The Winona Older Girls Conference in July was organized for
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On the Shores of the Lake
those between thirteen and twenty-four years of age and its purpose
was to prepare them for leadership in church, Sunday School and
communit.y work. It was under the auspices of the Sunday Scliool
Department of Winona.
The Boy and Religious Conference was in charge of Rev. A. Christy
Brown, D. D., and the training class was in connection with the boys'
work in the Young Men'.s Christian Association and the boj's' clubs
in touch with the Assembly.
A number of societies, associations and churches hold their an-
nual conferences on the Assembly grounds, thus adding to the absorb-
ing interest of the general programmes of the Chautauqua and the
312 HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
Bible Conference. Of these mention may be made of the Christian
Citizenship Institute, controlled by the National Reform Associa-
tion and owning a hall for its meetings on McDonald Island. As
indicating the importance of these citizenship institutes, it may be
said that their staff of speakers includes such men and women as
Dr. James S. Martin, general superintendent of the association ; Frank
J. Cannon, former United States senator from Utah; Mrs. Lulu
Loveland Shepard and Mrs. Marion Williams, of the far "West â€” the
latter a polygamous wife for many years.
The Christian, Brethren and United Brethren churches all held
annual conferences in 1918, and special summer meetings were held
by the Presbyterian young people and the Winona Woman's Mis-
The Assembly grounds also furnished a meeting place for the
Winona Pastore' Association, of which Dr. D. H. Guild was president.
Conference Against Crime
More widespread attention than was attached to any of the fore-
going gatherings, however, seemed to be gained by the Conference
Against Crime and the Prophetic Conference. To this Conference
Against Crime came not only special lecturers on prison reform, the
management of state institutions dealing with all types of crime and
all classes of criminals, and on sociological and psychological phases
of the subject, but wardens, chaplains and state officers who had come
in daily touch with criminals and spoke not so much from study as
from experience. The conference brought together all that was best
in practice and theory, considered from many viewpoints, and created
The Prophetic Conference
The Prophetic Conference, although specially intended for minis-
ters and Christian workers, was open to all who desired to attend,
and was held from August 8-15. It was pre-eminently a gathering
of Bible students who were privileged to present their views of pre-
millenarian, postmillenarian and futurist pi-opheeies. They were dis-
cussed, but not debated, and the list of speakers included such as
Dr. W. H. Griffith Thomas, Dr. George L. Robinson, Dr. Daniel
Heagle, Dr. W. B. Riley, Dr. J. C. Massee, Dr. James M. Gray, Dr.
P. Y. Pendleton,- Prof. A. F. Wesley, and, from abroad, Dr. G. Camp-
bell Morgan and Gipsey Smith.
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY 313
Children's Musical Pageant
During the summer of 1918, Prof. Henry B. Roney, of Chicago,
superintended the training of the children's and young people's
classes in vocal music. The climax of the course was a grand his-
torical pageant and song festival held on the shores of the lake and
in the auditorium and representing 300 years of American history.
The exhibition and festival were held on the evenings of August 7
and 10, and in them participated 500 singers, ranging in ages from
five upwards. In many respects they constituted the most bi-illiant
and impressive event of the season.
Red Cross Work
The courses given in the many activities to be performed by the
member of the American Red Cross, whether man or woman, were
approved by the Central and Lake Divisions and the Kosciusko
County Chapter of the national society. The training school was
under the presidency of Dr. Henry H. Everett, of Chicago, who also
gave lectures in first aid. The authorized courses covered not only
that subject, but elementary hygiene, home care for the sick, dietetics
and surgical dressings.
As so man}' trained in Red Cross work were soon called overseas
to the battle fronts, the courses were made as practical as possible.
The demonstrations included bed-making, with the patient in bed;
changing mattresses under the patient; moving the patient from bed
to bed ; the prevention of bed sores ; all the steps in first aid for
bruises, sprains, fractures, surgical and shock cases, exhaustion, suf-
focation, . gas, drowning and poisoning ; lessons in the preparation
and care of surgical dressings ; and special instruction in food con-
servation. Details of the course last named are not necessary, as the
period is comparatively recent when Herbert Hoover and his depart-
ment were flooding hotels, restaurants and homes with instructions
as to how America could keep Europe well fed-up, to come out of the
war not completely exhausted. In this particular course, the Amer-
ican Red Cross Society did not have a monopoly.
