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History of the popes; their church and state (Volume v.2) online

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Margaret H, Jackson

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Hand- col or I'd India proof reproduced from the original painting hv D' U rhino.





Translated by E. Fowler




'(-)X(')X(>)xC')xg2sa t„

FIFTHAV^ nnpc«; . v S NEW- YORK* ^ 1


Copyright, igoi,
By the colonial PRESS.






I.— State of Protestantism about the Year 1563 4

2. — Resources of the Papacy for Active Conflict 14

3. — The First Jesuit Schools in Germany 18

4. — Counter-Reformation in Germany 25

5. — Troubles in the Netherlands and in France 38

6. — Resistance of the Protestants in the Netherlands, France, and

Germany 47

7. — Contrasts Exhibited in ■ other parts of Europe — Poland —

Sweden — England and Switzerland 55

8. — Crisis in the Netherlands » 64

9. — Progress of the Counter-Reformation in Germany yy

10. — The League 100

II. — Savoy and Switzerland ; 109

12. — Attack on England iii

13. — Assassination of Henry III 117



-Theory of Ecclesiastical Policy 124

-Conflict of Opinions 132

-Latter Times of Sixtus V 137

-Urban VII, Gregory XIV, Innocent IX, and their Conclaves,

1590-1591 151

-Election and Character of Clement VIII 158

-Absolution of Henry IV 164

-Ferrara under Alfonso II 178

-Conquest of Ferrara 186

-Commotions among the Jesuits 194

-Political Situation of Clement VIII 211

-Election and First Measures of Paul V 220

-Disputes with Venice 224

-Issue of the Affairs of the Jesuits 242






I. — Enterprises of Catholicism in Poland and the Neighboring

Territories 249

2. — Attempt on Sweden 254

3. — Designs on Russia 265

4. — Internal Commotions in Poland 267

5. — Progress of the Counter- Reformation in Germany 272

6. — Papal Nunciature in Switzerland 287

7. — Regeneration of Catholicism in France 290



X. — Breaking out of the War 300

2.— Gregory XV 310


3.— Bohemia and the Hereditary Dominions of Austria 314

4.— The Empire— Transfer of the Electorate 320

5. — France 325

6.— The United Netherlands 328

7.— Relations of Catholicism with England 329

8. — Missions - 335

I.— Conflict of Political Relations— Further Triumphs of Catholicism 345




I. — Mantuan Succession 364

2.— Urban VIII 368

3.— The Power of the Emperor Ferdinand II in the year 1629 zi^

4.— Negotiations with Sweden— Electoral Diet at Ratisbon 379

5.— Swedish War— Situation of the Pope 385

6.— Restoration of the Balance between the Two Confessions 389



Leo X ....... . FrotUispiece

Photogravure from the original painting by D'Urbino

Page from a Preface by St. Jerome . . . - 38

Fac-simile Manuscript of the Seventh Century

Clement VII 122

Photogravure from the original painting by Titian

The Spirit of Hope 246

Photo-engraving from the statue by Bruyer in the Grand Opera at





FIRST PERIOD, 1563-1589

IN the history of a nation or power, there is no problem
more difficult than that of appreciating correctly the con-
nection of its particular relations with those of the world
in general.

It is true that the individual life of a nation is determined
by causes peculiar to itself, inherent in its nature, and display-
ing a characteristic consistency through all ages. But each com-
munity is subjected to the action of general influences, by which
its progress is powerfully affected.

On this conflict of forces it is that the character presented
by modern Europe may be said to have its basis. Nations and
States are separated eternally on certain points of their ex-
istence, but at the same time are knit together in indissoluble
community. There is no national history of which universal
history does not form an important portion. So necessary in
itself, so all-embracing, is the consecutive series of events
through a lapse of ages, that even the most powerful of States
appears but as a member of the universal commonwealth, in-
volved in and ruled by its destinies. Whoever has earnestly
sought to comprehend the history of any people as a whole, to
contemplate its progress without prejudice or illusion, will have
experienced the difficulties arising from this cause. In the sev-
eral crises of a nation's progressive existence we discern the
different currents that form the sum of human destiny.



