Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society.

Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and ..., Volume 7, Issues 3-4 online

. (page 23 of 23)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

surance Company, established in Beverly in 1847. In con-
nection with this he exhibited several policies of Insurance
issued about a century since and gave a brief sketch of the
various modes of Insurance practised in this vicinity from
that time to the present.

Charles Davis of Beverly being called upon gave a very
interesting account of the operations of this Society during
• the two years of its existence.

This subject was further commented upon by Messrs C*
C. Beaman, James Kimball and the Chair.

F. W. Putnam made some remarks on the Iron Mines at
Port Henry suggested by specimens presented by Samuel
Gray of Portsmouth, N.H. .

William P. Upham read a letter from J. W. Thornton of
Boston relative to the naming of the new fort at Gloucester
"Port Conant," referred to the committee appointed in Sep-
tember last on naming of the Port at Marblehead.

Remarks were offered by several members suggested hy
the donations presented this evening. Adjourned.

Monday^ November 23, 1863.

Meeting this evening Vice President Goodell in the Chair^

Records of preceding meeting read.

^ Donations were announced from the following :

To the Library — From Iowa State Historical Society ;
American Geographical and Statistical Society; R. A. Guild
Librarian of Brown University ; J. D. Hedge Librarian of
Providence Atheneeum ; Estate of John Russell ; D. H. John*
son, Jr.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



291

To the Cabinets — Prom James Chamberlain; H. S.
Wheeler of Newbin7i)ort ; Miss E. K. Roberts ; Mrs. T.
Hiiiit ; 0. H. Saunders; John Robinson.

Letters wei^e read from Massachusetts Historical Society ;
Iowa State Historical Society ; Robert H. Ives of Providence ;
H. S. Wheeler of Newburyport.

Tlie Chair introduced Henry L. Ordway of Ipswich who
exhibited and explained an invention for preserving trees
from the ravages of the Canker Worm. —

Mr. Ordway spoke as follows: —

Very little has been said and written concerning the hab-
its of the Canker Worm until quite recently, that is of much
benefit to the owners of fruit trees.

Professor Peck's Natural History of the Canker Worm
and Dr. Harris' book on Insects have been so universally cir-
culated; that a general description of the insect will not be
necessary.

The female, or grub,* commences to ascend the trunks of
trees -early in autumn, but not before the ground has been
'slightly frozen. Some seasons I have seen them appear up-
on the trees as early as the first week in October ; while
this last autumn they did not appear until the second
week in November. Thus it would seem the action of the
frost has something to do with the time of their appearance.
It has often been remarked that the eggs which are deposi-
ted in autumn do not come to maturity, inasmuch as they
are destroyed by the severe cold of winter, and that it is
needless to prevent the grubs from laying their eggs upon
the trees. This is doubtless a mistake, and is one reason
why the numerous expedients that have been adopted, to
check the ravages of the worm have not proved more suc-
cessful. For several years past a large majority of the
grubs have deposited their eggs in the fall. They have
changed their habits in this respect as formerly the grubs
were seen in larger numbers in the spring than in autumn.
If then a majority of the eggs are deposited in autumn it is

* The term grub is here used to designate tlie adult female and not the larra.



Digitized by LjOOQIC



292

reasonable to pi^esume tbat the insect may at no •distant day
exterminate itself, provided wo admit the trath of tlie above^
statement. I can think of only one reason wliy the eggs de-
posited in autumn are not as liable to batch as those depos-
ited in spring, viz : The males, or millers, are seldom seen in
autumn,while in spring the male^are more abundant than th&
females. Hence it is a reasonable conclusion that the eggs de-
posited in autumn are not all impregnated. The grubs are
Tery tenacious of life. No amount of cold or wet seems ta
affect them in the least degree. Subiect them to the coldest
weather ; freeze them solid as ice and it will not prevent
thdm from laying their eggs, alter placing them in a warm
room.

