Lehigh County Historical Society.

Proceedings and papers read before the Lehigh County Historical Society online

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Daily cost, - - - -

The boats will make a trip from Mauch Chunk to Philadelphia
and back (120 miles) in five days, including eight hours in passing
and repassing the locks. Five days, at a cost of twelve dollars a
day, is sixty dollars, for a boat of one hundred tons of produce, is
fifty cents a ton for 120 miles, being a half cent a mile per ton.

Lehigh river improved with a descending navigation only,
from Mauch Chunk to Philadelphia. This navigation takes
eleven locks and dams, and the remainder of the work, will be
small wing dams and open sluices, of which about three-fourths
are done.

Four hands to a set of arks, in length 80 or 90 feet, and
width 18 feet, and sinking 18 inches, will carry 50 tons
of coal, and make a trip in (average) 10 days. Hence 4
hands, 10 days, at one dollar per day, is 40 dollars, equal
per ton, - - - $0 80 and per bu. $0 3


Representing the cost of transporting A TON of produce, &c. from
different parts of the State of Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, and
returning, by Land, by Locking Rivers with common Locks, by
Canal and Tow Path, by Rivers improved with Lehigh Locks for
Steam Boats, and a downward navigation of the River Lehigh,
exclusive of Tolls.






=a .

^ . §«








SfH'B e

From Philadelphia to the follow-

By Schuyl-


ing places, and back to Phila-

kill and

By Lehigh





ver L
d des<
I -4th

Land Water

Land Water




$ Cts.

Easton, - - -





I . 20



Reading, - - - - -




I . 20


Putz Furnace, the head]

of the Schuylkill Navi- |^

gation and Coal Land- |




2 .00

ing, - - - J

Mauch-Chunk, or Coal 1
Landing on Lehigh, )




2 .40

1 . 20



Landing on Lehigh i2'|
miles from Wilkesbarre I




2 .90



on Susquehanna River]

Landing on Lehigh 2 1 ]

miles from Berwick on Y

! 100






Susquehanna River, ]


Middletown, by Leba- )
non Canal, - - - j





1 . 20

Sunbury on Susquehanna \
River, - - - - j




21 .




Berwick, do.





4-342. 17


Wilkesbarre, do.


1 117




Muncy Creek, do. ^


here is Plaster of Paris [





4. 102.05

I . loV

in abundance, - - j

Mouth of Sinnamahon-S


ing and the Susque- Y

280 1 —


5 . 60 2 . 80


hanna River, - - j


Pittsburg and Lake Erie,

500 !j


1000 5 .00


D. C.

From New York to Albany, sloops charge a freight of 2 50 a ton.

From Albany, by the Canal to Lake Erie (exclusive of Toll) 3 60

Nett cost of freight of produce, from Lake Erie to New

York, - - - - - 6 10 per ton.

Freight from New York to Philadelphia - - - i 50

Cost to Philadelphia, free from Toll

$7 60


It takes 6000 feet of lumber for one set

of arks, at six dollars a thousand ; and

one carpenter 15 days in making the

arks, at $1 25 per day. Wear and

tear of spikes and iron, and oars,

$1 75- fo6 50, - - - - $1 13 $04

Cost, including total loss of lumber, is — —

per ton i 93 per bu. 07
6000 feet of lumber, from one set of arks,

will sell at $5 a thousand, is - - 60 02

Nett cost per ton, $1 33 or per bu. cts. 5

From the table it is evident, that the advantage of water
carriage over land carriage is as fifteen to one, and in navigation
adapted to steam boats by Lehigh locks, as thirty to one. It
also appears, that it costs to transport one ton 516 miles by water,
but $2 58; whereas 17 miles land carriage on one ton, amounts
to $2 55.

The value of lands in the interior of the state, will be found
to depend on a communication by water with a market. For
The expenses on a ton from Lake Brie to New

York, will be (including a toll of one cent a

mile on the canal, $3 60) - - - $9 70

Add freight from New York to Philadelphia, - - i 50

Total cost of one ton from Lake Erie to

Philadelphia, - - - - - - - - $11 20

Land carriage for 70 miles - - - - 10 50

Toll, one cent per mile - - - 70

is $11 20

Hence it follows, that goods can be brought from Lake
Erie to Philadelphia, via New York, on the canal, at the same
expense that they can be hauled 70 miles on a turnpike; and
consequently the market at Philadelphia would be supplied with
breadstuffs from New York; or rather, the trading interest,
together with its attendant population, would be transported to
New York, where the produce of the country could be afforded
cheap, and enable the farmers and country merchants to pay for
the imported goods they stand in need of.

