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Through the looking-glass, and what Alice found there online

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3 3433 08252985 4

Che Canterbury Classics

A Series of Supplementary Readers
edited under the general supervision of


Professor of English Literature in
Welles ley College, Wellesley^ Mass.

The text of this edition of
"Through the Looking-Glass"
agrees with the standard text
found in the author's edi-
tion, published in London
by Macmillan & Company.

From a

(Leii'is Carroll]

Che Loohing-Glaes

Hnd Cdbat HUce found Cbere


Lewis Carroll

Edited by


Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Formerly of Detroit University School, Detroit, Michigan

Illustrated by



P 14 1936

TVY ftV If*W Vt-:
Ail UJT & *iw * w

sii*r*m'iA-*t~n-it -^1" -' -fv "=.-.

Rand )Mc)SaUy & Company


New York


{ I

Copyright, 1917


THE series of Canterbury Classics aims to bear its share in
acquainting school children with literature suited to their
years. The culture of the imagination is no less impor-
tant than the culture of memory and the reasoning power. That
childhood is poor which has not for friends many of the goodly
company represented by Hector, Achilles, Roland, Sigurd, My
Cid, Don Quixote, Lancelot, Robin Hood, Percy, the Douglas,
Gulliver, Puck, Rip Van Winkle, and Alice in Wonderland.
College class-rooms, where Dante and Spenser, Goethe and
Coleridge are taught, speedily feel the difference between
minds nourished, from babyhood up, on myths of Olympus
and myths of Asgard, Hans Christian Andersen, old ballads,
the " Pilgrim's Progress, "the "Arabian Nights," the "Alham-
bra," and minds which are still strangers to fairyland and
hero-land and all the dreamlands of the world's inheritance.
Minds of this latter description come almost as barbarians to
the study of poetry, deaf to its music and blind to its visions.
They are in a foreign clime. In the larger college of life, no
less, is felt the lack of an early initiation into literature. A
practical people in a practical age, we need the grace of fable
to balance our fact, the joy of poetry to leaven our prose.
Something of the sort we are bound to have, and if familiarity
in childhood with the classic tone has not armed us against
the cheap, the flimsy, the corrupt in fiction, we fall easy victims
to the trash of the hour. We become the sport of those mock-
ing elves who give dry leaves for gold.

This series must needs conform somewhat, in its choice of
books, to the present demands of the schools. It will furnish
all good reading that is desired, but it aims also to help in
arousing a desire for the more imaginative and inspiring legends

6 Introduction to the Series

of the Aryan race. In the case of every volume issued the text
of the authoritative edition will be faithfully reproduced.

These texts will be furnished with a modest amount of
apparatus hidden away at the end of the book. It is the
classic that is of importance. Often it may be best to disregard
the notes. The series is addressed to children and aims to
stimulate imagination, broaden sympathy, and awaken a love
for literature. The editors strive to keep these aims in view
and to avoid breaking the charm of the story by irrelevant and
burdensome information. "\Vhat is told is meant to be what a
child would naturally like to know about the book that pleases
him and the writer of the book. The biographical sketches
emphasize, whenever it is appropriate, the childhood of the
authors treated, and try throughout to give, by concrete illus-
tration, impressions of personality and character. Special sub-
jects sometimes call for special sketches, but, in general, the
editorial work aims at quality rather than quantity. Kn< >\vledge
which seems essential to intelligent reading, and which dic-
tionary and teacher cannot reasonably be counted on to supply,
has its place in notes, yet it is not forgotten that the notes exist
for the sake of the literature, not the literature for the ^ake of
the notes. Parents and librarians will appreciate the reading
lists of books attractive to children, either by the author of the
classic in hand or along the same lines of interest. Certain
teachers, crowded and wearied with a variety of tasks, will
welcome the section of suggestions.

We have ventured to associate this series with the memory
of the sweetest and most childlike spirit in English song,
hoping that little pilgrims of to-day, journeying by April ways,
may find as much cheer in gentle stories as did the poet of the

Canterbury Tales.


We lies ley College.

Child of the pure unclouded brow
And dreaming eyes of wonder!

Though time be fleet, and I and thou
Are half a life asunder,

Thy loving smile will surely hail

The love -gift of a fairy-tale.

I have not seen thy sunny face,

Nor heard thy silver laughter:
No thought of me shall find a place

In thy young life's hereafter-
Enough that now thou wilt not fail
To listen to my fairy-tale.

