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Barral.

73-69 ,

17-04 .

8-86 ,


Melsens.
... 74-3 .
... 17-3 .

.... 8-8 .


Schldssing.
... 73-59
... 17-11


14 H


14 .


... 8-70









C20N2H1-* 162 .... 100-00 99-59 .... 100-4 .... 99-4



C-vapour


. 20


8-3200


2


1-9412


H-gas


.. 14


0-9702


Nicotine- vapour ...


2


11-2314


1


5-6157



Ortigosa, from liis analysis of the platinum-salt, assigned to nicotine the formula
C^^NH'*^, which was adopted by Barral. Melsens proposed the formula C^^NH", and
Barral, after recalculating his own analysis, showed that this formula was in accordance
with it; he, moreover, doubled it to agree with the vapour-density, a conclusion to
which Schlossing was also led by his determination of the saturating power of nicotine
towards sulphuric acid.

Decompositwns. 1 . Nicotine quickly assumes a brownish yellow-
colour when exposed to light. (Henry k. Bonastre.) — 2. When distilled,
even in an atmosphere of carbonic acid, it always leaves a small residue
amounting to about 3 per cent., this effect being reproduced every time
distillation is repeated. No gas is evolved; and the residue, which is insoluble in
water, but easily soluble in alcohol, appears to be an isomeric modification of nicotine.
(Barral.) Nicotine when distilled leaves a resin soluble in alcohol and precipitable
therefrom by water. (Ortigosa.) The same residue remains when nicotine is left to
evaporate in the air. (Posselt & Reimann.) — 3. Nicotine exposed for some time
to the air, turns brown, becomes more viscid, and is partly converted into
a resin. (Posselt & Reimann, Burral and others.) 4. At ordinary tem-
peratures, it is not set on fire by the approach of a flaming body, but burns



NICOTINE. 225

in a wick witli a bright smoky flame. (Posselt & Reimann.) The
vapour which rises from nicotine heated in a crucible may be set on fire.
(Henry & Boutron.)

5. Warm oil of vitriol does not act immediately on nicotine, but
gradually acijuires a red-brown colour by contact with it; the solution
supersaturated with hydrate of soda, yields nicotine free from ammonia.
(Henry & Boutron.) Boiling oil of vitriol decomposes nicotine completely
(leaving a black thick mass, according to Stahlschmidt), so that the
liquid neutralised with ammonia tastes no longer sharp but only bitter.
(Posselt & Reimann.)

6. Aqueous nicotine mixed with tincture of iodine^ (or with aqueous
hydriodous acid or liydriodite of potash mixed with chlorine), becomes turbid, and
yellowish at first, but afterwards crimson, even when diluted 1000 times
(Posselt & Reimann); according to Planta, it produces with tincture of
iodine, a kermes-brown precipitate. On mixing the ethereal solutions of
iodine and nicotine, heat is evolved, and after a while the mixture soli-
difies to a crystalline pulp of teriodonicotine. (Wertheim, Gerhardt's
Traite, 4, 193.)

7. When nicotine is dropped into a bottle filled with chlorine gas, a
violent action takes place, sometimes attended with emission of light;
hydrochloric acid gas is evolved; and the nicotine becomes blood-red,
but loses its colour again by exposure to light for a few days, and then at
a rather low temperature (below 8^) deposits long needles, which how-
ever melt at a slightly elevated temperature. The liquid, which has
become colourless by exposure to light, deposits when mixed with water,
a white sediment, which may be recrystallised from alcohol, the super-
natant very acid liquid becoming red-brown when evaporated at a gentle
heat. (Barral.) — When chlorine is passed over nicotine, a dark brown
solid substance is obtained, which dissolves readily in alcohol but does
not separate in the crystalline form on evaporation. (Stahlschmidt.) —
Chlorine-water does not act on nicotine in the cold; if the liquid be heated
at the same time, it turns yellow, without giving off nitrogen gas. (Henry
& Boutron, Barral.) — Aqueous hypochlorous acid added to a concentrated
aqueous solution of nicotine, produces a whitish turbidity, without evolu-
tion of nitrogen gas, which however takes place immediately on adding a
small quantity of ammonia. (Henry & Boutron.) Nicotine is qnickly
decomposed by aqueous perchloric acid. (Bodeker, Ann. Pharm. 71. 64.;
By the action of chlorine on hydrochlorate of nicotine, a beautifully
crystallised compound is formed, easily soluble in water, insoluble in
alcohol. (Geuther & Hofacker, Ann. Pharm. 108, 35.)

