Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society.

Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and ..., Volume 7, Issues 3-4 online

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Institute, in Plummer Hall, made a statement ol their do?
ings, containing an accurate account of the receipts and
expenditures for this purpose, — ^the same having been done
without recourse to the ordinary income of the Society : —

Credits^

m

By Subscription in 1857, from 74 indi-
viduals, 12,587.50

Net proceeds from Ladies* Fair, Sep-
tember. 1860, 2,043.62
Sundries, 12.00



-$4,643.12



Debits.

Cabinets, Removal, Ac, 83,632.12

Interest on Loans, 77.25

To the Publication account, 303.75

Deposit in Salem Savings Bank, 630.00



-$4,648.12



The sincere thanks of the Listitute are due to those gen-
erous individuals who contributed the first named sum, and
also to the Ladies by whose untiring exertions, the second
amount has been placed at its disposal. The Hon. B. S.
Rogers, the Chairman of the committee, is entitled to our
gratitude for his assiduity and zeal in aid of this object.

The following Officers were elected for the year ensuing :— -

President — ^Asahel Huntington.

Vice Ihresidents — Of Natural History, Samuel P. Fowler
ci Danvers ; of Horticulture^'^ James Upton ; of History,
Henry M. Brooks.

Secretary and Treaswrer — Henry Wheatland.

Ubraniod^ — John H. Stone.

Cabinet JTiseper— -Biohard H. Wheatland.



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Finance Committee — John C. Lee, Richard S. Rogers^
Henry M. Brooks, George D. Phippen, James Chamberlain.

Library Committee — Joseph G. Waters, Alpheus Crosby,
David Roberts.

Publication Committee — A. C. Goodell, jr., Henry Wheat-
land, George D. Phippen, Ira J. Patch, John H. Stone,
George M. Whipple.

Curators of Natural History — Botany — C. M. Tracy of
Lynn ; Comparative Anatomy, Henry Wheatland ; Mammal'
ogy, P. Winsor ; Ornithology , P. W. Putnam ; HerpetoU^y
and Ichthyology, Richard H. Wheatland ; Articulata and
Radiataj Caleb Cooke ; Molhisca and Paleontology, Henry
P. King ; Mineralogy, David M. Balch ; Geology, Heury
p. Shepard.

Curators of History — Ethnology — W. S. Messervy, M. A.
Stickney, Prancis H. Lee. Manuscripts — Henry M. Brooks,
Ira J. Patch, Lincoln R. Stone, G. L. Streeter, S. B. Bulr
trick. Fine Arts — Prancis Peabody, J. G. Waters.

Curators of Horticulture, Fruits and Vegetables — James
Upton, J. M. Ives, J. Fiske Allen, J. S. Cabot, John Bertram,
George B. Loring, Richard S. Rogers, Charles P. Putnam.
Flowers — Prancis Putnan, William Mack, Bcnj. A. West,
Charles H. Norris, George 0. Glover.

Voted — That a committee be appointed to consider the
expediency of holding field meetings the ensuing summer,
and if concluding in the affirmative, to make all necessary
arrangements for the same. Messrs. Alien W. Dodge
of Hamilton, C. M. Tracy of Lynn, B. C. Putnam of Wen-
ham, S. P. Powler of Danvers, John M. Ives, Charles H.
Norris and R. H. Wiieatland of Salem, were appointed on
said Committee.

Voted, — That a Committee be appointed to arrange for
the evening meetings during the ensuing winter, and also



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to consider the propriety of having a course of lectures on
subjects appertaining to the objects of the Institute, and if
concluding in the affirmative, to make all needful arrange-
ments for the same. Messrs* A. 0. Goodell, Jr., C. C. Bea-
man, Jacob Batchelder, G. D. Phippen, 0. H. Norris, James
Kimball, F, W. Putnam were appointed on this committee.

Adjourned.

Thursday, June 18, 1861.

Field Meeting at East Boxpord. — ^This was the first of
these gatherings for the present season, and was attended
by a company whose numbers and apparent interest gave
ground of encouragement as to the future efforts to be
made in continuing these meetings. The principal party,
from the seaboard towns, obtained passage by an extra train
over the Essex Railroad as far as Danvers, when the George-
town road was resorted to instead, and another short trip
ended at the old and truly rural village of East Boxford.
On halting at the station, rather more than a mile from the
church, a goodly number of the hospitable farmers, with
characteristic spirit, were present with teams to convey the
party to the rendezvous, a service speedily and pleasantly
performed. Near this station is the residence of the late
Gen. Lowe, who was lately buried at this place with military
iionors.