The expense of land carriage would, at the present prices of
grain, consume the whole value of wheat, and bring the owner
in debt, to take it a greater distance than 180 miles; for 36 bushels
make a ton, and at 75 cents per bushel, would be worth but 27
dollars, which is the bare expense of the team for that distance,


exclusive of toll. Rye, in the same manner, would be eaten up
by expenses, in a transportation of 120 miles, the price of it
being fifty cents.

Lands then, at a greater distance than 120 miles, can have
no benefit from the Philadelphia market, unless by water commu-
nication. But with this advantage, articles, which are now
limited in their consumption to the immediate vicinity of their
growth, could be transported to great distances with profit.
Potatoes would cost, including one cent per mile toll, but $7 74
per ton, which, allowing 36 bushels to the ton, is only twenty-one
and a half cents per bushel, if brought from Pittsburg, a distance
estimated by water at 516 miles.

Coal also, is an article of too much weight in proportion to
its value, to bear a transportation by land, the nearest mines
being 80 miles from market. The immense mines of it in this
state, are therefore of no value at present; but make the water
communication, and they at once become a source of employment
and wealth, not only to the proprietors, but to the city and state,
as besides supplying the Atlantic cities with a fuel, cheap, and
abundant; the coal is peculiarly fitted for exportation, from its
requiring only one-tenth of the bulk and one-fifth of the weight,
to produce the same heat with wood. The Lehigh coal mines
alone, uppn the completion of the navigation of that river, will be
equal in value to a large portion of the state, as may be seen by
the following.

It will require 620 hands, and 170 yoke of oxen, to quarry,
haul, build the boats, and do all the necessary work to take to
Philadelphia 2,000,000 bushels of coal annually, which at the
present price of 30 cents per bushel, would produce 600,000 dollars.
800,000 bushels of wheat, at 75 cents, will produce the same sum,
600,000 dollars. But at 15 bushels to the acre, the average crop,
this would require 53,333 acres of land; and supposing the farms
to be divided into 120 acres each, and one-third annually in crop,
it would be 160,000 acres, and at three hands to a farm, would
require 4000 hands, and at least as many cattle and horses —
whereas to produce an equal amount from coal will require the
labour of only 620 men, and 170 yoke of cattle. Would not the
coal mines, with a navigation to market, be worth intrinsically
at least as much money as the 160,000 acres of land in cultivation?
But what would they each cost? Twenty dollars per acre for
cultivated land, 80 to 100 miles from Philadelphia, that will raise
wheal, must be considered a fair average price ; this would amount
to 3,200,000 dollars. Whereas the cost of the lands, river improve-
ments, and all else necessary to the Lehigh establishment, will not
exceed 500,000 dollars.

The owners of property in the city and country, will naturally
enquire wRich is the best route and plan of improvement to effect
a general water communication. This will appear from the table.


But the individuals disposed to invest money in such an
undertaking, would enquire into the prospects of profit to be
derived from each.

The following will shew the sources of profit on the Lehigh.

The company own all the coal mines that are known and
convenient to the river, which undoubtedly contain a supply for
the market for ages: and experience has shewn that a profit of
ID cents a bushel may be calculated upon from it, at the lowest
price that it can be expected to be sold at. With respect to the
demand, it has been estimated that Philadelphia and New York
consume together, annually, cords of wood, 600,000

And the Eastern towns, to Boston inclusive, 300,000

Making together, - - - cords, 900,000

which would, at 10 bushels to the cord, amount to 9,000,000 of
bushels, and supposing only one-fourth of this to be substituted
by coal for a number of years, would be 2,500,000 bushels, which
at 10 cents profit, would be - - - - $250,000

50 millions of feet of lumber were ascertained to have
passed the Trenton Bridge, in 1816. When Tehigh is
improved, the lumber, from the large forests abound-
ing on that river, could be sent to market in every
month, except winter, and would probably supply half
the market, say 25 millions, at $1 per 1000, toll is - 25,000
The water power of the river, which is estimated to drive
200 rolling mills, or be equal to the work of 6000 horses, or 30,000
men, will certainly be brought into use in the manufacture of
iron (of which there is an inexhaustible supply of ore on the
Lehigh) and other articles, would either sell for a large sum, or
produce a handsome annual income.

