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their forefathers, to be torn from them. But the
nuncio was deaf to every attempt to induce him
to consent to this heretical practice ; he adhered
to the views of the curia with inflexible obstinacy,
certain that the emperor would in the end approve
his conduct ; and in fact he succeeded in extracting
from him a declaration that his temporal admini-
stration was not to interfere in the affairs of reli-
gion. From this time mass was universally per-
formed according to the Roman ritual -, in Latin,
with aspersion of holy water and invocation of
saints ; the celebration of the sacrament in both

* Cordara, Historia societatis Jesu, torn. vi. lib. vii. p. 38.

t According to the opinions prevailing up to that time, e. g. in
Senkenberg, continuation of the Reichshistorie by Haberlins, vol.
XXV. p. 156, note k, we ought to believe the contrary of Lichten-
stein. That, however, would be an entirely false view, as ap-
pears from CarafFa. The nuncio, on the contrary, met with as-
sistance from Piateis.


kinds was wholly prohibited, and the boldest advo-
cates of that practice were thrown into prison :
lastly, the ancient symbol of Utraquism, the large
cup with the sword, affixed to the Thein church,
the very sight of which kept alive the old recollec-
tions, was pulled down. On the 6th of July, which
had always been kept as a holiday in memory of
John Huss, the churches were carefully closed.

The government now lent all the aid of political
means to this rigorous enforcement of the dogmas
and the usages of the church of Rome. A consider-
able portion of the landed property of the country
was thrown into catholic hands by confiscation ;
the acquisition of land by protestants was ren-
dered nearly impossible*; the council of all the
royal cities was changed ; no member was tolerated
in those bodies whose Catholicism was the least sus-
pected ; the rebellious were pardoned as soon as
they abjured protestantism, while, on the other
hand, the perverse, the unpersuadable, who would
not listen to ghostly admonitions, had troops quar-
tered in their houses -, "in order," to use the ex-
act words of the nuncio, " that their vexations
may give them some insight into the trutlif."

The effects wrought by this joint application of
force and argument were unexpected even to the

* Caraffa: " Conordine che non sipotessero inserire nelle tavole
del regno, il che apporto indicibile giovamento alia riforma per
tutto quel tempo."

t " Accio il travaglio desse lore sense ed intelletto ;" which ex-
pression is repeated in the printed work : " cognitumque fuit solam
vexationem posse Bohemis intellectum preebere."


nuncio. He was astonished at the numerous con-
gregations which attended the churches in Prague,
frequently on a Sunday morning consisting of from
two to three thousand people, and at their humble,
devout, and most catholic deportment. He infers
from this, that catholic recollections and associa-
tions had never been entirely obliterated in these
parts, (a proof of which was, that even the wife of
king Frederic was not permitted to remove the great
crucifix on the bridge) : its real cause doubtless
was, that protestant convictions had never pene-
trated the masses. Nothing could arrest the work
of conversion ; the Jesuits assert that in the year
1624 they alone brought back 16,000 souls to the
catholic church*. In Tabor, where protestantism
appeared to have exclusive sway, fifty families went
over to the faith at Easter, 1622 ; and at Easter,
1623, their example was followed by all the re-
maining population. In the course of time Bo-
hemia became thoroughly catholic. The example
of that country was followed by Moravia, where,
indeed, the object was more rapidly obtained,
in consequence of the union of temporal and spi-
ritual power in the hands of cardinal Dietrichstein,
who w^as at the same time governor of the province
and bishop of Olmiitz. But a singular obstacle
here presented itself The nobility could not be
brought to hear of the expulsion of the Moravian
brethren, who were invaluable as domestic servants

* Caraffa : " Messovi un sacerdote catolico di molta dottrina e
poi facendosi missioni di alcuni padri Gesuiti."



or husbandmen, and whose settlements were the
most thriving places in the whole country*. They
found advocates even in the emperor's privy coun-
cil. Nevertheless the nuncio and the principle of
which he was the organ, conquered even here.
About 15,000 were expelled.