The difficulty is doubled when, as sometimes occurs, a great
movement, agitating the whole world, is originated by an in-
dividual power, which then constitutes itself the special repre-
sentative of the principle actuating that movement. The power
thus in action takes then so influential a part in the collective
operations of the century, it enters into relations so intimate with
all the powers of the world, that its history, in a certain sense,
expands into universal history. Such was the epoch upon which
the papacy entered at the close of the Council of Trent.

Convulsed to its centre, endangered in the very ground-
work of its being, it had not only maintained itself, but found
means to gain renewed force. In the two Southern peninsulas,
all influences hostile to its ascendancy had been promptly ex-
pelled, all the elements of thought and action had been once
more gathered to itself, and pervaded by its own spirit. It now
conceived the idea of subduing the revolted in all other parts
of the world. Rome once more became a conquering power,
projects were formed and enterprises engaged in, recalling those
proceeding from the Seven Hills in ancient times and during
the Middle Ages.

The history of the renovated popedom would be but imper-
fectly understood, did we limit our attention to its centre only.
Its essential importance is best perceived by observing its opera-
tions on the world in general.

Let us begin by taking a review of the strength and posi-
tion of its opponents.

Section I.— State of Protestantism about the Year 1563

On the north of the Alps and Pyrenees the opinions of
Protestantism had made vigorous and unceasing progress up
to the time when the Council of Trent closed its last sittings :
they extended their dominion far and wide over the Germanic
and Sclavonic nations.

Among the Scandinavian races, the tenets of the Protestants
had established themselves all the more immutably from the
fact that their introduction was coincident with that of new
dynasties and with the consequent remodelling of all political
institutions. They were received with delight from the very
first, as if they bore in their nature some natural affinity with the


national disposition. Bugenhagen, the founder of Lutheranism
in Denmark, can find no words that suffice to depict the enthusi-
asm with which his sermons were listened to: " Even on work-
a-days " {Werkeltags), as he expresses it, " from the first gleam
of day the people were eagerly waiting, and on holidays they
were in attendance through the whole day." ^ Protestant tenets
had now made their way to the most remote countries. It is
not known by what agency the Faro Islands were rendered
Protestant, so easily was the change effected.^ In Iceland the
last representatives of Catholicism had disappeared by the year
1552, and a Lutheran bishopric was founded at Wyborg in the
year 1554. The Swedish governors were accompanied by Lu-
theran preachers to the most distant shores of Lapland. Gus-
tavus Vasa exhorts his heirs, in his will, made in 1560, to hold
fast by the evangelical doctrines, to inculcate the same on their
most remote successors, and to admit no false teachers. He
makes this almost a condition to the inheritance of the crown.^
On the opposite coast of the Baltic also were Lutheran opin-
ions predominant; at least, among such of the inhabitants as-
used the Germanic tongue. Prussia had given the first example
of secularizing church property on a grand scale ; this was fol-
lowed by Livonia, in 1561 ; the first condition made by the
province on its submission to Poland was that it should be at
liberty to abide by the Confession of Augsburg. The connec-
tion of the Jagellon kings with countries whose adherence to
their rule was secured only by the maintenance of Protestant
principles was a check on those princes, which prevented their
opposing any determined resistance to the progress of Lutheran
tenets. The more important cities of Prussian Poland were con-
firmed in the exercise of their religion, according to the Lutheran
ritual, by express charters granted in the years 1557 and 1558.
The smaller towns received privileges yet more explicit some
short time after, they being more exposed to attacks from the
powerful bishops.^ A large body of the nobles in Poland proper
had been won over to the Protestant confession, which they
found more in harmony with that feeling of independence,

^ " Narrative of D. Pomerani." 1539; I.," in Baaz, " Inventarium Ecclesiae

Sabb. p. visit., in Müller's " Entdeck- Sueogoth.," p. 282.

tern Staatscabinet, 4te Eröffn." p. 365. * Lengnich, " Account of the religious

^Munter, "Kirchengeschichte von changes in Prussia," prefixed to the

Dänemark," iii. 529. fourth part of the " Geschichte der

* " Testamentum religiosum Gustavi Preussischen Lande," § 20.