A large proportion of the Susquehanna trade may likewise
be calculated upon to add to the profits of the river; but the coal,
independent of every other source, is a sufficient guarantee for
an income commensurate with the most extravagant views of

Jerusalem Church, Eastern Salisbury, Lehigh County, Pa.

Erected 1847.

Rkv. C. J. Cooper, D. D.
(1907- )

History of Jerusalem Church,
Eastern Salisbury.

By Rev. C. J. Cooper, D. D.

The IvUtheran and Reformed congregations of Jerusalem
Church, also known as "Die Morgenland Kirche," of Eastern
Salisbury, no doubt, to distinguish it from the Jerusalem Church,
of Western Salisbury, were privileged, by the grace of God, to
celebrate their Sesqui-Centennial, July 24-25, 1909.

It is right and proper that some account should be given of
the history of these congregations. While we are happy to find
that a good beginning was made in 1 759 to make a proper record of
the origin of these congregations, it is a matter of great regret
that so little was recorded during the first century of their exis-
tence. Only since 1848 have the records been kept with some
degree of regularity and completeness. It will, therefore, not
be possible to give a full and satisfactory history, because the
necessary records are wanting. This fact should, however, teach
the present generation the very important lesson to see that,
from this time forth, the records of all departments of the congre-
gations should be carefully made and faithfully preserved.

The EARI.Y Settlement.

On March 18, 1732, Thomas and Richard Penn, the Pro-
prietaries of Pennsylvania, issued a warrant to the Surveyor
General to lay out a tract of 5,000 acres in this part of the State
to Thomas Penn and heirs. Thomas Penn assigned this warrant
to Joseph Turner, and Joseph Turner assigned the same to William
Allen, of Philadelphia, September 10, 1735. Other warrants
were issued to Thomas Greame for 2,000 acres, James Bingham
for 2,000 acres, Casper Wister for 1,500 acres, James Hamilton
for 1,000 acres, Patrick Greame for 1,000 acres; and in the same
year 3,000 acres in 500-acre parcels were granted on the Lehigh

Soon after 1735, these tracts were opened for settlement, and
many of the earlier settlers in the lower counties of Bucks and
Philadelphia, as well as the newer immigrants, began to occupy
these hills and valleys. C. A. Groman, Esq., a native of these


parts, and an eminent attorney of our county, has with much
labor and expense searched the original records of the State and
Counties of Bucks, Northampton and Lehigh, for the purpose
of tracing the titles to the different properties, and it is his ex-
pressed opinion that most of the early settlers in these parts were
squatters. In the spring of 1736, William Allen confirmed 200
acres to Solomon Jennings, which in 1757, passed into the hands
of the Geissinger family, in whose hands they remained for gener-
ations, until within recent years they passed into other hands, and
are now owned by the New Jersey Zinc Company. Twenty years
after these parts were thrown open to settlers, Northampton
County was formed out of Bucks County, by Act of Assembly,
March 11, 1752, when James Hamilton was Lieutenant Governor,
Thomas and Richard Penn, Proprietaries, and George II, King
of England.

In the fall of the same year, October 3, 1752, "The petition
of divers persons, inhabitants of a tract of land, eight miles long
by three miles broad, bounded on one side by the West branch
of the Delaware River (Lehigh River) and on the other side by
the respective townships of Upper Saucon, Upper Milford, Ma-
cungie and Whitehall, praying that the same may be laid out in
a township to be called Salisburg, was allowed" by the Court at
Easton. Adam Plank was appointed the first constable for the
township, and on September 16, 1755, Peter Bogert was chosen
to this office. March 25, 1758, Bernhard Straup and Jacob
Ehrenhart were appointed Overseers of the Poor by the Court.

In 1756, Bethlehem was a town of 510 inhabitants. In those
days the roads were few. In 1745, a road was granted from
Macungie to the Lehigh at Bethlehem and laid out, but for 15
years it was no more than a bridle path, and it was after 1760
before it became in any sense a wagon road.

The name of Salisbury has had different spellings, and
among our German people it has been and is yet called Salzburg.
Some claim it is of English origin, while General W. W.
Davis, in his history of Bucks County, claims that its proper
spelling is Salzburg, so called after a place in South Austria.
The more generally accepted spelling is Salisbury, and because
the original warrants for land were given to Englishmen princi-
pally, it is supposed that the township derived its name from the
Salisbury in England. In the petition of 1752 for a township
the name is given "Salisburg."