A gi-eat many people believe that the Canker Worm will
descend from the trees on the 17th of June, this idea is not
correct, the time of their leaving the trees is governed by
the time oi their hatching iVom the eggs. If the season is
backward, and the trees do not put forth their foliage, as a
matter of course the young worms will not make their ap-
pearance, , The same degree of heat that causes the buds ta
expand will cause the eggs to hatch. After which it will re-
quire a certain number of days for them to arrive at matu-
rity. Tliey will then leave the trees and not before unless,
obliged to do so for want of food. In the summer of 1861
I commenced to catch the larva) for experimental purposes oa
the 17th of June and found them quite numerous until
the 26th, some of these worms were placed in a glass tube filled
with earth and others in a barrel in which sods were placed.
In both instances the experiments were conducted in the*
open air, and were quite successful. The worms in the-
tube burrowed in the earth to a depth of about four inches^
while those in the barrel formed their chrysalides among the-
roots of the sods not going quite so deep as those in the tube^.
The worms in the tube did not immediately change into the
chrysalis state but remained in the larva state at least six
days. On the fourth day after the worms had disappeared
from the sides of the tube I opened some of the chrysalides
and found the larva snugly packed away without change, exr-
cept that it was reduced in length about one half, and on be-
ing disturbed it commenced spanning off in the usual style*.

The question is sometimes asked how do the Canker
Worms move from one place to another ? How is it that



Digitized by VjOOQIC



298

some orchards are eaten so badly year after year aiid olTiers
not &r distant are not eaten at all ? These questions can not
be answered satisfactorily perhaps, but it would not be amiss
to conjecture or guess now they travel, or by what means
the change is broirght al)out. Tlie grub governed by her in-
stincts ascends the first upright object that comes in her' way
and deposits her eggs indiscriminately, going no farther than
is necessary to eflfect her purpose. Clusters of eggs are fre-
quently seen upon fences, posts, houses, &c. Tlie young
insects generally are supposed to die when hatched in places
where they caimotfind food, but this summer I put some eggs
into a small bottle, wlierc they hatclied and were allowed to
remain four or five days without food. On letting them out
of the bottle they were as lively and vigorous as wlieu
hatched upon a tree. I believe the young worms hatdiedl
upon the trunk of a tree are able to sustain themselves un-
til they reach the foliage, even if they arc obliged to travel to
the extreme top of the tree. The worm, I think, is to a certain
extent migratory hi its habits, not that they travel in swarms
as some species of caterpillars do, but that they are sometimes
forced to leave the trees u^n which they were hatched for
want of subsistence and go toothers not eaten, where after re-
maining a sh6rt time, they mature, spin down a second time,
and go into the ground, where they remain until autumn^
when the grubs ascend the trees upon which the worms were
matured. Hence it is plain that the worm causes the
change in locality and not the grub as many suppose. The
worms are often times blown by high winds considerable
distances toward other orchards, when they travel the re-
mainder of the rout thus making a change in that way.

One other means by which this insect is sometimes chan-
ged from one place to another is by transplanting fruit trees
from nurseries that are infected by these pests. Valuable or-
chards have been almost destroyed in this manner.

As the female insect is so very prolific all means should
be employed for their extermination. Plough the orchard
soon after the larvae form their chrysalides, and allow the
swine and poultry to run at large among fruit trees.

We have another exterminator in the common garden
toad. It is surprizing to see what quantities of worms they
will despatch at a single meal.

There is one other subject to which I wish to call your at-



Digitized by VjOOQIC



294

tentiou before closing these i*eniarks, and that is in relation
to the male insect. As it is of no consequence about
keeping the male from ascending the trees ; those who
have written upon the habits of the Canker Worm have
neglected to say anything regarding him. I should like
to have some one who understands this matter explain the
manner in which they get out of the ground, and how they
appear when first seen.

P. W. Putnam said that there were at least three species
of insects known as Canker Worms. Two of these belong
to the genus of the true Canker Worm Anisopterix and are
very much alike in habits and in their general appearance.
The third species is larger and the larva is of a yellow color.
There are several enemies to these pests ; of these the large
handsome ground beetle, the mason wasp and the -ichneu-
mon fly called Platt/gaster^ which lays its eggs in those of
the Canker Worm, and as the young Platygaster feeds upon
the Canker Worm's eggs their developemeiit is secured at
tlie expense of tlie latter.