A tale begun in other days,

When summer suns were glowing -
A simple chime, that served to time

The rhythm of our rowing
Whose echoes live in memory yet,
Though envious years would say 'forget?


Come, hearken then, ere voice of dread,

With bitter tidings laden,
Shall summon to unwelcome bed

A melancholy maiden!
We are but older children, dear,
Who fret to find our bedtime near.

Without, the frost, the blinding snow,
The storm-wind's moody madness -

Within, the firelight's ruddy glow,
And childhoods nest of gladness.

The magic words shall hold thee fast:

Thon shall not heed the raving blast.

Ami, tJicugJi the shadow of a sigh,

May tremble through the story,
For 'happy summer days' gone by,

And vanish' d summer glory-
It shall not touch, with breath of bale,
The pleasancc of our fairy-tale.


CON' 'EN r 'S


Introduction to the Series 5

Dedication 7

Diagram and Chess Problem 10

A List of Illustrations n






Chapter V. WOOL AND WATER 75



Chapter VIII. "IT'S MY OWN INVENTION" .... 122

Chapter IX. QUEEN ALICE 143

Chapter X. SHAKING 164

Chapter XI. WAKING 165


An Easter Greeting to Every Child who Loves "Alice" . 170

A Biographical Sketch 173

Notes 194

A Reading List 202

Suggestions to Teachers 206


White PaiL'n (Alice) to flay, and win in clcrcn moves.


1. Alice meets R. Q. . . 35

2. Alice through Q's 3d

(by railway) 44

to Q's 4th (Twc, -
dlcdum and Twee-
dledee) 49

3. Alice mcfts W. Q.

(with shawl) 75

4. Alice to Q's 5th

(shop, river, shop) 82

5. Alice to Q's 6th

(Hunt ply D iimpty) 90

6. Alice to Q's 7th

(forest) 120

7. W. Kt. takes R. Kt. 125

8. Alice to Q's 8th

(coronation) 141

9. Alice becomes

Queen 142

10. Alice castles (feast) 156

11. Alice takes R. Q. and

wins 163


1. R. Q. to K. R's 4th. 41

2. W. Q. to Q. B's 4th

(after shawl) 75

3. W. Q. to Q. B's 5th

(becomes sheep) ... 81

4. W. Q. to K. B's 8th

(leaves egg on
shelf) 90

5. W. Q. to Q. B's 8th

(flying fromR. Kt.) 116

6. R. Kt. to K's 2d

(check) 122

7. W. Kt. toK. B's 5th 140

8. R. Q. to K's sq.

{examination) .... 143

9. Queens castle 156

10. W. Q. to Q. R's 6th

(soup) 162



LEWIS CARROLL, from a photograph

The Red Queen, The White Queen, and Alice


Facing 13

'That's three faults, Kitty, and you've not been punished" . 16

His eyes and his mouth went on getting larger and larger . 23

Alice curtseyed again 37

A small voice said, " You might make a joke on that" . . 47

She caught at the thing nearest the Goat's beard .... 49

The next moment they were dancing round in a ring . . . 59

And this was scarcely odd, because

They 'd eaten every one 66


"Do I look very pale?" said Tweedledum 72

The Queen spread out her arms again, and went flying after it . 82

11 1 only hope the boat won't tipple over!" she said .... 87

He pursed up his lips, and looked solemn and grand ... 94

A bird with its feathers sticking out all round 102

The Messenger, wriggling like an eel no

The King was evidently very uncomfortable 119

" You will observe the Rules of Battle, of course" . . . .124

The Knight fell heavily on the top of his head 130

The Knight rode slowly away into the forest 141

It was a golden crown 142

Both Queens were fast asleep -...152

"All about fishes. Shall she repeat it?" 158

"Here I am!" cried a voice from the soup-tureen . . . .162






ONE thing was certain, that the white kitten
had had nothing to do with it it was the
black kitten's fault entirely. For the
white kitten had been having its face washed by
the old cat for the last quarter of an hour (and 10
bearing it pretty well, considering) : so you see
that it couldn't have had any hand in the mischief.