Up to the year 1685, it appears that Boxford was a suburb
of Rowley and only known as Rowley Village. In that
year, however, it acquired a name and identity of its own,
which it has since preserved. There is much here to enter-
i;ain and instruct the rambler, more than would at first
appear. The honest and thrifty people keep in activity most
of the time, several saw-mills, a box and peg factory, and
other manufacturing establishments ; and, we are glad to

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iU. 11.



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observe, pay a commendable care to the good condition of the
cemeteries of the town. In these some of the antiquaries of
the company spent a share of time with much satisfaction.
Among the antiquities of this village, was noticed the old
parsonage. This was the residence of Rev. Elizur Holyoke,
third minister in this place. This gentleman was a relative
of the venerable Dr. Holyoke of Salem, was born in Boston,
May 11, 1731, and graduated at Harvard in 1760. In 1759
he became pastor of the church at East Boxford and so con-
tinued till 1806, when he died. His daughter, now 87 years
of age, still lives on the old homestead.

The company dividing, as usual, a party went to " Crook-
ed Pond ; " others to the woods ; some to '* Bald Hill ; "
another portion to a sunken meadow near the house of B.
S. Barnes ; and yet another to the old quarry. Some, in
wagons ventured even further, and sought out " Carey's
Eidge," finding along the rustic ways, enough of novelty
and interest to compensate amply any trouble arising on
account of distance.

Not long after noon, the whole company having re-as-
sembled in the vestry of the Congregational Church, the af-
ternoon meeting came to order at the call of Hon. Alle&
W. Dodge of Hamilton. After the reading of the Records by
the Secretary, the following letters and donations were an-
nounced : —

Donations since the annual meeting : —

To the Library — ^from Connecticut Historical Society;
New Jersey Historical Society ; Samuel H. Congar of New-
ark, N. J. ; American Antiquarian Society ; Samuel Emery ;
William Mack ; J. L. Sibley of Cambridge ; Chas. P. Bar-
nard of Boston ; Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science ;
Canadian Institute at Toronto ; Jonathan Perley, Jr. ; Jer-
emiah Colburn of Boston ; C. B. Kichardson of New York ;



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Boston Society of Natural History ; Smithoman Institutioa ;
L. R. Stone ; C. W. Swasey,

To the Cabinets — from Natlianiel IngersoU ; James Bart-
iett of Wenham ; H. B. Story ; Mrs. H. M. Colcord of South
Banvers ; James B. Phelps ; S. S. Mackenzie of Topsfield.

Letters were read from the Trustees of Boston Public
Library; George R. Noyes; Robert C. Winthrop of Bos-
ton ; Corporation of Harvard College ; G. A. Ward of New
York ; Tennessee State Library ; Andover Theological Sem-
inary ; Josiah Quincy of Boston ; Rhode Island Historical
Society ; American Antiquarian Society ; Massachusetts
Historical Society ; J. Coburn of Boston ; Chas. Hutchins
of Boston ; P. Bacheller of Lynn ; J. H. Hickcox of Albany ;
W. O. White of Keene, N. H. ; Smithonian Institution ;
P. Winsor ; S. S. Mackenzie of Topsfield ; C. M. Tracy of
Lynn ; Wm. Merritt; Wm. S. Coggin of Topsfield.

S. P. PowLER, of Danvers, remarked that some of our
fruit trees exhibited a very unusual developement this
season in their buds. This was particularly true of the
"Cherry, whose flower buds, as a general rule, had wholly
failed, or become abortive. Whether this, and similar inju-
ries, have been caused by late frosts, or by the premature
warmth of part of the spring weather, or by some other
cause, was a question of both grave and curious import.
He moved that a committee be raised " to ascertain, if possi-
rble, the cause of the injury sustained by our fruit trees the
past season ; to note their present appearance and the extent
of their injury, the best mode of restoring such injured
trees, and their appearance next autumn ; together with
such facts in relation to the same as may come under their
observation, and report at the next Annual Meeting in May,
1862." The motion being adopted, Messrs. C. M. Tracy,
S. P. Fowler, James Upton, George D. Phippen, and J. M.
Ives, were appointed on the Committer.