Remarks were then made by Messi*s. C. C. Beaman, Ord-
way, J. M. Ives, and Putnam on the geographical distribu-
tion, of the Canker Worm and its disappearance in certain
seasons, &c. The opinion prevailed that tliis Stale is nearly
its northern limit.

On motion of Mr. Beaman,

Voted That the thanks of the Institute be given to Mr. Ord-
way for his useful, and instructive remarks on the subject of
•Canker Worms.

On motion of Mr. James Kimball,

Voted, That the officers of the Army and Navy»stationed
in this city and vicinity, or at home on furlough, be invi-
ted to visit the Institute at such times as may be convenient.

Adjourned.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



295

Monday^ December 14, 1863.

Meeting this evening, the President in the chair.

Records of preceding meeting read ; and donations were
announced from the following :

To the Uhrary — from Jonathan Tucker ; Miss E. S.
Uotchkiss of New Haven, Conn.; N. J. Lord ; Society of
Arts, Manufactures &c., London ; John B. iUley M.C.; Red-
wood Library and Athenseum ; J. L. Jenkins.

To the Cabinets— bom C. P. Nichols ; D. M. Balch ; Ed-
wardH. Knight ; James H. Emerton ; Charles H. Higbee ;
H. P. Nichols ; J. C. Stimpson ; Miss Quiner of Beverly ;
Theodore P. Brown ; Prank P. Watson ; Daniel P. Fitz ;
A. R. Russell ; John M. Ives ; George Abbot.

A letter was read from Joseph A. Torrby of Providence^
in i*elation to printing. In this connection Mr. Goodell pre-
sented some remarks upon the combination lypes and other
improvements in type-setting as suggested by C. W. Pelt of
Salem, with some allusion to Mr. P.'s type-setting and justi-
fying machine, now nearly finished, and in a condition to
test the merits of the invention, to a great extent.

A letter was read from John A. Mc'Allisteb of Philadelphia,
accompanying an impression from an old plate in his posses-
sion, " a Caricature of the Congressional Pugilists in 1798."
A brief account of the scene to which this referred was
read from the Congressional Journal of that date, and a
brief sketch of Roger Griswold M.C. from Connecticut, and
Matthew Lyon M.C from Vermont, the pei'sons represented
therein, was given* by the Secretary.

Letters were also read from Chicago Historical Society ;
Directors of Providence Athenasum ; Peimsylvania Histori*
cal Society ; Trustees of New York State Library ; R, S.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



296

Raiitoul ; Chas.. W. Tuttle of Boston ; N. B. Atw.K)d of
Proviiieetown ; Daniel H. Johnson, Jr.; Iowa Historical So
ciety ; Jacob Batclielder of Lynn ; Editors of the Round
fTable.

W. P. Upham from a Committee appointed at a previous
meeting, submitted tlie following statcmmit : —

In making the recent alterations at Fort Pickering, about
half of a dozen twelve pound shot were taken -from the
north- east and south-west corners of the old parapet facing
die harbor. They were found buried about three feet be -
lieath the turf half way from the top of the parapet. There
is good reason to Ijelieve that these balls were thrown there
by the British Man of War Nautilus, when she chased the
Privateer Rattlesnake into Beverly liarbor, Oct. 10, 1775.
▲n account of tliis affair is given in an old newspaper, the
f * New England Glironicle or Essex Gazette," ol Oct. 12,
1775, also in Stone's History of Beverly, page 04.