Under these circumstances, the often-repeated,
and as often unsuccessful, attempts to re-establish
Catholicism in Austria proper, were at length re-
newed with triumphant success f. First the Pro-
testant preachers accused of rebellion, then all the
others, were banished : furnished with a jDittance
for their subsistence on the road, the unfortunate

* Ragguaglio di Caraffa : " Essendo essi tenuti huomini d' in-
dustria e d'integrita venivano impiegatl nella custodia de' ter-
reni, delle case, delle cantine e de' molini, oltre che lavorando
eccellentemente in alcuni mestieri erano divenuti ricchi e contri-
buivano gran parte del loro guadagno a'signori de' luoghi ne'
quali habitavano, sebbene da qualche tempo indietro havevano
cominciato a corrompersi essendo entrata tra di loro I'ambizione
e I'avarizia con qualche parte di lusso per comodita della vita. Cos-
toro si erano sempre andati augumentando in Moravia, perciocche
oltre a quelli che seducevano nella provincia e ne' luoghi convi-
cini, havevano corrispondenza per tutti li luoghi della Germania,
di dove ricorrevano alia loro fratellanza tutti quelli che per debito
o povertu disperavano potersi sostentare, e specialmente veniva ad
essi gran numero di poveri Grisoni e di Svevia lasciandosi rapire
da quel nome di fratellanza e sicurta di havere sempre del jjane,
che in casa loro diffidavano potersi col proprio sudore guadagnare,
onde si sono avvanzati alle volte sino al numero di centomila."

t This had been the emperor's first thought, even before the
battle of Prague, when Maximilian first entered the territory of
Upper Austria : he pressed the latter to remove the preachers
without delay, " so that the pipers might be dismissed, and the
dance stopped." His letter is in Breier's continuation of Wolf's
Maximilian, iv. 414.


men slowly ascended the Danube amidst insulting
cries of, ' Where is now your strong tower ? ' The
emperor plainly declared to the provincial estates,
" that he had absolutely and incontestably retained,
for himself and his posterity, the disposal of all
things concerning religion." In October, 1624, a
commission appeared, fixing a certain time within
which the inhabitants must profess the catholic
faith or void the country. Some degree of indul-
gence was for the moment shown to the nobility

In Hungary, though conquered, it was not pos-
sible to proceed in so tyrannical a manner ; yet
even here the current of things, the favour of the
government, and, above all, the exertions of arch-
bishop Pazmany, WTought a considerable change.
Pazmany possessed in a singular degree the talent
of writing his mother-tongue well. His book,
called ' Kalauz*,' full of ability and learning, was
irresistibly attractive to his countrymen. Nor was
the gift of eloquence denied him : we are told that
he personally persuaded fifty families, — among
whom we find the names of Zrinyi, Forgacz,
Erdody, Balassa, Jakusith, Homonay, and Adam
Thurzo — to abandon the protestant faith. Count
Adam Zrinyi alone expelled twenty protestant mi-
nisters, and put catholic priests in their stead.
Under these influences, the political affairs of the
kingdom of Hungary took a new turn. At the
diet of 1G25, the catholic Austrian party had the

* Hodoegus Igazsagra vezerlo Kalauz. Presburg, 1613, 1623.

CH. II. § IV.] THE EMPIRE. 481

majority. A convert recommended by the court —
an Esterhazy — was named palatine.

But let us not omit to remark a difference. The
conversions in Hungary were far more free and
voluntary than in the other provinces of the empire;
the magnate proselytes renounced none of their
rights ; they rather acquired new ones. In the
Austro-Bohemian provinces, on the contrary, the
entire independence of the estates, — their energy and
their power, — had thrown itself into the form of
protestantism ; their conversion was, if not in every
individual case, yet on the whole, compulsory; and
the re-establishment of Catholicism was accompa-
nied by a restoration of the absolute power of the


We know how much greater progress the re-
formation had made in the German empire than in
the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria ;
nevertheless recent events had a mighty effect even
in that province, where the counter-reformation at
once acquired an accession of vigour and a new
field of action.

Maximihan had hardly taken possession of the
Upper Palatinate, when he set on foot measures for
changing its religion. He divided the territory
into twenty stations in which fifty Jesuits were em-

VOL. II. 2 I


ployed ; the churches were forcibly delivered into
their hands, and the exercise of protestant worship
universally forbidden ; while the disposition of the
inhabitants to conform increased with the increasing
probability that the country would return into the
hands of Bavaria*.