The I. A. E.
The Interdenominational Association of Evangelists, which was
organized in 1904 and incorporated in 1906, has an intimate con-
nection with the work of the Winona Assembly and Bible Conference.
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
Its officers are Milford H. Lyon, president; William E. Biederwolf,
first vice president ; William A. Sunday, second vice president ; Her-
bert C. Hart, third vice president; Charles R. Seoville, fourth vice
president ; John M. Dean, fifth vice president ; Parley B. Zartmann,
general secretary and treasurer. The headquarters of the association
and office of the secretary and treasurer are at Winona Lake. The
widely known evangelist, William A. Sunday (popularly spoken of
as Billy Sunday), has had a cottage at Winona Lake for many years,
and some members of the family are usually enjoying it as their
Schools and Colleges at Winona Lake
Of the various summer schools held under the auspices of the
Winona Assembh', two have always stood out with special prom-
The College Building
inence â€” the Summer Bible School, at the head of which is Dr. Frank
N. Palmer, and the Summer School of Missions, under the imme-
diate auspices of the Interdenominational Committee of the Central
West for Missions, with Mrs. C. E. Vickers as chairman.
There was a regular Training School for Sunday School Work, of
which Marion Lawrance, general secretary of the International Sun-
day School Association, was chairman. The ~ instructors are spe-
cialists of national reputation, and the school is one of the most
popular features of the Assembly.
The Winona College
The Winona College and the College of Agriculture have occu-
pied well-defined fields of educational work, but have been some-
what handicapped from lack of funds and the fact that the state
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY 315
system, with the backing of the commonwealth itself, covered their
The Winona College originated in a normal school which was
established in 1908. In the following year it was reoi'gauized under
its present name with four departments. Dr. Jonathan Rigdon as
president â€” Libei-al Arts, Education, Business and Music. It has
maintained a preparatory department covering a full four years'
high school course. A Department of Household Arts was added in
The summer school of Winona College has presented such dis-
tinctive features as courses in agriculture and manual training for
teachers, supervisors' courses in music and drawing and courses in
primary methods embracing storj- telling, hand work, songs, plays
Although the institution has broadened its scope and entered the
college class, normal work has maintained its prominence. Rev. W.
E. Biederwolf, the well known evangelist of Monticello, Indiana, in
1917 became president of the college, and E. 0. Excel!, of Chicago,
chairman of the board of regents.
The Winona College closed temporarily in 1918 because of the
war, but has maintained its summer school for two summers.
WiNON.v College op Agriculture
The Winona College of Agi'iculture, while it furnishes the prac-
tical coui'ses based on scientific principles which are presented by
the universities of the state, also endeavors to develop moral and
spiritual character. It is claimed that it is possible to consider the
student's welfare more carefuU.v from the standpoint of individual
traits and requirements than if he were connected with a larger
Besides this individual upbuilding of manhood, it has been the
chief object of the management to prepare graduates for faiin man-
agers, teachers of agriculture, county agents or superintendents of
farm bureaus and for civil service work and a high order of cit-
This college was also closed on account of the war and has not yet
decided to reopen. Rev. J. C. Breekenridge has been its president
from the first.
Indl\na University Biological Station
As noted, the building in which are carried on the courses in
connection with the biological department of the Indiana University
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
is located in the southwestern part of the Assembly grounds. The
twenty-fourth annual session of the Station began in June, 1918,
and lasted nine weeks. Requirements for admission are the same as
at the State University. The courses offered were in general zoology,
embryology and cellular biology, advanced students being allowed to
do individual work under the direction of the staff.
The Winona Church
The church was an outgrowth of the Winona Assembly, and
especially of the schools which made the establishment of a church a
necessity of the community. Accordingly, the Winona Federated
Church was founded in 1905.
Dr. Sol C. Dickey and Dr. J. Wilbur Chapman were to supply
the pulpit during the summer, and Dr. Frank N. Palmer, Dr. J. C.