The way Dinah washed her children's faces
was this : first she held the poor thing down by its
ear with one paw, and then with the other paw 15
she rubbed its face all over, the wrong way,
beginning at the nose : and just now, as I said, she
was hard at work on the white kitten, which was
lying quite still and trying to purr no doubt feel-
ing that it was all meant for its good. 20

But the black kitten had been finished with
earlier in the afternoon, and so, while Alice was


14 Througl i tJie Looking-Glass

sitting curled up in a corner of the great arm-chair,
half talking to herself and half asleep, the kitten

25 had been having a grand game of romps with the
ball of worsted Alice had been trying to wind up,
and had been rolling it up and down till it had all
come undone again ; and there it was, spread over
the hearth-rug, all knots and tangles, with the

so kitten running after its own tail in the middle.

'Oh, you wicked, wicked little thing!' cried

Alice, catching up the kitten, and giving it a little

kiss to make it understand that it was in disgrace.

' Really, Dinah ought to have taught you better

35 manners! You cn-ght, Dinah, you know you
ought!' she added, looking reproachfully at the
old cat, and speaking in as cross a voice as she
could manage and then she scrambled back into
the arm-chair, taking the kitten and the worsted

w with her, and began winding up the ball ug.'iin.
But she didn't get on very fast, as she was talking
all the time, sometimes to the kitten, and some-
times to herself. Kitty sat very demurely on her
knee, pretending to watch the progress of the

45 winding, and now and then putting out one paw
and gently touching the ball, as if it would be glad
to help if it might.

'Do you know what to-morrow is, Kitty?'
Alice began. You'd have guessed if you'd been

so up in the window with im* -only Dinah was mak-
ing you tidy, so you couldn't. I was watching

And What Alice Found TJicre 15

the boys getting in sticks for the bonfire and
it wants plenty of sticks, Kitty! Only it got
so cold, and it snowed so, they had to leave off.
Never mind, Kitty, we'll go and see the bonfire 55
to-morrow." Here Alice wound two or three
turns of the worsted round the kitten's neck, just
to see how it would look: this led to a scramble,
in which the ball rolled down upon the floor, and
yards and yards of it got unwound again. GO

'Do you know, I was so angry, Kitty," Alice
went on, as soon as they were comfortably settled
again, "when I saw all the mischief you had been
doing, I was very nearly opening the window, and
putting you out into the snow! And you'd have 65
deserved it, you little mischievous darling! What
have you got to say for yourself? Now don't
interrupt me!' she went on, holding up one
finger. ' I'm going to tell you all your faults.
Number one : you squeaked twice while Dinah 70
was washing your face this morning. Now you
can't deny it, Kitty: I heard you! What's that
you say?' (pretending that the kitten was
speaking) . ' Her paw went into your eye ? Well,
that's your fault, for keeping your eyes open if 75
you'd shut them tight up, it wouldn't have hap-
pened. Now don't make any more excuses, but
listen! Number two: you pulled Snowdrop away
by the tail just as I had put down the saucer
of milk before her! What, you were thirsty, so


Through the Looking-Glass

were you? How do you know she wasn't thirsty
too ? Now for number three : you unwound every
bit of the worsted while I wasn't looking!

; That's three faults, Kitty, and you've not

" ' That's three faults. Kilty, and you're not been punished ' "

85 been punished for any of them yet. You know
I'm saving up all your punishments for Wednes-
day week Suppose they had saved up all ;;/v
punishments?" she went on, talking more to her-
self than the kitten. ' What iwnLi they do at

o the end of a year? I should be sent to prison,
I suppose, when the day came. Or let me see

And What Alice Found There

suppose each punishment was to be going without
a dinner: then, when the miserable day came, I
should have to go without fifty dinners at once!
Well, I shouldn't mind that much! I'd far rather 95
go without them than eat them !

" Do you hear the snow against the window-
panes, Kitty? How nice and soft it sounds!
Just as if some one was kissing the window all over
outside. I wonder if the snow loves the trees and 100
fields, that it kisses them so gently ? And then it
covers them up snug, you know, with a white
quilt ; and perhaps it says ' Go to sleep, darlings,
till the summer comes again.' And when they
wake up in the sumnier, Kitty, they dress them- 105
selves all in green, and dance about- whenever
the wind blows oh, that's very pretty!' cried
Alice, dropping the ball of worsted to clap her
hands. ' And I do so wish it was true ! I'm sure
the woods look sleepy in the autumn, when the no
leaves are getting brown.