The victorious party regarded the Lower Pala-
tinate also as completely their own. Maximihan
actually gave the Heidelberg library to the pope !
Even before the conquest of that city, the pope
had requested this as a favour of the duke, then
at Cologne, through his nuncio, Montorio, and the
duke had promised it with his accustomed ready
obsequiousness ; as soon therefore as the news of
the taking of Heidelberg reached Montorio, he as-
serted his claim to the hbrary. He had been told
that the manuscripts were of inestimable value, and
he sent a special request to Tilly to protect them
from injury during the pillage f. The pope then
despatched doctor Leone Allacci, scriptor of the
Vatican, to Germany, to take possession of the
books. Gregory XV. carried the thing with a high
hand. He declared this acquisition to be one of
the fortunate events of his pontificate ; it would
conduce, he said, to the honour and advantage of
the holy see, the church, and of learning generally j
it was also glorious to the Bavarian name, that so

* KropfF, Historia societatis Jesu in Germania superiori,
torn. iv. p. 271.

t Relatione di AP Montorio ritornato nunzio di Colonia, 1624.
The passage is given in the Appendix, No. 109.


precious a spoil should be preserved in Rome, the
museum of the world, in eternal memory of the
munificence of its princes*.

The duke evinced in all respects an indefati-
gable zeal for catholic reform, even surpassing that
of the Spaniards, who were certainly not subject to
the reproach of lukewarmness in the causef. The
nuncio beheld v/ith rapture mass celebrated and
conversions taking place in Heidelberg, "whence
the norma of the calvinists, the famous catechism,
had gone forth."

Meanwhile elector Schweikard was carrying on
the work of reform in the Bergstrasse, which he
had taken possession of; and margrave Wilhelm in
Upper Baden, which was awarded to him after
long htigation, although his birth was scarcely
legitimate, much less of the requisite degree of no-
bility ; he having expressly pledged himself to
the nuncio CarafFa, to forward the views of the
church if he succeeded |. In districts too w^iich
were not immediately affected by political events,
the ancient efforts in support of Catholicism were
prosecuted with fresh zeal*^ ; in Bamberg, Fulda,

* " Che cosi pretioso spoglio e cosi nobil trofeo si conservi a per-
petua memoria in questo teatro del mondo." Instruttioe nal dot-
tore Leon Allatio per andare in Germania per la libreria del
Palatino. See Appendix, No. 101, for an examination of the
authenticity of this document.

t Montorio : " Benchfe nelle terre che occupano i Spagnuoli
non si camini con quel fervore con quale si caraina in quelle che
occupa il S'" D'^ di Baviera alia conversione de' popoli."

X CarafFa, Germania restaurata, p. 129.

§ Johann Georg Fuchs of Dornheim was particularly active ;

2 i2


and Eichsfeld ; in Paderborn, where two catholic
bishops in succession were appointed ; but more
especially in the diocese of Münster, where Meppen,
Vechta, Halteren, and many other districts were
converted to Catholicism in the year 1624 : we find
Jesuit missionaries as far as Halberstadt and Mag-
deburg ; they fixed themselves for a while in Al-
tona, to learn the language, and thence to proceed
to Norway and Denmark.

We see in what a mighty torrent Catholicism
poured from the south to the north of Germany.
An attempt was now made to get possession of a
new centre of operations whence to act upon the
general affairs of the empire.

Immediately after the dissolution of the Union,
Ferdinand II. had promised duke Maximilian that
if their cause were successful, he would transfer the
Palatine electorate to him*.

There can be no question under what aspect this
circumstance was mainly regarded in the catholic
party. The majority which that party possessed
in the council of jDrinces had hitherto opposed the
equality of voices which the protestants claimed in
the electoral college ; if the contemplated transfer
of the electorate took place, this check would be
for ever removedf .

he won back three-and-twenty knights' parishes to Catholicism,
Jack, Geschichte von Bamberg, ii. 120.

* Lettei" from the emperor to Baltasar de Zuniga, 15 October,
1621, printed by Sattler, Wiärtembergische Geschichte, vi. p. 1G2,

f Instruttione a M"" Sacchetti nuntio in Spagna, notices the
restoration of the Palatinate as an " irreparabile jDcrdita della
reputazione di questo fatto e della chiesa cattolica, se 11 papa ci


The most intimate alliance had always existed
between the papal court and Bavaria, and Gregory
XV. now made this matter completely his own.