Breckenridge and Dr. E. S. Scott, who were connected with the
Winona schools, were to discharge the pastoral duties during the
In September, 1911, Dr. J. W. Clokey assumed charge of the
Winona church and thus continued for two years. In June, 1913,
the church was taken under the care of the Presbytery of Fort Wayne
and enrolled as the Presbyterian Church of Winona Lake. At the
HISTORY OP KOSCIUSKO COUNTY 317
same time, it continued the broad basis of membership open to all
evangelical believers and offered affiliated membership to students
and others temporarily living at "Winona Lake. The first and only
pastor of the church thus organized is Rev. James A. Gordon, D. D. ;
he began his pastorate on December 1, 1913, and is still in service.
The meeting place is Westminster Chapel, with Sunday school
rooms in the same building. Lots were purchased adjoining the
W&stminster building and a building fund was started, when the
outbreak of the war stopped the movement, which, with the coming
of peace, may soon be resumed.
The membership of the Winona Church was cut down to small
proportions owing to the closing of the colleges, and at the end of
the war was only about 100, but it numbered among its supporting
families a full score of well-known evangelists, Young Men Christian
Association workers and ministers, was active in all lines and gen-
erous in support of every good cause. It is a community church.
On its service flag are twenty-nine stai-s and on its Young Men's
Christian Association banner seventeen triangles.
During the summer season all meetings are held in the Winona
Auditorium, and Dr. S. C. Dickey as general secretary arranges for
the services of eminent preachers for the Assembly, culminating in
the great Bible Conference in August.
The Town of Winona Lake
Chiefly for the purpose of furnishing adequate protection against
fire for the buildings of the Assembly grounds and those of the im-
mediate vicinity and to effect an organization through which public
improvements could be handled and facilitated, the Town of Winona
Lake was incorporated June 2, 1913. Its area covers 200 acres, the
town limits beginning at the entrance to the Chautauqua grounds on
the north and west, including the territory between the King's High-
way and thelake and extending as far south as the Kosciusko Lodge,
just south of Cherry Creek. The corporation site is divided into
three wards. It would be impossible to state the population of
Winona Lake, as it ranges from 600 in the winter months to 10,000
during the height of the Chautauqua activities.
As elsewhere stated, the water supply and electric lights enjoyed
by the community are furnished by the Winona Electric Light and
Water Company. The fire protection is fully equal to all require-
ments, and both permanent villagers and Assembly visitors have no
apprehensions on that score; for not only is an extra water pressure
318 HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
provided in case of fire, but the town has provided a modern little fire
engine (a Howe) at a cost of $2,750. The engine was purchased in
May, 1914, and a neat concrete house erected for it and other appa-
ratus in the following October. It is located in the central portion
of the Assembly grounds, within easy reach of the main buildings,
and the villagers are justly proud of their stanch little engine and
Since the incorporation of the Town of Winona Lake, the fol-
lowing have served as presidents and clerk-treasurers of the Board
Presidentsâ€” George P. DeHoff, 1913-16; W. E. Lugenbeel, 1916;
William G. Fluegel, 1916-18.
Clerk-Treasurersâ€” William G. Fluegel, 1913-18; John 0. .^lotto
and Charles Ben. Taylor, 1918.
SYRACUSE AND LAKE WAWASEE
Centers of Beauty and Pioneer Settlement â€” Syracuse Founded
â€” The Churches of Syracuse â€” The Sy^racuse School â€” Town
of Syracuse â€” The Journal â€” The Library and the Chautau-
qua â€” Nine Mii,e Changed to Wawasee Lake â€” Wawasee Sta-
tion â€” George W. Miles. Summer Resort Pioneer â€” The Old
Fishing Days â€” First Improvements at Wawasee â€” Initial Work
in Fish Propagation â€” Original Site of Wawasee State Hatch-
ery â€” Extension of the State Hatchery â€” Death of George W.
MiLis â€” South Park â€” Lake View â€” Oakwood Park â€” Vawter
Park â€” Crow's Nest and Waveland Beach.
In the northeastern portion of Kosciusko County, Turkey Creek
expands into its largest body of water, known for years as Nine Mile
Lake, with a northwestern projection, Syracuse Lake. There seems
to be, even to this day, a difference of opinion as to the length of the
larger body of water (called, for some years, Wawasee Lake), the
range, from northwest to southeast, being nine miles, and the average
width from one mile to four miles.