awakened and maintained by the constitution of their States.
'* A Polish noble is not subject to the king — shall he then be
subject to the pope?" was the question they asked. Things
went so far in this country that Protestants gained possession
of episcopal sees ; and, under Sigismund Augustus, they had
even obtained the majority in the Senate. That sovereign was
undoubtedly Catholic ; he heard mass daily and a Catholic ser-
mon every Sunday; he even joined the singers of his choir in
the " Benedictus." He confessed regularly, and received the
sacrament in one kind ; but the creeds that might be prevalent
in his court or kingdom seemed but little to disturb his quiet,
nor did he show any disposition to embitter the close of his life
by a contest with opinions making so vigorous a progress.^

An attempt at opposition of this kind had certainly produced
no very encouraging results in the neighboring dominions of
Hungary. The Diet had constantly refused to pass the resolu-
tions unfavorable to Protestant opinions that were pressed on
it from time to time by Ferdinand I. In the year 1554 a Lu-
theran was elected palatine of the empire, and concessions were
soon afterward extorted in favor of the Helvetic Confession in
the valley of Erlau. Transylvania was altogether separated
from the Catholic Church, the ecclesiastical possessions in that
country were confiscated by a formal decree of the Diet, and the
princes even appropriated the greater part of the tithes.

We next come to Germany, where the new form of the Church
had taken its origin from the peculiar constitution of the national
mind, had maintained itself through long and perilous wars, had
achieved a legal existence in the empire, and was now in the act
of occupying the various territories that divide the country.
Already had this process been in great measure accomplished.
In North Germany, where the Protestant tenets had taken rise,
they were entirely paramount ; they had gained permanent as-
cendancy in those districts of Southern Germany wherein they
had been early introduced, and had besides extended their in-
fluence far and wide beyond these limits.

The bishops vainly set themselves to oppose their progress in
Franconia. In Würzburg and Bamberg, the greater part of

* " Relatione di Polonia del Vescovo Majesty is too benignant, and will suf-

di Camerino," about 1555. A MS. of fer none to be molested. 1 could wish

the Chigi Library: " Many of these that he were more severe in matters of

[people of the court] are at liberty to religion."
do as they please, for all see that his


the nobility, and even the episcopal authorities, had passed over
to the reformed Church ; the majority of the magistrates and
burghers of the towns, with the whole mass of the people, held
similar opinions. In the bishopric of Bamberg we find the name
of a Lutheran preacher in almost every parish." A Protestant
spirit predominated in the government, which was principally
in the hands of the estates — bodies corporate, regularly consti-
tuted, and possessing the right of imposing taxes — nearly all
offices of the law courts were in like manner held by Protestants,
and it was observed that their decisions were very commonly
adverse to Catholic interests.'^ The bishops retained very little
influence, even those who, " with old German and Prankish
fidelity," still honored the secular princes in their persons, could
no longer endure to see them robed in their clerical ornaments
and crowned with the mitre.

No less energetic were the proceedings of Protestantism in
Bavaria. Here, too, the new faith had been adopted by a large
body of the nobles: a considerable number of the towns was
equally inclined toward these doctrines. In the assembly of his
States, for example, of the year 1556, the duke was compelled
to make concessions which had elsewhere led to the exclusive
adoption of the Confession of Augsburg, and which here also
promised the same result. The duke himself was not so de-
cidedly opposed to the new doctrines, but that he would occa-
sionally listen to a Protestant sermon.^

Far more than this had been gained in Austria. The nobility
of that country pursued their studies at Wittenberg, the col-
leges of the country were filled with Protestants, and it was
calculated that not more than a thirtieth part of the population
remained Catholic. A national constitution was gradually
formed, which was based on the principles of Protestantism.

Enclosed between Bavaria and Austria, the archbishops of
Salzburg had been unable to maintain their territories in obe-
dience to the Catholic rule. They did not as yet endure the
presence of Lutheran preachers, but the disposition of the peo-
ple was none the less explicitly declared. Mass was no longer
attended in the capital, nor were fasts solemnized or festivals

•Jack has occupied himself much ligionis " in " Franconia Lutheranismo

with this matter in the second and infecta," Scrijjtores Wirceb. i. p. 42.

third volumes of his "History of Bam- ^ Sitzinger in Strobel's "Beiträge zur

berg." Literatur," i. 313.