By the very first nuncio Vv^hom he sent to Spain,
he admonished the king to lend his assistance to
the destruction of the count palatine and to the
transfer of the electorate ; measures which would
for ever secure the imperial crown to the catho-
lics*. It was not easy to persuade the Spaniards to
take this course. They were engaged in the most
important negotiations with the king of England,
and had some hesitation in offending him in the
person of his son-in-la\vthe count palatine Frederic,
to whom the electorate actually belonged. Their
reluctance served only to inflame the zeal of Gre-
gory. Not satisfied with the exhortations of the
nuncio, in the year 1622 he sent brother Hyacinth
(a capuchin of great ability and address, who en-
joyed the particular confidence of Maximilian),
charged with a special commission to the Spanish
courtf. It was with extreme reluctance that the
king went further into the matter ; he could only
be brought to declare that he would rather see the
electorate in the house of Bavaria than in his own.

avesse condisceso, con indicibil danno della religione cattolica e
deir imperio, che tanti e tanti anni hanno bramato, senza po-
terlo sapere non che ottenere, il quarto elettor cattolico in ser-
vitio ancora del sangue Austriaco."

* Instruttione a Mons"" Sangro. He is admonished, " di in-
fervorare S. M'^, accio non si lasci risorgere il Palatino, e si
metta I'elettorato in persona cattolica, e si assicuri I'impero eter-
namente fra cattolici."

t Khevenhiller, ix. p. 1766.


This, however, was sufficient for brother Hyacinth.
Possessed of this declaration, he hastened to Vienna,
in order to remove from the emperor's mind all
scruples concerning Spain, and found himself sup-
ported there by the wonted influence of the nuncio
CarafFa, and even by a fresh missive from the pope
himself. "Behold," exclaims Gregory to the em-
peror, " the gates of heaven are opened ; the hea-
venly hosts urge thee on to win so great a glory ;
they will fight for thee in thy camp." The em-
peror was wrought upon by a singular consideration,
which strikingly illustrates his character. He had
long meditated this transfer, and had expressed his
intention in a letter which fell into the hands of
the protestants and was made public by them.
The ömperor thought himself as it were bound by
this accidental publicity. He fancied it essen-
tial to the maintenance of his imperial dignity to
adhere to an intention which he was known to have
formed. In short he took the resolution of pro-
ceeding to execute the transfer at the next electoral

It was however still a question whether the
princes of the empire would consent. The most
important among them was Schweikard of Mayence,
and we learn from the nuncio Montorio, that this
cautious prince was at first hostile to the measure,
and declared that war would only break out afresh
more fiercely than ever ; and also that if there
must be a change, the count palatine of Neuberg
had the next claim, and could not possibly be passed
* CarafFa, Germ, restaur., p. 120.


over. The nuncio does not relate by what argu-
ments he at length overcame these objections ;
"In the four or five days," says he, " which I
passed with him in Aschaftenburg, I obtained from
him the desired decision." We find only that he
promised substantial assistance on the part of the
pope, in case war should break out afresh.

The determination of the elector of Mayence was
decisive as to the matter in question. Both his col-
leagues on the Rhine followed his example. In
spite of the continued resistance of Brandenburg
and Saxony (the opposition of Saxony not being
overcome till a later period by the archbishop of
Mayence*) , in spite of the declared hostility of the
Spanish ambassador, the emperor steadily pursued
his object. On the 25th of February 1623, he
transferred the electorate to his victorious ally,
under condition, it is true, that at first it should be
only a personal possession, and that the palatine
heirs and agnates should retain their rights as to
the futuref .

But even with this condition, the advantage
gained was incalculable ; above all, the preponde-
rancy in the supreme council of the empire, whose
assent now gave a legal sanction to every fresh
decision in favour of Catholicism.

Maximilian clearly saw how much he was in-

* Montorio calls Schweikard "unico instigatore a far voltare
Sassonia a favore dell' imp''^ nella translatione dell' elettorato."

t The declaration of Onates and the violent letter of Ludovisio
against the restoration of an electorate into the hands of a blas-
pheming Calvinist. Khevenhiller, x. 67, 68.

488 FRANCE. [book VII.

debted to Gregory XV. "Your holiness," he writes,
" has not only furthered this matter, but by your
admonitions, your authority, your zealous exertions,
has in reality accomplished it. It is to be abso-
lutely and entirely ascribed to the favour and the
vigilance of your holiness."

" Thy letter, O son," answered Gregory, " hath
filled our breast with a stream of delight sweet as
manna from heaven : at length may the daughter
of Sion shake the ashes of mourning from her
head, and array herself in festal garments*."

§ 5. FRANCE.

At the moment these events were passing in
Germany, the great tide in the affairs of France
set in.

