, much to the regret of the audience, as there wero
many other speakers present who would have delighted and
instructed the listeners. In addition to members of the hh


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stUute, who are always ready in their various depart. nents,
there were present from abroad Nehemiah Cleaveland, l'!sq,,
of New York; Rev. Dr. E. L. Cleaveland of New Haven,
Conn.; Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull of Hartford, Secretary
of the State of Connecticut ; Rev. Mr. Peabody, a returned
Itissionary ; Wm. C. Binney, Esq., of Amesbury ; Hon. J. J.
Babson of Gloucester ; and manj others.

Wednesday^ Septernber 2, 1863.
Mbetino this day, at noon,' J. G. Wateb^ in the Chair.

William P. Upham stated that the U. S. Government pro-
pose to build one or more Forts in Marblehead, and sugges-
ted, it was proper that one of them should bear the name of
**Glover," a deserving tribute to the memory of Gen. John
Glover of Revolutionary fame, and, on his motion, it was

Voted That a Committee be appointed to co-operate wifli
the town authorities and citizens of Marblehead in such a
manner as may be deemed appropriate to obtain this, so de-
sirable an object.

Messrs. W. P. Upham and A. C. Goodell Jr. were ap-
pointed on said committee. Adjourned.

'Biursdayy October 22, 1864.

The last Field Meeting the present season was held at New-
bury this day, having been postponed from yesterday on ac-
count of the weather. The larger portion of the party pro-
ceeded directly to Newburyport, and, having the fortune to
be imder the guidance of a native of the place, Rev. Geoi^
D. Wildes, Rector (rf Grace Church, Salem, visited many ob-
jects of interest in this locality, so rich in historical associa-
lions ; after devoting several hours very profitably and veiy
pleasantly to this exploration, the party . proceeded to the

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283 •

vestry of the Old-Town Church in Newbury, which was built
by the Ladies Benevolent Society, where the afternoon
meeting was held.

Several alighted from the cars at the SeiT)cntine quarry,
collected specimens of minerals, also zoological from woods'
adjacent and on the road side to the place of rendezvous.
The old burial ground in the vicinity of Rev. Dr. Withing*
ton's church offered many objects of interest and presented
many quaint inscriptions ; The venerable Pastor of this par-
ish, who was settled in 1816, joined the company at the ves-
try and added interest to the meeting by his presence and re-
marks. Dr. W. in his 75th, year is still hale and vigorous.
In 1804 he was among first apprentices to the printing bus-
iness in the office of the late J. T. Buckingham. He subse-
quently entered Yale College, and his scholary, honorable,
and Useful career since is well known.

The meeting was called to order at 3 P. M., — A. C. (Jood-
ell, Jr;, one of the Vice Presidents, in the chair. Records of
preceding meeting read, &c.

Donations were announced from the foUowhig, received
since the Field Meeting, Aug. 20, 1863 :t—

To the Library — Humphrey Devereux ; Firelands Histor-
ical Society of Norwalk, Ohio ; American Academy of Arts
and Science ; Miss A. M. Ilemmenway oi Ludlow, Vt; Mon-
treal Society of Natural History ; J. Hammond Tri\mbull of
Hartford, Conn. ; Trustees ol New York State Library ; Iowa
Historical Society ; Charles T. Brooks of Newport, R. I. ;
Henry M. Brooks ; E. P. Robinson of Saugus ; N. J. Lord j
Mrs. James Chamberlain; Adams, Sampson & Co., Boston;
C. B. Richardson of New York / Editors of British Americaa
Magazine ; Oeorge R. Curwen ; Redwood Library and Athen*
«um ; Charles F. Nichols ; Henry P, Nichols ; R. S. Rantoul ;
R. Damon of Weymouth, England; Long Island Historic^

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Society; William P. Tucker of Portland, Me.; M. A. Stick-
He/ ; American Geographical and Statistical Society ; James
Chamberlain; Connecticut Historical Society; William
Stone ; Mrs. Lydia D. Parker of Boston ; Robert 0. Mills;
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science; George Per-
kins ; Lynn Free Public Library.

To the Cabinets — ^From John Robinson ; Charles F. Nich-
ols ; Henry F. King ; R. Deland ; Wm. P. Martin ; A. F.
dark ; James Kimball ; James H. Emerton ; Arthur Upton ;
Daniel L. Proctor ; Mrs. H. M. Colcord of South Danvers j^
C. F. Williams ; Stephen W. Hall ; Charles H. Higbee ; Sam-
uel Phillips, Jr., of Boston ; F. H. Lee ; Nathan Nichols ; W.
6. Welch ; J. B. Haskell ; Frapklin Grant ; Lawrence Phil-
lips ; A. S. Peabody ; Mrs. G. R. Mason of Lynn ; N. A.
Frye ; Samuel Hultman ; Mrs. M. D. Wallis of Beverly ; B»
Brown; W. B. F. Johnson ; Mrs. J. Chamberlain ; Mary E..
Williams; Samuel Shepard ; A. C. Goodell, Jr., Geo. Har*