'Kitty, can you play chess? Now, don't
smile, my dear, I'm asking it seriously. Because,
when we were playing just now, you watched just
as if you understood it : and when I said ' Check ! ' us
you purred! Well, it was a nice check, Kitty,
and really I might have won, if it hadn't been for
that nasty Knight, that came wriggling down
among my pieces. Kitty, dear, let's pretend-
And here I wish I could tell you half the things 120

1 8 Through the Looking-Glass

Alice used to say, beginning with her favorite
phrase 'Let's pretend." She had had quite a
long argument with her sister only the day before
-all because Alice had begun with ' Let's pre-
125 tend we're kings and queens" ; and her sister, who
liked being very exact, had argued that they
couldn't, because there were only two of them,
and Alice had been reduced at last to say ' ' Well,
you can be one of them, then, and /'// be all the
130 rest." And once she had really frightened her
old nurse by shouting suddenly in her ear, " Nurse !
Do let's pretend that I'm a hungry hyena, and
you're a bone!'

But this is taking us away from Alice's speech

n.-, to the kitten. 'Let's pretend that you're the

Red Queen, Kitty ! Do you know, I think if you

sat up and folded your arms, you'd look exactly

like her. Now do try, tbnv's a dear! And

Alice got the Red (Jutm off the table, and set it

HO up bcfoiv the kitten as a model for it to imitate:

howrver, the thing didn't succeed, principally,

Alice said, because the kitten wouldn't fold its

arms properly. So, to punish it, she held it up

to the Looking-glass, that it might see how sulky

145 it was, -and if you're not good directly," she

added, Til put you through into Looking-glass

House. How would you like that/

' Xow, if you'll only attend, Kitty, and not
talk so much, I'll tell you all my ideas about

And WJiat Alice Found There

Looking-glass House. First, there's the room iso
you can see through the glass that's just the
same as our drawing-room, only the things go the
other way. I can see all of it when I get upon a
chair all but the bit just behind the fireplace.
Oh ! I do so wish I could see that bit ! I want so 155
much to know whether they've a fire in the winter :
you never can tell, you know, unless our fire
smokes, and then smoke comes up in that room
too but that may be only pretense, just to make
it look as if they had a fire. Well then, the books wo
are something like our books, only the words go
the wrong way: I know that, because I've held up
one of our books to the glass, and then they hold
up one in the other room.

' How would you like to live in Looking-glass ies
House, Kitty? I wonder if they'd give you milk
in there? Perhaps Looking-glass milk isn't good
to drink but oh, Kitty! now we come to the
passage. You can just see a little peep of the
passage in Looking-glass House, if you leave no
the door of our drawing-room wide open : and it's
very like our passage as far as you can see, only
you know it may be quite different on beyond.
Oh, Kitty, how nice it would be if we could only
get through into Looking-glass House! I'm sure 175
it's got, oh! such beautiful things in it! Let's
pretend there's a way of getting through into it,
somehow, Kitty. Let's pretend the glass has got

2O Through the Looking-Glass

all soft like gauze, so that we can get through.

iso Why, it's turning into a. sort of mist now, I de-
clare ! It'll be easy enough to get through -
She was up on the chimney-piece while she said
this, though she hardly knew how she had got
there. And certainly the glass was beginning to

iso melt away, just like a bright silvery mist.

In another moment .Mice was through the


glass, and had jumped lightly down into the
Looking-glass room. The very first thing she did
was to look whether there was a fire in the fire-

i'.' place, and she was quite pleased to find that there 1

was a real one, blazing away as brightly as the

one she had left behind. ' So I shall be as warm

here as I was in the old room," thought Alice:

'warmer, in fact, because there'll be no one here

I-.'- to scold me away from the fire. ( )h, what fun
it'll be, when they see me through the glass in
here, and can't get at me ! '

Then "she began looking about, and noticed
that what could be seen from the old room was

200 quite common and uninteresting, but that all the
rest was as different as possible. For instance,
the pictures on the wall next the fire seemed to
be all alive, and the very clock on the chimney-
piece (you know you can only see the back of it

200 in the Looking-glass) had got the face of a little
old man, and grinned at her.

'They don't keep this room so tidy as the

And What Alice Found There 21

other," Alice thought to herself, as she noticed
several of the chessmen down in the hearth among
the cinders ; but in another moment, with a little 210
'Oh!' of surprise, she was down on her hands
and knees watching them. The chessmen were
walking about, two and two !