8. Nicotine heated with nitric acid, gives off copious red fumes, and
if distilled with potash after the reaction is finished, yields a volatile base
which appears to be ethylamine. (Anderson, J ?i«. Phar?n. 7o, 82.) —
With hot nitric acid, it gives off nitrogen gas and yields a thick orange-
coloured mass without any oxalic acid. (Henry & Boutron.) With
nitric acid or acid chromate of potash and sidphuric acid, nicotine gives
off a suffocating vapour and forms a brown liquid. (Stahlschmidt.) —
Fuming nitric acid attacks it violently, even in the cold, but does not
decompose it completely. (Posselt & Reimann.)

9. Hydrate of soda exerts a decomposing action upon nicotine,
eliminating a small quantity of ammonia. (Henry & Boutron.) When
nicotine containing water is left in contact with lumps of hydrate of
potash, it dissolves potash, and yields by distillation a liquid which has
an odour different from that of nicotine, contains 52 per cent, of carbon,

VOL. XIV. Ci



226 AZO-NUCLEUS C20N2H12.

does not form cliloroplatinatc of nicotine when mixed with bichloride of
phitinum, but yields by evaporation of the mixed alcoholic solution,
crystals easily soluble in alcohol. (Ortigosa, comp. p. 22;i.)

10. When cyanogen gas is passed over nicotine (Stahlschmidt), or
into the alcoholic solution (Hofinann), a brown product is formed which
does not crystallise from alcohol (Stahlschmidt) and does not exhibit
basic properties. (Hofmann, Ann. Phm'm. 6G, 14.5.)

11. It acts ui)on ci/andte of ethyl less quickly than aniline, forming a
compound which crystallises in beautiful laminae, (^uriz, Compt. rend.
S2, U8; An7i. Fharm. SO, 3iO.)

12. In contact with iodide of methyl, it deposits a heavy brown oil,
and solidifies on coolinf!^ as crystalline hydriodate of methyl nicotine.
(Stahlschmidt, J7i7i. Fharni. 90, 22'2.) — In contact with iodide of ethyl,
it is converted, even at ordinary temperatures, more quickly at 100°, into
hydriodate of ethyl-nicotine, (v. Planta & Kekule, Ann. Pharm. 87, 3.)
When iodide of amyl is heated for several days with nicotine in a sealed
tube, a brown syrup is obtained, which does not solidify, even when cooled
and exposed to the air, or crystallise when its aqueous or alcoholic solu-
tion is left to evaporate, but when treated with water deposits the excess
of iodide of amyl and yields a solution of hydriodate of amyl-nicotine.
(Stahlschmidt.)

Combinations. With Water. A. Uydrated Nicotine. Nicotine ex-
posed to moist air quickly takes up water, to the amount of 10 per cent,
in a day, but gives it up again completely in a dry current of gas.
(Schlossing.) In an air-space saturated with aqueous vapour, nicotine
takes up, in the course of three weeks, 1*77 per cent, of water, which,
however, is given off again when the hydrated nicotine is placed over
hydrate of potash. Nicotine thus saturated with water solidifies com-
pletely in a freezing mixture of ice and salt. (Barral.)