Tlje Privateer was chased in fix)m the IJay and ran ashore
in Mackei-el Cove near Beverly. The Mjui of War got
aground on Nathaniel's Ledge, south-east of Woodbury's
point and in this position bombarded the town of Beverly
till tlM3 tide leaving her, she careened so that slie was
unable to bring a single gun to bear. Tlius she i*emained
tinder constant fire from the Salem people on Hospital point
and from Sharpshooter on the Beverly shore till dark, when
she cut her cable and got off, having been considerably dam-
aged. It is probai)le that as the Nautilus entered the har-
Ijot, she passed not far from Fort Pickering and fired a
broadside at it,

The Port has been repaired twice since then, oiice in 1798
and again in 1801). — but from the accounts lately given of
these repairs and from the appearance of the place previous
to the present alterations, it is inferred that a part of the
old parapet where these balls were found' has not been ma-
terially altered since the Revolution.

Oeorgk I). Wildes followed witfi some remarks rel|Ajtiug
to the Forts and to the sailors and soldiers of the Revolution
and of the War of 1812 furnished by Salem, Newburyport
and other towns of the County. He made particular mon*



Digitized by VjOOQIC



297

tiou of Capt. William Nichols of Newburyport, a noted pri-
yateersman in the war of 1812, and related some of his
feats of bravery and skill, of his being a prisoner, his escape
and his recapture. He then alluded to the Collins House
in Danvers, (now the residence of P. Peabody, Jr. Esq.) as
a place of historic interest, being the head-quarters of Gov.
Gage, and also the encampment near by of a regiment of
British troops, on the eve of the outbreak of the Revolution.

A. 0. GooDELL in reply to some questions, spoke of the
Forts in Salem and vicinity, the old Town House and oth-
er incidents of the period immediately preceding the revolu-
tion. He then offered the following resolution in behalf of
a committee appointed at a previous meeting which was
unanimously adopted.

Resolved, That the Essex Institute earnestly unites in
the petition of any persons or corporation to the Secretary
of War to give to the fortifications erecting or to be erected
in Marblehead in this county, the name of Fort Glover, in
memory of Gen. John Glover and to the works designed for
the "Stage" in Gloucester in this county, the name of Port
Oonant, in honor of Roger Conant the founder of the fij^
plantation in Massachusetts Bay.

On motion of James Kimball,

Voted jThdit the Rev. G. D. Wildes be requested to prepare
a memorial of Capt. Wm. Nichols of Newburyport to be
read at a meeting of the Institute and for publication in the
Historical Collections. Adjourned.

Monday, December 28, 1863.

Meeting this evening. A, C. Goodell Jr., in the chair.

Records of preceding meeting read, and Donations were
announced from the following :

To the Library — from George R. Curwen ; J. H. Hick-
cox of Albany N.Y.; C. B. Richardson of New York ; Ca-

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 38.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



298

nadiaii Institute ; Montreal Society of Natural Histoi v ;
Editors of Round Table, New York ; S. H. Scudder of P>ok-
ton ; R. H. Wheatland.

To the Cabinets — from Joseph A. Goldthwaite ; C. H.
Higbee ; E. Q. Pulnam.

Letters were read from Pennsylvania Historical Society ;
Long Island Historical Society ; J. A. Goldthwaite ; N. E.
Atwood of Province town ; W. B. Rogers of Boston.

P. W. Putnam announced the decease of 'the Cabine,t
Keeper, R. H. Wheatlaifd, with appropriate remarks.
Messrs. J. A. Gillis and F. W. Putnam were requested to
prepare a biographical notice to be presented at the an-
nual meeting.

W. P. Upham announced the decease of the following
members of recent occurrence — Charles M. Endicott, Gil-
bert G. Newhall, Thomas Trask, John B. Peabody. Messrs.
G. D. Phippen and the Secretary were requested to prepare
obituary notices for the annual meeting.

Rev. George D. Wildes read a letter from B. Hale of
Newburyport, respecting the materials for a memoir of Capt.
William Nichols of Newburyport, recently deceased.

F. W. Putnam oflFered some remarks upon the habits of
the Grisly Bear — suggested by a skull, a recent contribution
to the Cabinets from the late Capt. Wm. 0. Potter.

George A. Ward stated that measures were in progress
to obtain possession of the frame of the old building on the
land of David Nichols in the rear of Boston Street, and to
place the same in rear of Plummer Hall.