This petition for a township was handed to the Court at
Easton. We looked there to find the original document, as it
would be a matter of great interest to know who the signers were
in 1752, but we failed to find it. The record of the Court granting
the petition is preserved, but not the petition itself.


Religious Conditions.

According to Rev. William Smith, D. D., the first Provost of
the University of Pennsylvania, the Church Membership in
Pennsylvania in 1759, was estimated* as, follows: —

Presbyterians, 55,000; Quakers, 50,000; Lutherans, 40,000;
Reformed, 30,000; Mennonites, 30,000; Episcopalians, 25,000;
Catholics, 10,000; Moravians and Dunkards, 5,000.

Both the Lutheran and the Reformed congregations in
Eastern Pennsylvania were then already organized into a Synod
and a Coetus, and were actively engaged in caring for the tens of
thousands of their adherents, scattered far and wide throughout
this and other provinces, most of whom driven by religious and
political necessities from their homes beyond the sea, had but
recently come to America, and here in Pennsylvania sought and
found a place of refuge and of peace. The great majority of
them were poor people. Those who had possessions in the old
country, in many cases, had to give them up or sacrifice them,
or if they were fortunate enough to bring them with them were
swindled out of them in securing passage, or, robbed after they
reached this land. They sought for themselves the hills and
valleys where water and timber were found in abundance. Though
preceded by the English, Scotch and Welsh in coming to America
in large numbers, Mr. Eckley B. Coxe, late of Jeddo, told, the
writer while traveling on a railroad train, the story how the
Pennsylvania Germans came into possession of the rich and fertile
valley lying between the South, or Lehigh Mountain and the
Blue Ridge. He said, when the English and Scotch Irish came
and saw the immense forests and contemplated the enormous task
of clearing this valley, they despaired of the task and moved on to
other and lighter soil. Then later on the Germans came along
and prospected in this same valley, and with good common sense
judged that where these mighty trees of the forest grew there
must also be good virgin soil, and being brought up to labor
diligently with their hands, " as well as with their brains, they
were not too lazy, nor too stupid to go to work and clear the land,
and now they held it and their children would continue to hold
it for all time to come. These Germans brought with them their
Bibles, large substantial folios, with lids of wood and bound in
hogskins, their catechisms, hymn books, Stark's Gebetbuch and
Arndt's Wahres Christenthum, and these they treasured, used
and applied. After securing for themselves a shelter, a home,
they invariably longed for and also secured for themselves and
their children a church and a school. In some instances the
Lutherans would provide their own church, and the Reformed
did the same; in other localities the Lutherans and Reformed
would unite in building their church and provide a school for
their children. The harvest in those days was great, but the


laborers were few — and the people had to do the best they could.
There were no colleges and seminaries to provide a ministry —
the mother churches in Europe did what they could to send men
and means to carry on the planting of the church in this land ; but
these were far from being adequate. Unprincipled men, time
and men servers, took advantage of the situation and passed
themselves off as preachers, and the people in their desire to hear
the Gospel, and to make use of the sacraments, were willing to
put up with such who claimed to be ministers of the Gospel,
though they had no credentials testifying as to their character
and profession. In this way the people were often imposed upon,
and paid, in many instances, dearly for their experience.

At this time, 1759, the only other churches in this vicinity
were the Blue Church ; Lower Saucon Reformed ; Jordan Church ;
Easton; Jerusalem, Western Salisbury; Macungie or Lehigh
Church; Egypt; Zionsville and Old Williams Township. The
Moravians at Bethlehem and Emaus, also had organizations.

Why, since there were Lutheran and Reformed congregations
in Jerusalem Church, Western Salisbury, not more than a few
miles distant, organized in 1741, these congregations in the
Eastern part of the same township should be organized 18 years
later, remains unanswered. We know that in other cases,
difficulties arose, parties were formed, and separations took
place, but whether this was the case here, we have no evidence.
We have in the archives of these congregations the original
record begun in 1759. This is well preserved and is kept for
safe keeping in the fireproof safe of Mr. James W. Larash. The
record is in the handwriting of Rev. Daniel Schumacher, and
begins "In the Name of God, Amen." "The Christian Evan-
gelical Lutherans and Reformed, both adhering to the Protestant
religion, have together erected a church in Salzburg township in
Northampton County, in the year of the Lord 1759. This church
was built after the Indians had again ceased to burn and to kill
in this neighborhood, and by poor people only, who were, how-
ever, assisted by their brethren with small contributions."