B. Aqueous Nicotine. Nicotine dissolves in water in all proportions.
(Posselt & Reimann, Barral and others.) With half its volume or less of
water, it forms (when it contains resinous matter, according to Posselt &
Reimann) a clear mixture which is rendered turbid by a larger addition
of water. (Ortigosa.) Hydrate of potash separates nicotine from its
aqueous solution. (Liebig & Gail.)

Nicotine at lOO'' dissolves 10-53 p. c. sidphur,i\\Q greater part of
which crystallises out on cooling, the nicotine returning a dark brown
colour. — It does not dissolve jjhosphorus. (Barral.) It absorbs
ammonia gas but does not retain it more firmly than it retains water.
(Schlossing.)

With Acids. Nicotine saturates acids completely. The salts of
nicotine crystallise sometimes in laminar, sometimes in granular form.
(Henry & Boutron.) The simple salts crystallise with difficulty, the
double salts more easily. (Barral.) They have a very sharj) taste.
(Henry & Boutron.) Their aqueous solutions may be evaporated at a
gentle heat without much loss of nicotine. (Posselt & Reimann.) They
give ofl" part of their nicotine when evaporated. (Henry & Boutron.)
They emit the odour of nicotine when treated with potash-ley, and produce
with iodine the kermes-colour of nicotine. (Posselt & Reimann.) They
dissolve readily in alcohol of 40° (Henry & Boutron), but are insoluble
in ether, with the excej)tion of the acetate. (Schlossing.) Nicotine
precipitates the salts of manganese, zinc, lead, iron, {vide infr.) and tartar-
emetic, like the alkalis. (Henry & Boutron.) It precipitates the salts



NICOTINE. 227

of manganese and iron in the cold, silver-salts when heated. (Schlos-
e'lufr.) It likewise precipitates acetate of lead, acetate of copj)cr, and
chloride of cobalt. (Otto.) It does not precipitate baryta or lime-salts,
but when carbonic acid gas is passed into an aqueous mixture of nicotine
mixed with excess of nitrate of lime or chlori«le of barium, a precipitate
of carbonate of lime or carbonate of baryta is formed in the proportion
of 1 at. to 1 at. of the nicotine used. (Schlossing.)

CaO,NO^ + C-^'N-'II'^ 4- HO,CO- = C^'N^hu^hCNO'^ + CaO,C02.

Phosphate of Nicotine. The colourless syrup obtained by neutralising
nicotine with aqueous phosphoric acid, yields by evaporation in sunshine,
white crystals resembling cholesterin. (Posselt &c Reimann.) — Nacreous
lamin:e. (Henry & Boutron.)

Sulphate of Nicotine. — 100 parts of oil of vitriol neutralise on the
averaire 329*7 pts. of nicotine, forming neutral sulphate of nicotine,
C2ox2H^*,HO,SO^ (Schli.ssing.) (Calculation 330-6 pts.) The sulphate
is a brown uncrystallisable syrup. (Pos.selt k Reimann.) Nacreous
laminae. (Henry 6.: Boutron.)

Acid lodate of Nicotine is nearly insoluble in alcohol. (Henry h
Boutron.)

Uydrochlorate of Nicotine. — Nacreous laminae. (Henry & Boutron.)
Obtained by saturating nicotine with dry hydrochloric acid gas, and
leaving the product in vacuo, in long deliquescent white threads, which
are more volatile than nicotine, and dissolve readily in water and alcohol,
not in ether. (Barral.) When dry hydrochloric acid gas is passed over
gently heated nicotine, and the excess of hydrochloric acid is expelled by
means of dry hydrogen gas, quantities of hydrochloric acid are taken up,
varying from 1 to 2 At., but a considerable portion goes off on gently
heating the product. The alcoholic solution of the salt deflects the plane
of polarisation of a ray of light to the left. {Pogg. 81, 527.)