George A. Ward was placed on the Committee of enquiry
as to the authenticity of the tradition that the frame of the
above mentioned building is that of the first meeting-house
in Salem, in place of Charles M. Endicott, ^deceased. Adj.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



INDEX TO YOLUME THREE.



CoMUNiCATiONS, — Verbal,

Agassiz, L. - -on the growth of the
Natica heros .... 252

Barden, S. — on the minerals of
Rockport, 205

Batchelder, Jacob, — on the deci-
mal system in weights and meas-
ures 56

On the Saccharine qualities of
the Beet Root, . . . . 58

Dodge, A. W. — Historical notice
of Hamilton, .... 29

Gregory, J. J. H. — on the geology

of Lynn, 101

On the geology of Cape Ann,205

Jackson, 0. T. — on the geology of
Rockport, 274

Nichols, David — on Photographs of
Washington, .... 229

Oliver, H. K. — on the habits of
the Honey Bee, ... 256

Osgood, George, — on Notice of
Rev. Dr. Cutler and the plants
of Hamilton, 31

Phippen, George, D. — on Fibrilia
or Flax Cotton, ... 61
Historical Notice of Cape Ann, 97

Reed, J. W. — on the Topographi-
cal history of the Merrimac
River, ...... 19

Russell J. L.-— on plants at Grove-
land, 18



Roberts, David, — on the character
of D. A. White, ... 68

Tracy, C. M.— on plants at Tops-
field, 15

On plants at Gloucester, . 99
On Woodwaxen, . . . 201
On plants at Rockport, . 276

Wheatland, H.— on Minerals on
Salem Neck, . ; . . 280

Wheatland, R. H.— on the devel-
opment of the Common Toad, 36

Wildes, G. D.r-Historical Notice
of Newburyport, . . 285



Communications, — Written,

Barden, Stillman, — on the Geolo-
gy of Rockport, . . . 231

Beaman, C. C. — ^Historical Sketch
of the Howard Street Church,

Salem 126

on the Geographical outline of
Cape Cod, its discovery, 130

Felt, Joseph B. — ^Historical Notice
of Hamilton, .... 214
On John Endicott, the First Gov-
ernor, 239

Historical Sketch of the Forts, on
Salem Neck, . . . 279

Fowler, S. P. — on changes pro-
duced by civilization in the hab-
its of our common birds, . 81
On Cotton Mather, . • 119



Digitized by VjOOQIC



800



Goodell Jr., Abner C. — on the
History of the Puritans, . 182
On ** New^ England's Herald-
ry/' 225

Historical Notice of Salisbury
and Amesbury, . . . 261

Gregory, J. J. H. — on the Topog-
raphy of Powow Hill, . 269

King, Henry F.— -on the " Not-
tingham Earth," (infusorial) 39

Mackenzie, S. S. — on the Geolo-
gy of Topsfield, ... 77

Markoe, G. F.. H.— Catalogue of
Plants observed in Fruit and
Flower at West Gloucester, Ju-
ly 6, 1860, ... .24
Plants collected at Amesbury
and Salisbury, . . . 272

Ordway, Henry L.— -on the Cank-
er Worm 291

Phippen, George D. — on the In-
stinct of Plants, ... 41
On the fibrile texture of the Milk-
weed, 215

Qumcy, Josiah — ^Letter on the cor-
rectness of the likeness of Wash-
ington, in possession of David
Nichols, ..... 230

Russell, J. L. — ^Report on the Her-
barium, 77

Scudder, S. H.— A list of the But-
terflies ol New England, 161

Shurtleff, C. A.— -Report on the
Army Worm, .... 193

Shute,J.G.— -on the Opossum, 288

Upham, W. P.— On the Orderly
Books of Gen. John Glover, 235
On Relics found at Fort Picker-
ing,- 296

Verrill, A. E — Notice of a Prim
noa from St. George's Bank, 127
on the structure of Corals and
the Polyps producing them, 132
Catalogue of Birds found at
Norway, Me., .... 136
Birds found m Maine and not
# observed in Norway, Me. , 156