"The first preacher on the part of the Reformed Congregation,
at the dedication of this new church, was the Rev. Rudolph
Kidwiler, popularly known as the Swiss preacher. A Lutheran
minister had also been selected for the dedication, but it was
not possible for him to be present. The second preacher on the
part of the Lutheran congregation was the Rev. Daniel Schu-
macher. His text at the dedication of this new church was from
the Prophet Haggai, Chap. 2 : vs. 7, 8 [9]. 'The glory of this
latter house shall be greater than of the former, and in this place
will I give peace.' Held 1759, Sixth Sunday after Trinity, in
the afternoon at 2 o'clock."

"The first elders and deacons were Christian Kaub and
Matthis Gurth; Conrad Jacobi and John George Weber."


"The deacons who were elected at the beginning of this new
church, have the right for themselves and also for those elders and
deacons who shall succeed them, to sit side by side in their pew,
and the offerings that shall be gathered at the service held by
either preacher, shall be carefully preserved by both congregations
and elders and applied to the church. [Signed]

Christian Kaub, Lutheran deacon
*George Weber

Christian Liesz

Conrad Jacobi, Reformed deacon."

The Rev. Daniel Schumacher, after preaching three years
m Nova Scotia, was obliged to leave there because the people
were too poor to support him. He came to New York, and
from there the Rev. John A. Weygand recommended the theo-
logical student, Schumacher, to the Ministerium for ordination.
For some reason Schumacher was never received into the Minis-
terium. It is known that he served a number of congregations
in Berks and Lehigh Counties from 1 754-1 774. From 1755-58,
he was pastor of Trinity Church, Reading, and also served other
congregations in that vicinity. He labored in Egypt, and at
one time had as many as sixteen congregations. His remains
are buried in the graveyard of the Weisenburg Church, Lehigh
County. The Schumachers and Shoemakers, of Lehigh County,
are his descendants. In the Theological Seminary, at Mt. Airy,
Philadelphia, his private baptismal records, containing several
thousand baptisms, are found. He wrote a very legible hand.
His records in this congregation dated from July 22, 1759, the
day of dedication, with one or two interruptions to 1768.

Baptisms were generally administered by him in church on
the occasion of his visits on Sunday. When performed elsewhere
he indicates the place. The first baptism recorded is that of
George David, a son of David and Martha Hamman, born July
II, 1759; baptized July 22, 1759. The sponsors were George
Spohn and his wife, Maria. The names of families that appear
in this old record, besides those mentioned, are Kaub (may this
not be the original spelling of the name, now so numerous in this
vicinity. Cope?), Hertzog, Eberhard, Weber, Miller, Eniich,
Schoener, Giesz,' Claus, Boehm, Wagner, Hartman, Duerr,
Smetzer, Brasser, Lazarus, Kotz, Stahl, Gorges, Nagel, Theyle,
Mertz, Rentzheimer, Rassmus, Gernet, Lehr, Stuber, Appel,
Rubb, Schneider, Kaiper, Grumbach, Ziesloff, Schwencker.

In 1769, Rev. Lizce baptized two children. The last bap-
tism in this book was on May 21, 1786, when Rev. Carl Christoph
Goetz, preacher at Jordan, baptized John George, son of John

♦"Because George Weber3 separated from our church Christian Liesz, whose name
comes next, was elected in his place a Lutheran deacon."


William Kaup (or Cope) and wife, Maria (nee Rentzheimer), born
January 12th. The sponsors were George Kaup and Christina

There is only one list of communicants found in this record,
dated April 23, 1791. The names of those who presented them-
selves are:




Elder Henry Rentzheimer.


Catharine Rentsheimer.


Michael Stahl.


Elizabeth Gernet.


Christian Gernet,


Elizabeth Stoehr.


Peter Stoehr.


Elizabeth Gernet.


John Gernet.


Margaret Rau.


Conrad Rau.


Margaret Gernet.


George Gernet.


Barbara Dur.


George Ueberroth.


Maria Teyler.


George Duer.

Online LibraryLehigh County Historical SocietyProceedings and papers read before the Lehigh County Historical Society → online text (page 28 of 32)