Barral,

C20Nm»^ 162 .... 68-94

2 HCl 73 .- 31-06 29-74

C^^N2Hi^2HCl 235 .... 100*00

Nitrate of Nicotine crystallises with difficulty. (Henry &c Boutron.)
Aqueous nicotine forms with phosphate of magnesia a gelatinous pre-
cipitate; with acid sulphate of alumina, needle-shaped crystals of a
double salt. (Henry k Boutron.) With j^hospho-molybdic acid, it
behaves like conine (xiii, 164; Sonnenschein, Ann. Pharm. 104, 47.) —
Phospjhnntimonic acid (produced by dropping pentachloride of antimony
into aqueous phosjihoric acid) added to an aqueous solution containing
_|_ pt. of nicotine, produces a slight turbidity. (F. Schulze, Ann.
Pharm. 109, 179.)

Chloride of Cadmium with Hgdrochlorate of Nicotine. Nicotine forms
with chloride of cadmium, a compound which is difficult to crystallise
(G. William.s, Chera. Gaz. 1855, 450; Chem. Centr. 1856, 47), dissolves

Q 2



228 AZO-NUCLEUS C^oN^^Hi^

readily in water; does not give off any water at 100°, and corresponds to
the formula C-"N2H^S2HCl,5CaCl (Galetly, lY. Edinb. n. Phil. J, 4,
94; Chem. Centr. 1856, GOG.)

By precipitating bichloride of tin with nicotine, a white double salt is
obtained (Barral) ; with ferric chloride, a yellow-brown double salt
(Barral); a brick-red precipitate (Henry & Boutron). With mlphate of
cof'per, aqueous nicotine produces a greenish white precipitate, which is
not turned blue or dissolved by excess of nicotine. (Henry & Boutron.)

Nicotine with Mercuric Iodide. C'^WW^,2E.gl. Colourless laminne,
obtained by triturating nicotine with mercuric iodide (whereby heat is
evolved, and a j^ortion of the nicotine consequently volatilised) and
boiling the mass with water. (Wertheim, Gej^hardfs Traite, 4, 192.)

lodomercurate of Nicotine. — A solution of mercuric iodide in hydriodic
acid, is dropped into hydriodate of nicotine till the precipitate formed on
each addition begins to be permanent ; the double salt then crystallises
from the solution after standing for some time. The mother-liquor is decom-
posed by evaporation. Small yellow prisms sparingly soluble in cold water
and in alcohol. It is decomposed by hot water, depositing a reddish
yellow resin insoluble in potash-ley. (Bodeker.) Hydrochlorate of
nicotine added to potassio-mercuric iodide, produces a yellowish white
precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid. (v. Planta.)

Bodeker.

C20N2H'« 164 .... 19-09

4 1 508 .... 57-84 58-33

2 Hg 200 .... 23-07 22-71

C20N2H",2HI -f- 2HgI 872 .... 100-00

Nicotine ivith Mercuric Chloride, — Pure nicotine and acetate of nicotine form
with solution of mercuric chloride, white flocks, easily soluble in hydrochloric acid,
insoluble in alcohol. (Posselt & Reimann.) Hydrochlorate of nicotine, throws down
from corrosive sublimate, a white pulverulent precipitate easily soluble in hydrochloric
acid and in sal-ammoniac, (v. Planta.)

a. With 2 at. Mercuric CMoride. — By precipitating a solution of
corrosive sublimate with aqueous nicotine. White crystalline precipitate
which melts and turns yellowish below 100°.

Insoluble in water and ether, sparingly soluble in alcohol. (Ortigosa.)



20 C

2 N


120 .

28 .,


... 27-72 ..
... 6-46
... 3-23 ..
... 16-40 ..
... 46-19 ..


Ortigosa.
27-70


14 H


14 .


3-73


2 CI


71 .


15-86


2Hg


200 .


45-53


C20N2Hi^2HgCl


433 .