Centers of Beauty and Pioneer Settlement
But size is by no means everything, and least of all when the
presentation is made by Nature ; and lovers of her mild and restful
beauties, and the elegant recreations furnished by men and women of
taste and means, justly claim that there is no region in the lake
country of Northern Indiana which so thoroughly supplies these crav-
ings as that of which these two lakes are the centers.
Tliese gems in the valley of Turkey Creek, with the beautiful
wooded hill country in which they nestled, attracted "the first settlers
from Elkhart County to Kosciusko. They came, in fact, several years
before Kosciusko County was organized, and about a year afterward
laid out the Village of Syracuse at the foot of the lake by that name,
where Turkey Creek debouches from it.
It was at that point that Henry Ward and Samuel Crawson came,
Wawasee Lake and Vicinity
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY 321
in 1832, and constructed a dam across the creek, with a view of erect-
ing a grist mill there, when the pending treaty with the Indians
should be concluded and the lands be placed in the market. In the
following year Mr. Crawson built a log cabin near the site of the
proposed mill, and his was the first house in the township.
In 1834-35 several settlers ventured farther south, chiefly in sec-
tions 26 and 20, beyond Nine Mile Lake. Estin McClintoek, the
first of these, settled on section 26 early in 1834, and later in the
year was followed by John C. Johnson, Patrick Johnson, William
Cassiday, George Phebus, Andrew Guy, Valentine Slate, Henry
Madden and Robert Wagner. Valentine Fockler located on section
20, in 1835, where he built a cabin and prepared to be a real settler.
It soon became evident that the mill site at the foot of Syracuse
Lake was the logical location for a settlement or village. In 1836
Mr. Crawson put up a frame building there (on the future site of
the Lake House), and William Kirkpatrick opened a modest store
in that structure. Not long afterward Kirkpatrick sold his stock to
Messrs. Crawson & Ward, and William Cassiday also opened a store
in the building which he had also erected as a dwelling.
Joseph Cowell started a forge at what is now Syracuse in 1834.
The first school in the township was also built on the hill, at the
village site, in 1836. In this eventful year, Messrs. Ward & Crawson
also erected'a saw-mill on Turkey Creek, which made the first building
operations of the locality more convenient.
The Methodists commenced to organize about the time that Syra-
cuse was platted, and the physicians to the body located there even
earlier. Drs. Hartshorn and John Shue are said to have settled in
the locality as early as 1835.
The first hotel in the township was kept bv George Kirkpatrick in
Other preparations were also being made for the village which
was to be. In 1836 a son of Harvey Veniman died and was buried,
and in the natural order of the universe other like events might be
expected. Consequently, Samuel Crawson, who seemed always on
hand when anything was wanted, donated an acre of ground for a
cemetery just west of what had been fixed upon as the town plat.
Syracuse was laid out by that name on August 11, 1837, by Craw-
son & Ward, proprietors of the land on which it was surveyed by
Christopher D. Lightfoot, county surveyor.
322 HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
The Churches op Syracuse
The Methodists were perhaps the fii-st to organize iu the village.
The German Baptists established a society in the southern part of
the township in 1851, and in 1856 the United Brethren also organized
in that section. In 1858 a Church of God was founded east of Nnie
Mile Lake, and four yeai-s later the same denomination established
a society in town ^vhich is proliably the oldest religious body in
The present Methodist Episcopal Church of Syracuse, of which
Rev. F. H. Cremean is pastor, was organized iu April, 1870. Its first
house of worship was erected in October, 1886, and it was remodeled
and reopened, successively, in 1911 and 1919.
The Evangelical Association had a small society and church build-
ing in the '70s, although the organization under which it now oper-
ates was not effected until the fall of 1897. Rev. J. J. Wise, then
of New Paris, organized the chui'ch. Rev. L. Newman was the fii'st
assigned pastor, and did not assume charge until 1901. George Wey-
rick was the first class leader. The pastor now in charge is Rev. F.
F. McClure and the society has a membership of about 150. In 1898
was erected the present house of worship, at a cost of $5,000.
The Grace Lutheran Church was established in 1904, and its first
pastor. Rev. T. F. Weiskotten, served from that year until 1907.
Rev. R. E. M. Engers ha,s been the minister in charge since October,
1917. Its baptized membership is about eighty; contributing, fifty.
The meeting house in which the society worships was erected iu 1904.