Potter, William Oliver,
On the Classification ofBirds, 208 Putnam, Charles Fiske,



Whittier, John G. — Flowers, and
Flowering Shrubs and Vines at
Amesbury and Salisbury, 271

Donations.
To the Ubrary—l, 6, 12. 17,

28, 29, 46, 48, 56, 58, 59, 60,
75, 82, 88, 95, 100, 108, 113,
117, 124, 125, 126, 130, 179,
180, 183, 184, 186, 191, 204,
218, 221, 224, 228, 231, 233,
235, 239, 240, 247, 252, 259,
273, 279, 283, 268, 289, 290,
295.

7b the Cabinets— 1, 6, 13, 17, 23,

29, 46, 49, 56, 58, 58, 60, 75,
88, 88, 95, 101, 108, 113, 117,
124, 125, 126, 130, 180, 183,
184, 187, 192, 203, 218, 222,
224, 228, 231, 233, 235, 239,
240, 245, 252, 259, 273, 279,
284, 285, 289, 291, 295.

Horticulture,

Reports on . . . . 8, 247

Lectures— Notice of 244, 284

MassachusettsProvincial Statutes —

Resolutions for the reprinting of

the same by the State . 234

Obituary Notices of

Araory, Elizabeth 4

Andrews, George, . . . 241
Bowditch, N. I, .... 74
Brown, William, .... 243
Chandler, Samuel, ... 229
Dodge, Georee F , . . . . 5
Fettyplace, Henry King, . 185
Gardner, Barnard West, . . 72
Gibbs, Josiah Willard, . . 73
Kimball, David Tenny, . . 3
Kimball, Nathaniel Augustus 242
- 78

185
72
2
. 6
186
248



Lewis, Alonzo,
Macmullen, William,
Odell, Thomas F., .
Perry, Gardner Braman,
Potter, Joseph A.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



301



Bider, George Washington, . 5

Sibley, John S 73

Stoue, John Hubbard, . . 242
Upham Jr., Charles Wentworth, 4
Walker, Samuel, .... 74
Waters, John GiUison, . . 3
Webb, John Felt, ... 185
Whipple, Charles J.. . . . 72
Whipple, Jonathan Lovett, 4
White, Daniel Appleton, . . 73



Williams Jr., Charles F. . 242
Williams, John B- ... 74
Wflliams, William, ... 71
Woodberry, Larkin, ... 72

Opficbbs chosen, 9, 79, 189, 250

Treasurer's Reports, 77, 188,248

White, D. A. — ^Notice of his death,

resolutions, &c. . . 63, 65



Digitized by VjOOQIC



IKRATA



Page — Gth line from bottom, for '* piles " read



8—8th
20— 9th *'
35— 4th "
74— 2d "
87— 5th *'
99— 12th "
159— 2d "
169— 1st "
173— 34th



1849
top, ** 1862

'' Chinneys, "

bottom, *' 11, •'

top, " 1848



bottom, '^ Chrocecocephaim

top, *' irUerragatianiSy

** " incerta **



** files."
1859.
1860.
Chimneys.

1858.
Hydra.

ChrcBcocephalus.
inierrogatiants.
Myttic,



Digitized by VjOOQIC



Digitized by VjOOQIC



Digitized by VjOOQIC



Digitized by VjOOQIC



14 DAY USE

RBTURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BOBROWED

LOAN DEPT.

This book is due oo the last date stamped below, or

on the date to which renewed.

Renewed boQlk^fire subject to immediate recalL












» . • > .' L



2 :^ mU



•D TO ART-



-A«



muw^



zfj



""^vmf



mjm^



f^PHa'?'7Q - a



m.



^^^^ nri.'l



BEC niB.



pen- n»L JUN 2 L 75



rf. . !V



J11M2



f



LrD 21A-50m-4,'60
(.A9562sl0)476B



General Library

UniTersity of Caliiotnir

Berkeley



Digitized by Vj


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23