Letters were read from Firelands Historical Society ;' Cor-
poration of Brown University ; Maryland Historical Society ;
George A. Walton of Lawrence ; Amesbury and Salisbury
Agrictdtural Association ; L. Agassiz of Cambridge ; Iowa
State Agricultural Society ; Francis H. Wade of Ipswich ;
Mrs. L. D. Parker of Boston ; »E. P. Robinson of Saugus ;
Long Island Historical Society ; J. Hammond Trumbull of
Hartford Conn.; Regents of. the University of New York;
H. A. Smith of Cleveland Ohio ; Mrs. P. A. Hanaford of
Beverly ; John Bertram ; Edward Ballard of Brunswick Me ;
Salem Temperance League ; 0. Howe of Beverly.

The Chur in opening offered some general remarks upo&
the objects of the Institute and the mode of carrying out the
various plans of its organization. He mentioned that the
committee having in chai^ the lectures and evening meet-
ings had arranged, that, on the 2d and 4th Monday evenings

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of each mouth, a meeting of the Institute will be held at
their rooms, Plummer Hall, commencing at 7 o'clock ; on
the intermediate Monday erening Mr. P. W. Putnam will
deliver a lecture, at the same time and place, on some zool-
ogical subject, illustrating the same with specimens from the
Cabinets. A course of ten Scientific Lectures will also be •
delivered at the Lyceum Hall, Salem, usually on Thursday
evenings, commencing about the middle of November.

Sev. Dr. Withington of Newbury gave a brief account of
the early history of the church of which he is the preseM
pastor and over which he has been settled about fifty years*
He alluded very happily to the conservative character of his
church during -the Whitefield excitement, a century since^
the unhappy dijSerenees arising therefrom with the sister
churches, and the peaceful settlement of all discord at the
time of his ordination. Dr. W. casually stated that his par-
ish, when he was settled, was the largest in extent in the
county, and contained 2500 people ; and as the law then
would not allow the other ministers to marry members in his
parish, he enjoyed the monopoly of the business, and joined
in marriage an average of twenty-five couples a year.

The Rev. George D. Wildes oi Salem, being called upon
by the President, occupied' nearly an hour in a very inter*
esting resume of the incidents of the morning's ramble,
interspersing the same with very graphic historical sketches
of the houses, localities and people of the olden times of
Newbury and Newburyport. Quite a large number of the
members of the Institute had been detained by engagements
at Salem, until a late hour, and the valuable remarks of
Mr. Wildes enabled them to follow the course of the Insti-
tute in the visits of the morning.

Mr. Wildes stated in substance, that no towns in our an-
cient, and truly old English County, were more fruitful in

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interestiug historic association, than Ncwburj and Ncwbary-
port, from the earliest to the h\test dates in their history.
Many of the inhabitants ol these towns, or tlieir descend-
ants, had held very prominent positions among the literary,
the conmiercial, and most distingnished men of the country
in all departments of active life. Taking up the several
localities visited in order, Mr. W. resumed the remarks
which he had made at the various points of interest visited
in the morning. Prominent among these were the " Dexter
Museum'" now occupied by Dr. E. G. Kelly, and illustrating
in its restoration, and in the beautiful gardens about it the
well known taste of its hospitable proprietor : The " Mall"
once the Oamj) ground of a portion of Arnold's Expedition
to Canada ; the house of the Misses Tracy wliei*e are depos-
ited the beautiful paintings by Copley, of Cot and Mrs. Lee
of Marblehead. Cojjley is said to have remarked of these,when
in later life asked which were his best paintings, that those
at Newburyj)ort were regarded by him as foremost among
his w^orks. Mr. AV. tlien spoke of the ''Wolfe Farm" now the
Merrimack House ; the Tracy Mansion, where Washington,
Lafayette, Talleyrand, Louis Phillipe, Chateaubriand and
others were at various times guests ; '-St. Pauls Church"
with its old altar piece, and the exquisite memorial Chapel
erected by Rev. Dr. Horton ; the tomb of Bishop Ban, the
first Bishop of Massachusetts ; the Ferry Way ; the residence
and work sliop of Jacob Perkins, the famous Inventor and
Engraver ; the law office of Chiet Justice Parsons, where J.
Q. Adams, Bufus King and Robert Treat Paine and other
eminent men studied ; the "Old South Church" with the
monument and tomb of Wliitfield ; the ancient Colonial Jail;
tlie ^'Old-Town Meeting House" ; the Green where another
portion of the Canada Expedition encamped ; the ancient
Grave Yard of Newbury, where the party found many
unique epitaphs ; several old houses of historical interest ;
among others, the Garrison house now the Pettingell Farm

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^87 ' _ ^

and many other objects of groat interest among the antiqui-
ties of the County. Our limits forbid a fuller account of
the remarks of Mr. Wildes, which were listened to with
marked interest and awakened much zeal in the historical
reminiscences of the ancient towns of Newbury and New-