... 100-00





&. With 6 At. Mercuric Chloride. A solution of nicotine in dilute
hydrochloric acid is dropped into a saturated solution of mercuric chloride,
as long as the precipitate at first produced redissolves, and the solution is
set aside for a few days, whereupon, if it is sufficiently diluted, the com-
pound separates in crystals. If the solution is too strong, an oil is pro-



NICOTINE. 229

tluced, wliicli dissolves in hydrocliloric acid, and may be converted into
crystals l»y addition of mercuric chloriile. Clear, colourless, or pale
yellow crj'stals, sometimes an inch long. It crystallises in the right
prismatic system. Combination of two vertical jjrisms n and u, and two
pairs of basal faces 7n, u, t, {Fi<j. 77); in a»ldition, a horizontal prism I
{Fi</. 78), u:t = I'iS^ 55' 17 ; n:t= 129" 40' 33"; therefore w.u =
IGO' 45' 16", observation gave 160^ 43' 28"; Z : ^ = 123° 57' 24". Cleav-
age parallel to m. (Dauber, Ann. Pharm. 74, 201.)

Dissolves sparingly in cold water and melts to a brown resin in hot
water. Dissolves in acidulated water, sparingly in cold alcohol.
(Badeker.)

Bodeker.

C20]spH'4 162 .... 16-9

6 CI 213 .... 21-7 21-G

6 lig GOO .... 61-4 61-9

C-"N-Hi-»,GHgCl v75 .... 100-0

Chloromercurate of Nicotine. With 8^1^ Mercuric Chloride.
C2"N2H^*,HC],8HgCl. — Obtained as a crystalline precipitate by treating
a cold neutral solution of hydrochlorate of nicotine with a larger excess of
aqueous chloride of mercury. Crystallises from hot water in stellate
groups of needles. (Th. Wertheim, Gerhardt's Traitc, 4, 191.)

Aqueous nicotine does not precipitate cyanide of mercury. (Henry
k Boutrou )

Nicotine with Mercuric Chloride and Cyanide. A neutral solution of
hydrochlorate of nicotine is mixed with an equal quantity of a saturated
solution of cyanide of mercury. Colourless silky prisms grouped in
tufts, dissolving easily and without decomposition in water and alcohol,
both cold and hot. With hydrochloric acid, it evolves hydrocyanic acid
Potash -ley does not precipitate the solution of the prisms, but colours the
solid salt reddish yellow. Contains 6085 p. c. mercury, 17"76 chlorine,
and 2-46 cyanogen, and is therefore probably C'^2s^H.^*,5HgCl,HgCy or
C^N2Hl^4HgCl,2HgCy. (Bodeker.)

Nicotine with Nitrate of Silver. — Aqueous nicotine does not pre-
cipitate nitrate of silver. (Henry k, Boutron ) a. With ^ At. Nitrate
of silver, 2C2°N2H^^AgO,NO^ ^^ hen alcoholic nitrate of silver is mixed
with excess of alcoholic nicotine, and the dilute solution left to evaporate,
beautiful prisms are produced, which appear to belong to the oblique
prismatic system. (Wertheim.)

h. With 1 At. Nitrate of Silver, C2"N-Hi*,AgO,NO^ Obtained like a,
but with excess of nitrate of silver. Colourless prisms.

Nicotine with Teixhlonde of Gold — Aqueous nicotine forms with
sodio-auric chloride a light orange-coloured precipitate. (Henry 6c
Boutron.) Hydrochlorate of nicotine added to auric chloride, throws
down light yellow flocks, insoluble or sparingly soluble in hydrochloric
acid. (v. Planta.)