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CM. Tract, of Lynn, exhibited some of the specimens
of plants collected by him and others daring the ramble.
He noticed at some length, the influence of submersion in
water upon the developement of leaves ; the effect, in gen-
eral, being to hinder the production of parenchyma and
cause the leaf to remain either deeply serrated and lobed, or
else cut into teeth like a comb, and reduced to almost a
mere skeleton. In illustration, such instances as the Water
Ranunculus, the Mermaid Weed, and the Peatherfoil, were
cited. He also drew attention to the Umbelliferous Family
of Plants, some members of which are poisonous, wliile
others have aromatic and useful qualities. It is important
to distinguish these readily, and one of the safest and sim-
plest rules is, to reject all that grow in moist grounds. This
is, in general a good rule, but there are a few important
exceptions; as for instance, the Poison Hemlock, wholly
found on high land, yet very deadly ; and the Angelica, a
native of the meadows, though perfectly innocent.

Dr. George Osgood, of Danvers, enumerated the results
of his botanical search and commented thereon. He cited
Lady's Slipper, (^Cypripedium Acaule) Cucumber Root,
(^Medeola) Huntsman's Cup, (^Sarracenia) Wild Cranes-
bill ( Geranium) and many others.

P. W. Putnam, of SaJem, spoke of a few species of insects
taken along the road from the station, and further, by re-
quest of the chair, as to the locomotive machinery of fishes.
Though fish have nothing more than fins and tails for pro-
pulsion, yet these are used, so far as they go, precisely in
imitation of the limbs of the higher animals. The mode of
doing this varies ; some use the fin like an oar in sculling a
boat, striking square against the water ; others, as the Ba-
listes and Pipe-fish give the vertical fins a wavy motion,
simulating the action of a screw propeller. Still a third
class, living close on the bottom, use their pectoral fins



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for jumping, rather than svimming, and make their way by
darts. Others as the Skate, fly through the water by an up
and down motion of the pectoral fin. There ai*e fishes
peculiar to countries subject to drought, which, provided
with reservoirs of water in the head by which the gills
are kept moist and respiration preserved, will leave a parched
district and travel upon their rigid fins to one more plenti-
fully watered. Mr. P. made many statements as to Turtles,
ezhibiting specimens. The age of these creatures is always
matter of curiosity. The external shell of a Turtle is
made up of scales, and these form annual rings of growth
at their edges. By counting these the age of the creature
may be nearly ascertained.

Sanborn Tenney, of Newton, Lecturer on Geology at the
Normal School in Salem, being invited by the Chair, ex-
pressed high gratification at the exercises he had witnessed.
He had found the predominant rock in Boxford to be gneiss,
passing into mica slate. He had visited the old Lime Quarry
and had specimens of the crystalized Carbonate of Lime
from thence ; he had also been to the Sunken Meadow, so
called. This, said he, is evidently a pond grown up, or
grown over. The vegetation from the margin has overhung
and gradually overspread the water below, till at last it has
united in the middle and hidden it with a covering which
might sustain the foot. Probably the water may be forty
feet deep below, and the sheet of peat-moss and other solid
matter is too weak to bear the weight of the twenty-five feet
of gravel that have been piled on it for the railroad, and
which have all gone to the bottom. A similar process of
growing over has probably, in earlier ages, formed first our
peat meadows, then these have changed into bituminous and
then into anthracite coal, giving us the vast deposits from
which we now draw our fuel.

Rev. Mr. Coggin of Boxford, expressed his pleasure at



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listening to what bad been ofiTered. He further described a
noble Elm standing near the depot, not far from the shoe
manufactory of Mr. Isaac Hale. This tree is the pride of the
town and cannot be less than ninety years old. It meas-
ures thirteen feet and two inches round the butt, and, sev-
eral feet higher, almost twelve feet round the trunk. The
circumference of its shade is not far from three hundred
feet, as the spreading branches reach some fifty feet from
the center. An elm stands in North Andover which is of
somewhat larger dimensions ; but the Boxford tree is diflS-
cult to excel for symmetrical and graceful elegance.

S. P. Fowler, of Dan vers, gave an account of the jaunt
to " Carey's Ridge." This was found to be a singular for-
mation, extending, with few interruptions, from Georgetown
to Gravelly Brook in Topsfield ; some seven or eight miles.
In many places, the steep sides go down with a sheer slope
of a hundred feet, more or less, to the plain below. Re-
markable pines may be seen here ; one such was found
to be twelve feet around the butt, the trunk being ten feet
in diameter lor some forty or fifty feet. Probably there is
no larger pine in the county.

Mr. P. had had an opportunity of witnessing the curious
" decoy" of the mother partridge to draw attention away
from her young. In this case, the trick had been unavail-
ing, as he had sought out the young bird and captured it.

At the close of his remarks Mr. Fowler offered a vote of
thanks to the Proprietors of the Congregational Church, for
the use of their Vestry ; to the various gentlemen who had
kindly pointed out the numerous objects of interest; and the
citizens generally for their kind attentions to the members
of the Institute this day. The vote was adopted and ihe
meeting adjourned. It was an extremely successful one,
and attended by the towns-people in considerable numbers.