Mr. P. W. Pd'tnam mentioned that in company with sev-
eral members he had visited the serpentine quarry and
found some interesting specimens of serpentine, asbestos, &c.
During his rambles in the woods adjacent and the road to
this place he had collected several specimens of Insects and
MoUusca. Instead of alluding to these at this time he would
confine his remarks to the habits of the humble bee, which
he had observed during his residence, the past summer, on
the banks of Lake Champlain ; he spoke of the formation
and growth of the colony, comparing the same with those of
the common honey bee. He also alluded to the habits of
the leaf-cutting bees and the manner of constructing their
cells from circular pieces cut from the leaves of the common
rose bushes. A general resume was then made of the sev-
eral species of Reptiles and Fishes found in this county, with
some remarks upon their habits.

Rev. 0. C. Beaman of Salem spoke of the old burial place
near by, called up some old associations respecting several
worthies of the olden time whose remains lie buried there,
— ^and read some of the epitaphs which were inscribed upon
the tablets^ erected to their memories. He concluded by of-
fering the following votes of thanks, which were unanimous^
ly adopted.

Resolved, That the thanks of the Institute be presented]
to Dr. E. G. Kelly, William Ashby, Esq., the Misses Tracy,
and Mrs. J. C. Fletcher, friends in Newburyport, for their-
very polite attentions in aflfording facilities for satisfying the

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<2ur]08itj for things rai-e and of historical and antiquarian val-
ue ; also, to Mr. Ashby, for his generous hospitality. ,

Resolved^ That we tender our thanks to the Ladies' Be-
nevolent Society of Newbury, for the generous loan of their
hall, and to Dr. Withington and Mr. Edmund Smith, for
their polite attentions during the day.

The meeting then adjourned and the company made a
pleasant call upon the venerable Joshua Coffin, Esq., to pay
their respects to the historian of "Ould Newberry." Mr.
Coffin's health has been quite feeble and would not permit
liim to attend the meeting, but it is now improving and all
wei*e glad to take him by tlie hand before proceeding to the
^cars for home, which was reached safely after a day of unin>
corrupted interest and enjoyment.

Monday, October 26, 1868.

Meeting this evening, at 7 1-2 P.M. A. C. Goodell Jr.
Vice President hi the Chair.

Records of preceding meeting read.

Donations were announced from the following:
To tlw Library — ^Prom C. B.- Richardson of New York ;
€. F. Baglcy of Amesbury ; Francis H. Wade of Igswich.

To the Cabinets — ^From James H. Emerton ; George Har-
rington ; John Robinson ; James M. Caller ; H. P. Nichols.

Letters were read from Trustees of Newburyport Public
Library ; Depaitment of the Interior ; Benjamin Peirce of

Mr. F. W. Putnam read the following communication from
Mr. James G. Shute of Woourn on the manner of birth in
the Opossum, observed by him while in Beaufort N. C.

The date of the birth was March 16th, 1863. During the

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delivery of the young the parent lay on the right side, witli
the body curved in such a manner as to bring the sexual or-
ifice opposite that of the pouch, the mouth of the pouch was
open or drawn down by contraction of the muscles so as to
receive the young when delivered. The young were seven
in numbei\ Tlie time occupied in delivery was about four
hours. The parent remained in the same position about
thirty-six hours and refused all sustenance.

Immediately after the transfer of the young to the pouch
I removed one, by detaching it from the teat, in order to as-
•certain if tlie movement of the fcetus was instinctive. I found
that it was at least partly voluntary, as it made an effort to
regain its place in the pouch, and the same movement was
made by the parent, as at first, to receive it. I did not no-
tice any use of the limbs or lips of the parent during tlie
transfer of tke young.

Mr. F. W. Putnam stated the results of his investigations
on the growth of fishes noticed during his residence on the
borders of Lake Champlain during the ''past season. Adj.

Monday^ November 9, 1863.

Meeting this evening, Yicc President Goodell in the Chair.

Records of preceding meeting read.

Donations wex*e announced from the following :

To the Library — From Department of the Interior ; Hen-
ry Wheatland ; Jonatlutn Perley Jr. ; Editors of British
American Magazine ; John B. Alley, M.C.; Zoologische Ges-
^llchaft, Frankfort a. M.; John L. Sibley of Cambridge ;
John H. Silsbee ; George Blake.

To the Cabinets — From H. F. King ; Charles F. Nichols ;
0; H. Higbce ; Henry Wheatland ; Frank P. Watson.

lielters were read from the Trustees of Boston Public Li*
binary; Smithsonian Institution; George Perkins; Arthur
J. Upton ; F. W. Putnam ; C. T. Jackson of Boston ; J. W.
Proctor of South Danvers.


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Henry Wheatland presented in behalf of Cliaides Davis of
Beverly two Record Books of the Essex County Health In-

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