' Gropp, " Dissertatio de Statu Re-


observed; those whose dwellings were too far removed from
the preachers of the Austrian localities bordering their country,
remained at home, reading for their edification from the homi-
lies and scriptural commentaries of Spangenberg. This did not
satisfy the people of the hill-country. In Rauris and the Gas-
tein, in St. Veit, Tamsweg, and Radstadt, the inhabitants loudly
demanded the sacramental cup; this being refused, they aban-
doned the Lord's Supper altogether. They no longer sent their
children to school ; and, on one occasion a peasant rose up in
the church and called aloud to the priest, " Thou liest." The
country people began to preach to each other.^ We need feel
no surprise if the privation of all worship in accordance with
their newly adopted convictions should give rise to notions the
most visionary and fantastic, among the inhabitants of those
Alpine solitudes.

Advantageously contrasted with this state of things is that
which presents itself as existing in the territories of the eccle-
siastical electors on the Rhine. Here the nobles possessed in-
dependence, which enabled them to secure a degree of religious
liberty for their vassals beyond what could have been granted
by a spiritual prince. The Rhenish nobles had early received
the Protestant doctrines, and permitted the spiritual sovereign
to make no encroachments, even of a religious character, on their
domains. In all the towns there now existed a Protestant party.
In Cologne its activity was displayed by reiterated petitions.
It became so powerful in Treves as to send for a Protestant
preacher from Geneva, and maintain him in defiance of the
Elector. In Aix-la-Chapelle the Lutheran party made direct
efforts to obtain the supremacy. The citizens of Mayence did
not scruple to send their children to Protestant schools, those
of Nuremberg, for example. Commendone, who was in Ger-
many in 1 561, can find no words to describe the servility of the
prelates to the Lutheran princes, and the concessions they made
to Protestantism.^" He thought he could perceive that there
were Protestants of the most violent opinions even in the privy
councils/ and expresses amazement that time should have done
so little in aid of Catholicism.

* Extract from a Report of the Canon ^ The most furious heretics are

Wilh. von Trautmansdorf of the year among them; it appears to me that

1555. in Zauner's " Chronicle of Salz- time has brought no amelioration —

burg," vi. 327. Commendone, " Relatione dello State

1" Gratiam, " Vie de Commendon," della Religione in Germania," MS. Val-

p. X16. licellL


In a similar manner affairs proceeded throughout WestphaUa.
On St. Peter's day the country people were engaged with the
labors of their harvest ; the fast-days commanded by the canon
were no longer observed. In Paderborn, the town-council
watched, with a kind of jealousy, over its Protestant confession.
More than one bishop of Münster was disposed to the new
creed ; and the priests were, for the most part, publicly married.
Duke William of Cleves adhered, on the whole, to the Catholic
faith, but in his private chapel he received the Lord's Supper
in both kinds. The greater part of his council were avowed
Protestants ; nor did the evangelical form of worship experi-
ence any effectual hindrance in his dominions.-

We have said enough to show that Protestantism had gained
a decided ascendancy through Germany, from the east to the
west and from the north to the south. The nobles had from the
first enrolled themselves in its ranks ; the public functionaries,
already numerous and highly respected, were trained up in the
new creed ; the common people would hear no more of certain
articles once insisted on as matters of faith — the fires of purga-
tory, for example — nor of certain ceremonies, as pilgrimages ;
no convent could maintain itself, and none dared to exhibit the
relics of saints. A Venetian ambassador calculated, in the year
1558, that a tenth part only of the German people still adhered
to the ancient religion.