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Wednesday, June 26, 1861.

Field Meeting at Lynnfield. — ^Thc village of South
Lynnfield or " Lynnfiold Hotel," was chosen as the location
of the second Field Meeting this season. One had been
held here before, in 1848. Rather more than one hundred
and twenty persons took the train from Salem and Danvers,
arriving via South Beading Branch Bailroad at about half
past 10, A.M.

It is perhaps a piece of history familiar to all, that this
town was part of old Lynn till July 3, 1782 ; when it be-
came a " district," and remained such till Feb. 28, 1814,
when it was made a town. This village is on land very
nearly level, for the most part, but not far off in the woods,
strong and bold ledgy eminences rise, from the toj) of which
the rambler can here and there catch magnificent views of
the surrounding country.

Several parties for exploration were here formed, as usual.
One of these passed on as far as the centre village, and in-
spected the old serpentine quarry that is yet open there.
Others strolled along the margin of Humphrey's Pond
whose noble sheet of water is the just pride of this locality.
It bears its name in honor of John Humphrey, of Dorches-
ter, England, a lawyer and man of character, to whom it
was granted, with some five hundred acres of land, May 6,
1635. He was a son-in-law of Thomas, Earl of Lincoln,
and was chosen Deputy Governor in 1630, and Assistant in
1632. In this pond lies a lovely island of about two acres,
covered with pine trees, and such growth, for the most part,
encircles its margin.

A third division were guided by Gen. Josiah Newhall,
throiigli a delightful woodpath to a disused, but picturesque-
looking granite quarry ; and thence to one of the tall emi-
nences spoken of, called Eobin Bock. Prom here, a dense.



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expanding mass of forest and foliage seems to swell and un
dulate about one's feet, while far away, on the borders of the
picture, the white buildings of South Reading, North Read-
ing, and Wilmington, seem timidly to hover, with the high-
lands of Lynn in the south, and Bunker Hill with its tall
shalt, standing like a beacon to guide the eye to the capital.

After the gathering in of the strollers, the meeting was
organized in the Congregational Church, Rev. E. B. Willson
of Salem, being called to the chair.

The record was read and the Secretary announced dona-
tions as follows : —

To the Librart/ — ^from Dorchester Antiquarian and His-
torical Society ; Samuel Blake of Dorchester ; New York
Mercantile Lil)rary Association ; David Perkins ; Solomon
Lincoln of Boston.

To the Cabinets — from William 0. Potter ; Abraham
Very ; Mrs. H. M. Colcord of South Danvers ; S. S. Mac-
kenzie of Topsfield ; Addison Flint of South Reading ; S.
Barden of Marblehead.

Letters were read from Dorchester Antiquarian and His-
torical Society ; J. H. Hickcox of Albany ; H. R. Stiles of
Woodbridgo, N. J. ; C. Hutchins of Boston.

Mr. Willson, on taking the chair, professed himself to be
no proficient in those natural powers or acquired habits by
which the scientific activity of the day was stimulated and
directed. He confessed an ignorance and a lack of enthusi-
asm in these things, unfitting him to be a meet companion
ot those who revelled in these deep communings with nature.
He had to-day been among the rocks, but he heard no oracle ;
among the flowers, but they spoke no word to him. His
pulses would but poorly answer to the leapings of the wild



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streamlet, and his sluggish thought caught no new inspira-
tion from the hum of the insect's wing. Having, then, no
ability to add to the knowledge or happiness of others by
his own observations, he could but thank his friends that
they had kindly given him a place of quietude, where his
privilege would be more to hear than to impart imformation.

Rev. S. Babden, of Marblehead, spoke a few minutes on
geological matters. He had been to the Serpentine Ledge
at tiiie Center, but with small success. The serpentine here
is not ornamental in its appearance, not like the precious
serpentine of Newbury. It has a dull grey color and con-
tains a large share of magnesia. Formerly it was quarried
for the manufacture of Epsoi^ Salts. An excavation is seen
in the northerly part of the town, where some deluded peo-
ple at one time dug for copper. A considerable sum was
spent, but nothing found save a very little copper and
micaceous oxide of iron.