Chloroplatinite of Nicotine. — a. With 2 At. Hydrochloric acid.
1. Nicotine is gradually added to a luke-warm solution of protochloride



230 AZO-NUCLEUS C20N2H12.

of platinum in hydrochloric acid, stirring constantly and cooling the
liquid, because it is apt to get heated. There is then produced a crystal-
line precipitate of orange-coloured chloroplatinite of nicotine with 4 At.
hydrochloric acid, the quantity increasing as the stirring is continued;
and the mother -liquor filtered from this precipitate yields by evaporation
or cooling, red-coloured right prisms of chloroplatinite of nicotine with
2 At. hydrochloric acid. — 2. This salt is obtained in larger crystals,
when the orange-coloured salt is redissolved in the mother-liquor by
boiling, and the solution is left to cool and crystallise in vacuo. —
3. When the red prisms obtained by 1 or 2 are dissolved in a large
quantity of hot water, the solution becomes turbid on cooling, from
separation of yellow crystalline scales, isomeric with the red prisms
obtained by ] or 2. (Raewsky.)

Leaves platinum when ignited on platinum-foil. With hot nitric acid
it gives off red vapours. It is turned brown by oil of vitriol, and when
heated yields a brown precipitate and gives off sulphurous acid. It dis-
solves sparingly in cold water, more easily in hot water (if heated with too
little water, it becomes gelatinous on the surface and less soluble), and separates on
cooling in yellow crystalline scales, isomeric with the red prisms. It
dissolves in cold nitric and hydrochloric acid, not in alcohol or in ether.
(Raewsky.)



Red ualt.

20 c 120-0

2 N 28-0

16 H 16-0

2 Pt 197-4

4 CI 142-0







Raewsky.






mean.




a.


b.


23-8 ....


.... 24-00


.... 24-1


5-6 ....


.... 5-50


.... 6-1


3-2 ....


.... 3-25


.... 3-2


39-2 ....


.... 39-40


.... 391


28-2 ....


.... 27-85


.... 27-5



C20N2HH 2HCl,2PtCl 503-4 .... lOO'O 100-00 .... lOO'O

a. Red prisms, b. Yellow crystalline scales.

According to Raewsky, it is PtCl,C^''NH',HCl, that is to say, the hydrochlorate of
a peculiar platinum base (the corresponding member to which among the ammoniacal
platinum compounds (vi, 296) is not known ; a view which is opposed by Gerhardt
with respect to this and the following compound {Coynpt. chim. 1849, 206), inasmuch
as the latter gives off nicotine when treated with potash.

b. With 4 At. Hydrochloric acid. — {Preparation, vid. sup.). Orange-
yellow crystalline powder (a); separates by spontaneous evaporation
from its solution in hydrochloric acid, in very large, regular, orange-
coloured rhombic prisms (6); from its solution in nitric acid in small
yellow crystals (c). When dissolved in (an insufficient quantity of?)
boiling water, it leaves an amorphous residue (d), whilst the salt a crys-
tallises from the solution. (Raewsky.)

Heated on platinum-foil, it swells up, gives off hydrochlorate of
nicotine^ burns like tinder, and leaves platinum. Cold oil of vitriol turns
it white; hot oil of vitriol chars it, with evolution of sulphurous acid,
and leaves a black residue of platinum. With potash, it evolves nico-
tine. (Raewsky.)

Insoluble in cold water, {vide sup.) Insoluble in alcohol and ether.
Dissolves in nicotine, forming a red liquid, miscible without turbidity
with cold water; and on evaporating this solution in vacuo, there remains
a thick, glutinous, very deliquescent mass, resembling treacle, which
dissolves in water, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, alcohol ancl ether,



NICOTINE. 231

anil cannot in any way bo niado to crystallise. (Raewsky ) Perhans
C''"N'^H'S2lICl,PtCl or C^''N^4r\HCl,PtCl. (Gcrhardt, CoiLt. chlm
1849, 200'.)

Raewsky.



a- b. c. d.

Oran (J e -yellow salt. iiteaa.