The losses sustained by the Catholic Church in riches and
power were no less important than those suffered by her spiritual
influence. The canons in nearly all the bishoprics were either
attached to the reformed tenets or were but lukewarm and in-
different Catholics. What should prevent them from proposing
Protestant bishops, should the doing so appear to them ad-
vantageous in other respects? It was without doubt decreed
by the Treaty of Augsburg that a spiritual prince should lose
both his rank and revenues on departing from the Catholic faith,
but this ordinance was not believed capable of restraining a
chapter which had become Protestant from electing a Protestant
bishop. All that could be insisted on was that the benefice should

2 Tempesti, " Vita di Sisto V." ; from g:iven in Niesert's " Miinstersche Ur-

the _ " Anonymo di Campidoglio," i. kundensammlung^," i. xxi., the same

xxiii. : " For many years he communi- thing is said of the Bishop of Münster

cated in both kinds, but his chaplain and the Court of Cleves. W. von Ket-

had induced him to receive the sacra- tier says: " Bishop William imbibed a

ment in his private chapel, so as not to semi-Lutheran religion in the Court of

scandalize his subjects." In a letter Cleves,"


not be made hereditary. It thus happened that a prince of Bran-
denburg obtained the archbishopric of Magdeburg, a prince of
Lauenburg that of Bremen, and a prince of Brunswick that of
Halberstadt. The bishopric of Lübeck, also, with those of Ver-
den and Minden, fell into the hands of Protestants, as did the
abbey of Quedlinburg.^

The confiscation of church property proceeded with propor-
tionate rapidity. How important were the losses sustained, for
example, in very few years, by the bishopric of Augsburg ! All
the convents of Wiirtemberg were wrested from it in the year
1557. These were followed in 1558 by the convents and parishes
of the county of Oettingen. After the Peace of Augsburg the
Protestants gained an equality with their rivals of the ancient
faith in Dünkelsbühl and Donauwerth; in Nördlingen and
Memmingen they acquired the supremacy. The convents of
these towns, and among them the rich preceptory of St. An-
thony in Memmingen, with the parochial benefices, were then
irretrievably lost.*

In addition to this came the circumstance that the prospects
of Catholicism were by no means encouraging as regarded the

Protestant opinions were predominant in the universities and
other schools : the old champions of Catholicism, who had taken
the field against Luther, and distinguished themselves in re-
ligious controversy, were dead or far advanced in years, and no
young men competent to occupy their places had arisen. Twenty
years had elapsed since any student in the University of Vienna
had taken priest's orders. Even in Ingolstadt, which was so
pre-eminently Catholic, no qualified candidates of the faculty
of theology presented themselves for those important offices that
hitherto had always been filled by ecclesiastics.^ The city of
Cologne established a school with endowments, but when all
the arrangements were completed it appeared that the new
regent was a Protestant.^ A university was founded by Car-
dinal Otto Truchsess in his town of Dillingen, for the express
purpose of opposing resistance to the Protestant opinions. It

* See also my " History Pol. Zeit- cietatis Jesu Germanise superioris," i.
schrift," i. ii. 269 et seq. P- 29. _ . _ . .

* Placidus Braun, " Geschichte der « Orlandinus, " Histona Soctetatts
Bischöfe von Augsburg," band iii. 533, Jesu," tom. i. lib. xvi. n. 25: " Hujus
535, et seq., on this point from authen- novae bursse regens, quem pnmum prs-
tic sources. fecerant, Jacobus Lichius, Lutheranus

^ Agricola, " Historia Provincias So- tandem apparuit."


flourished for some years under the care of certain eminent
Spanish theologians, but when these had departed no learned
Catholic could be found to take their places, which were at once
occupied by Protestants. At this period the teachers in Germany
were Protestant with very few exceptions : all the youth of the
country sat at their feet, and imbibed hatred of the pope with
the first rudiments of learning.

Such was the state of things in the North and East of Europe
— Catholicism was utterly banished from many places, it was
subdued and despoiled in all ; and while endeavoring to defend
itself in these regions, still more formidable enemies were press-
ing forward to assail it in the West and South.

For the Calvinistic modes of belief were without doubt more
decidedly opposed to the Roman tenets than were the doctrines
of Luther ; and it was precisely at the period we are now con-
templating that Calvinism took possession of the minds of men
with irresistible force.

It had arisen on the borders of Italy, Germany, and France,
and had extended in all directions. Toward the east, in Ger-
many, Hungary, and Poland, it constituted a subordinate but
very important element of the Protestant movement. In West-