P. W. Putnam, of Salem, having come late, was provid-
ed with very little on which to speak. A large mud turtle
from a pond near by, was pronounced to be a specimen of
the lower order of turtles. These are very voracious, and
will even attack a dog when in the water. A rare turtle
QEmys Blandingii) had been lately given to the Institute
hj Mr. Addison Flint of North Reading. It was found in
that town and is wholly terrestrial in its habits ; living in the
woods, but never in the water. A hinge across the under
shell allows the creature to close the front part of his cover-
ing and thus protect the head and forefeet ; not like the
Box Turtle which can close up the whole. According to
Agassiz' new classification, this is the only true Emys found
in North America. One or two snakes and beetles were
.^so spoken of.

Some remarks on the habits of the Gall Fly and Aphis

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. iii. 12.



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being here made, led to a spirited discussion between Messrs.
G. D. Phippen, C. M. Tracy, T. Ropes, P. W. Putkam, and
A. W. Dodge, in which many interesting observations wers
given as to the points in question. Mr. Putnam explained
somewhat, the peculiar propagation of the aphis, showing
that while several generations appeared in a single summer^
only the last consisted of both sexes, and only these females
laid eggs, the other generations being entirely viviparous.
The classification of these insects, he said, was very tedious,
almost every plant having its own peculiar sort. Mr. Phip-
pen had watched the red Aphis of the Asters and Golden
Rods, had noticed the production of living young and their
distribution along the twig by this means ; also the singular
movements which now and then pervade a whole community,
every individual jerking at the same instant and then re-
maining still. Mr. Tracy had noticed the t^urious fact, that
in these gatherings of aphides, the head of the insect is in-
variably turned /row the growing point of the twig, placing
ihem as it were, head downward. If we can find no other
cause for this, it may be that, as the insect seldom leaves its
place, and multiplies backwardly, this position is chosen to
bring the young upon the softer and tenderer parts of the
bark, where, being weaker, they can feed more easily.

John M. Ives, of Salem, continued these observations by
speaking of the Currant Aphis. Its ravages might, he
thought, be abridged by strewing air slacked lime among
the currant bushes. He further alluded to the condition of
the fruit trees this year, concluding that the injury was due
to the remarkable alternations of heat and cold which we.
have had, more than to any direct agency of frost upon^
the buds.

In February the frost was so far gone that strawberry beds
were dug over, and in March the mercury on the 3d stood..



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IB^ in the shade ai)4 SS"" in the sun. But on the 7th ^t
Hftrch it was oaly 10<' above through the day, and on
the ISth, only 4'' above at sunrise. In his opinion the sudden
freezing and thawing of the sap-vessels had done the injury.
The fluids in plants are always in motion, according to
Zindley ; and Blot has, in fact, shown means for measuriAg
4^ rate of motion in the sap at all seasons.

A. W. Dodge, of Hamilton, dissented somewhat from the
Tiews of Mr. Ives and favored tlie idea that the sap descended
from the branches toward the root in winter.

C. M. Tract, of Lynn, explained the prevalent theory of
botanists, as to the course of vegetable fluids. We use the
term sap rather loosely. The water and chemical solutions
taken up by the roots forin a very crude fluid which rises in
new wood as far as the leaves, and this is one sort of sap.

'The sweet sap of the Maple, and the equally sweet and
viscid sap of the Hickory, with the " sliver" of the Pine and

•other trees, is altogether another thing, elaborated by the
leaves and distributed through the plant to produce its

-growth and increase. In winter there are no leaves and
none of this sap is formed, the store of the preceding season
moves slowly over the plant, however, and toward spring
very rapidly. These two fluids are indifferently called sap,

. ^md tliis leads to misunderstanding.

Mr. Dodge continued. It was certain that the elements
^were taken up by the roots which nourished the growth, for
^he action of manures could not be otherwise explained, and
hence the roots are as much nourishing organs as the leaves ;
indeed they are indispensable, since by them only could the
jplant communicate with the soil.

Mr. Tracy replied that many plants habitually flourished
.^md mai^ured seed with no connection with the soil. This



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large class of epiphytic plants were a living demonstratioii
of the truth that plant-growth, in the abstract, did not re-
quire the earth for its maintenance.

Gen. JosiAH Newhall, of Ljmnfield, gave some interest-
ing facts in relation to the village. It was one hundred and
thirty feet above the streets of Salem, and thirty feet higher
than the neighboring po^. Salem might be supplied with
water to her highest mic from the clear fountain-head of
Humfrey's Pond. Yet more than this might be done. Anoth-
er pond lay a mile distant and within the town limits, which
was some eighty feet higher than the place of meeting. Hence
no house in the village need be without good water; nay, every
one could have a fountain playing in its yard. Taken in
connection with the admitted salubrity of the place, this fact
added to tlie many inducements for the erection of residen-


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