If we inquire what was the principal cause of the
decline of protestantism in the year 1621, we shall
find it in the internal divisions of the party, and still
more in the apostasy of the nobles. It is possible
that the latter was connected with that strong tend-
ency towards republicanism on the part of the

* Giunti, Vita di Ludovisio Ludovisi, ascribes the merit chiefly
to the pope's kinsman. " Da S. S'^ e dal C^^ furono scritte molte
lettere anche di proprio pugno piene d'ardore et efficacia per dis-
porre Cesare, et in oltre fu mandato AP'' Verospi auditore di rota
e doppo il P. F. Giacinto di Casale cappuccino." Through these
two, the emperor was told, " che il vicario di Christo per parte
del S""^ fin con le lacrime lo pregava e scongiurava e le ne pro-
metteva felicita e sicurezza della sua salute."

CH. II. § v.] FRANCE. 489

people, which was founded on a municipal as well
as a theological basis, and was therefore hostile to
the influence of the nobles. The nobility proba-
bly found it more for their advantage to attach
themselves to the king and court, than to endure
the tyranny of preachers and mayors. Whatever
be the cause, in the year 1621, the governors of
fortified towns vied with each other in alacrity in
giving them up ; every man sought only to bargain
for an advantageous post for himself; the same
scenes were renewed in 1622, when La Force and
Chatillon received the batons of marshals on ab-
juring their faith ; the aged Lesdiguieres turned
catholic*, and even commanded a division against
the protestants, and many others were carried
away by the force of such exam pies f. Under these
circumstances it w,as impossible to conclude a peace
in 1622 on other than extremely unfavourable
terms ; nor dared the huguenots flatter themselves
that even this peace would be maintained. For-
merly, when the protestants were powerful, the
king had often exceeded or broken his treaties with
them ; was it likely that he would observe them
now that they had lost their power? The treaty
of peace was accordingly violated in almost every
particular ; the exercise of protestant worship was

* There are remarks on this conversion in the Memoires de
Deageant, at p. 190, and in several other places, which are well
worthy of notice.

t Liste des gentilhommes de la religion reduits au roi, in Ma-
lingre, Histoire des derniers troubles arrives en France, p. 789.
Rohan also concluded his treaty ; unhappily, the articles, as they
appear in the Mercure de France, vii. p. 845, are not authentic.

490 FRANCE. [book VII.

in many places absolutely prevented ; the hugue-
nots were forbidden to sing their psalms in the
streets or shops ; their privileges in the universities
were curtailed*; Fort Louis, which the government
had bound itself to rase, was kept standing ; an
attempt was made to transfer the choice of the
magistrates of protestant cities into the hands of
the kingi; on the 17th April 1G22, an edict was
issued appointing a commissary to be present at all
meetings of huguenots ; and at length, after they
had once been brought to endure these vast in-
roads on their ancient liberties, the government in-
terfered in their affairs of a purely ecclesiastical
nature ; the huguenots were hindered from recei-
ving the decrees of the synod of Dort by the com-
missaries above mentioned.

They had no longer any independence ; they
could no longer make a steady, persevering resist-
ance, while on every side their ranks were thinned
by conversions.

The capuchins filled Poictou and Languedoc
with missions I ; the Jesuits, who had obtained new
estabhshments in Aix, Lyon, Pau, and many other
places, had the most triumphant success both in
the cities and the country ; their brotherhoods of
the Virgin attracted universal notice and admira-
tion by the care with which they had tended the
wounded in the late war§.

There were also franciscans who rendered emi-

* Benoist, ii. 419. t Rohan, Mem. i. iii.

I Instruttione all' arcivescovo di Damiata, MS. See App.
No. 106.

§ Cordara, Historiasoc. Jesu, vii. 95, 118,

CH. II. ^ v.] FRANCE. 491

nent services to the cause ; as for instance, father
Villele de Bourdeaux, of whom things almost fabu-
lous are related. After having brought the whole
city of Foix over to his faith, he succeeded in con-
verting a man above a hundred years old, — the
very same who had received the first protestant
preacher from the hands of Calvin, and had con-
ducted him to Foix. The protestant church was
pulled down, and the fathers, in the insolence of
their triumph, caused the exiled preacher to be ac-
companied from town to town by a trumpeter*.

In a word, the w^ork of conversion advanced with
resistless force. The high and low, and even the
learned, recanted ; the latter, particularly influenced

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