The Syracuse School
A fleeting glimpse has been given of the first schoolhouse of the
township built on the hill at Syracuse. It was a small log structure
and stood near the corner of HaiTison and Washington streets. As
the settlement then consisted of only a few houses, it is quite safe to
say that the attendance was very small. In those times the terms
consisted of only three or four months, and the teacher was paid iu
whole or in part by the patrons. About 1862 the old log schoolhouse
was replaced by a frame building.
The teachers who taught in tlie early years were a Mr. Fattis,
William Morrison, William Dennis, William Worley, Daniel Brown,
Rebecca Sprowl, Isaac Kitson, Haunah Galbreath and others.
George Hattle taught the school in the winter months of 1870-71.
HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY 323
The term was then four months. Mi*s. Martha Whitehead and a iliss
Guy taught the school from 1871 to 1874.
The four room briek building which faces Main Street was erected
in 1874 by Joseph Kindig, who was then trustee of Turkey Creek
Township. It was two stories and basement and its gi'ound dimen-
sions were 36 by 76 feet. At the time, there was much opposition
to the expenditure of the sum of money required to complete this quite
pretentious sehoolhouse, and Mr. Kindig was severely criticized for his
extravagance. But tlie enterprise was carried through, much to that
gentleman's credit. For years the building and gi-ounds were a
source of pride to all the people of Syracuse, and the quiet influence
of the environment upon the character of the many children that have
been comfortably housed and schooled in the handsome structure can-
not be estimated.
The first term in the brick building was taught in 1874-75 by
E. M. Champlin, now of Warsaw, as principal, and Miss Amy Aber,
as teacher of the primaiy department. In 1875 Frank McAlpine was
chosen principal, with Joseph P. Dolan in charge of the intermediate,
liud Miss Aber, the primary grades. Mr. McAlpine resigned in the
spring of 1876, and ;\Ir. Dolan finished the term. During the same
year H. S. Bortner was chosen principal ; J. P. Dolan, teacher of the
intermediate, and iliss Lida Welch, of the primary gi-ades. Mr. Bort-
ner remained in charge of the school until 1878.
Joseph P. Dolan was chosen principal of the school in 1878, and
continued at its head, with the exception of five years, until 1898;
during the period named Mr. Dolan was engaged in business. No
personality has done so much to raise the standard of the school and
maintain it as that of Mr. Dolan. During the eighteen years of his
service as its piuncipal he brought it into widespread prominence,
and the summer normals conducted by him even attracted students
from several of the adjoining counties. The young men and women
who went out from the school as teachers not only entered their pro-
fession thoroughly grounded in its principles, but inspired with high
ideals as to its worth and dignity.
J. A. Cummins was principal of the school from 1887 to 1889,
during which the high school course was established, although Mr.
Dolan had previously taught classes in algebra and geometry. Miss
Blanche Sprague was the first high school graduate, class of 1889.
Louis H. Kreke, who succeeded Professor Cummins, assumed the
principalship of the school in 1889, and thus continued until 1892,
when ilr. Dolan resumed his old position.
Allen A. Norris was elected principal in 189S, by which year Syra-
324 HISTORY OF KOSCIUSKO COUNTY
cuse had outgrown its school facilities. lu 1900 the upper east room
in the brick building was divided, but that move by no means solved
the problem, and in 1902 the old Kern building was moved to the
south end of the school grounds facing Main Street and occupied as
a high school. The building has since been used for the high school
grades, which now follow a four-years' course.
Mr. Norris retired in 1904 and was succeeded by W. B. Owens,
who was principal for one year. C. C. Bachman has served since
In 1908 a modern building was constructed in which the school
is now housed. Its total enrollment is about 300, of which the high
school enrollment is 75. Ten teachers are employed.
Tow^N OP Syracuse
The Town, or Village, of Syracuse is a prosperous corpoi-ation on
the Baltimore & Ohio line, and has not only its due complement of
churches and schools, but has its own good system of water works and
adequate fire protection for its substantial business houses and fac-
tories. Further, it has a well conducted bank, and a newspaper to
set forth its strong points, as well as the attractions of Lake Wawasee,
with all its summer attractions to the southeast.