20 C 120-0 .... 20-8 20-5 .... 20-7 .... 20-4 .... 205

2N 280.... 4-9 6-2.... 4-9.... G-2 6-2

18 H 180 .... 3-1 3-2 .... 3-1 .... 3-4 .... 3-3

2 Pt 197-4.... 34-3 34-2.... 34-3.... 34-0.... 34*0

6 CI 213-0 ... 36-9 35-9 .... 37*0 .... 36-2 .... 36-0

C2"M2H»,4HCl,2PtCl ... 576-4 .... lOO'O 1000 .... 1000 .... 100-2 .... lOO'O

According to Raewsky, PtClC>"NH7,2HCl (comp. p. 230.)

Cliloroplatinate of Nicotine. — NicoHnplatinchlorid. — On mixing the
solutions of liydroclilorate of nicotine and bichloride of platinum, a yellow
crystalline precipitate is formed if the solutions are concentrated, and if
they are dilute, there are deposited, after a while, oblique four-.sided prisms
belonging to the right prismatic system. (Ortigosa.) Barral obtains
the same compound as a granular powder by precijjitating bichloride of
platinum with nicotine. Liebig & Gail precipitate with bichloride of
platinum the distillate containing nicotine and ammonia obtained in the
jireparation of nicotine, as described at page 222, whereupon the liquid
Ultercd from the precipitate of chloroplatinate of ammonium dejiosits,
after three or four days, large ruby-red crystals. — The salt has a bitter
and very sharp taste. (Posselt & Reimann.)

When exposed to the air, it becomes dull, and cannot be recrystallised
without decomposition. Distilled with potash-ley, it yields pure nicotine.
(Liebig & Gail.) It dissolves with difficulty in water. (Ortigosa.)
Soluble in boiling water. (Barral.) It dissolves in hot dilate hydro-
chloric acid (Ortigosa), somewhat in nitric acid. (Posselt & Reimann.)
Insoluble in hydrochloric acid. (v. Planta.) Insoluble in alcohol and
in ether (Ortigosa) ; very soluble in a slight excess of nicotine.
(Barral.)



20 C


.... 1200 .


... 2087 ...
... 4-87 ...
... 2-78 ...
... 34-36- ...
... 37-12


Ortigosa.

20-98 ...

4-74 ...

3-09 ...

3411 ...


Barral.
. 21-12


2 N . . ...


28-0 .


4-81


16 H


.... 160 .


316


2 Ft


.... 197-4 .


34-25


6 CI


.... 213-0 .










C-"N-Hi\2HCl,2PtCl2....


.... 574-4 .


... 100-00







Acetate of Nicotine. — Nicotine supersaturated with glacial acetic acid
and exposed to the air, forms after 8 days a neutral syrup. (Posselt &
Reimann.) Acetate of nicotine crystallises with difficulty. (Henry &c
Boutron.) Strong acetic acid forms with the ethereal solution of nicotine
a clear mixture, from which water extracts the acetate of nicotine.
(Posselt & Reimann.) According to Schlossing also, acetate of nicotine
is soluble in ether.

Oxalate (f Nicotine. — Crystalline, easily soluble in water. (Posselt



232 AZO-iNUCLEUS C-^\-tr-.

& Reimann.) Insoluble in ether. (Sclil5ssing.) Laminae having a
pearly lustre. (Henry & Boutron.)

Nicotine forms a crystallisable salt with nicotic acid (x, 229).

Tartrate of Nicotine is obtained by evaporating its solution in the
air, as a crystalline granular mass easily soluble in water. (Posselt &
Reimann.)

Piuyurate of Nicotine. — Aqueous alloxan, to which a few drops of
nicotine are added, assumes in a few seconds a dark purple colour, and,
subsequently, there are formed in the red liquid, colourless rhombic tables,
very similar to those of uric acid when the latter have acquired their
obtuse angles ; they may be freed from the mother-liquor by washing
with a small quantity of water. The crystals dissolve in cold, moderately
dilute potash-ley, with splendid purple blue-colour and the odour of



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