" Here are the Red King and the Red Oueen,"

o -^

Alice said (in a whisper, for fear of frightening 215
them), 'and there are the White King and the
White Queen sitting on the edge of the shovel-
and here are two Castles walking arm in arm I
don't think they can hear me," she went on, as
she put her head closer down, 'and I'm nearly 220
sure they can't see me. I feel somehow as if I
was getting invisible -

Here something began squeaking on the table
behind Alice, and made her turn her head just in
time to see one of the White Pawns roll over and 225
begin kicking : she watched it with great curiosity
to see what would happen next.

' It is the voice of my child ! " the White Queen

cried out, as she rushed past the King, so violently

that she knocked him over among the cinders. 230

' My precious Lily ! My imperial kitten ! " and she

began scrambling wildly up the side of the fender.

' Imperial fiddlestick!" said the King, rubbing
his nose, which had been hurt by the fall. He
had a right to be a little annoyed with the Queen, 235
for he was covered with ashes from head to foot.

22 Through tlie Looking-Glass

Alice was very anxious to be of use, and, as the

poor little Lily was nearly screaming herself into

a fit, she hastily picked up the Queen and set

240 her on the table by the side of her noisy little


The Queen gasped and sat down: the rapid
journey through the air had quite taken away her
breath, and for a minute or two she could do
2 nothing but hug the little Lily in silence. As
soon as she had recovered her breath a little, she
called out to the White King, who was sitting
sulkily among the ashes, H Mind the volcano!'

"What volcano?' said the King, looking up
250 anxiously into the fire, as if he thought that was
the most likely place to find one.

'Blew -me- -up," panted the Quern, who was
still a little out of breath. 'Mind you come up

-the regular way -don't get blown up!'
2.-..-, Alice watched the White King as he slowly
struirgled up from bar to bar, till at last she said
"Why, you'll be hours and hours getting to the
table, at that rate. I'd far better help you,
hadn't I?'' But the King took no notice of the
zeo question : it was quite clear that he could neither
hear her nor see her.

So Alice picked him up very gently, and lifted

him across more slowly than she had lifted the

Queen, that she mightn't take his breath away;

25 but, before she put him on the table, she thought

And What Alice Found There

she might as well dust him a little, he was so
covered with ashes.

She said afterwards that she had never seen
in all her life such a face as the King made, when
he found himself held in the air by an invisible 270

"His eyes and his mouth went on getting larger and larger "

hand, and being dusted: he was far too much
astonished to cry out, but his eyes and his mouth
went on getting larger and larger, and rounder
and rounder, till her hand shook so with laughing
that she nearly let him drop upon the floor.

' Oh! please don't make such faces, my dear!'
she cried out, quite forgetting that the King
couldn't hear her. " You make me laugh so that


24 Through the Locking-Glass

I can hardly hold you! And don't keep your

280 mouth so wide open ! All the ashes will get into
it - - there, now I think you're tidy enough!" she
added, as she smoothed his hair, and set him upon
the table near the Queen.

The King immediately fell flat on his back,

285 and lay perfectly still ; and Alice was a little
alarmed at what she had clone, and went round
the room to see if she could find any water to
throw over him. However, she could find nothing
but a bottle of ink, anil when she got back with

:-." it she found he had recovered, and he and the
(Jueen were talking together in a frightened
whisper -so low, that Alice could hardly hear
what they said.

The King was saying," I assure you, my dear,

:".'.-. I turned cold to the very ends of my whiskers!'
To which the (Jueen replied," You haven't got
any whiskers."

The horror of that moment," the King went
on, 'I shall never, uc'ccr forget!'

300 'You will, though," the (Jueen said, 'if you
don't make a memorandum of it."

Alice looked on with great interest as the King
took an enormous memorandum-book out of his
pocket, and began writing. A sudden thought

.jo.-, struck her, and she took hold of the end of the
pencil, which came some way over his shoulder,
and began writing for him.

And What Alice Found There 25

The poor King looked puzzled and unhappy,
and struggled with the pencil for some time with-
out saying anything ; but Alice was too strong for 310
him, and at last he panted out " My dear! I really
must get a thinner pencil. I can't manage this
one a bit : it writes all manner of things that I
don't intend -

' What manner of things ? ' said the Queen, 315
looking over the book (in which Alice had put
' The White Knight is sliding down the poker. He
balances very badly'). That's not a memoran-
dum of your feelings!'

There was a book lying near Alice on the table, 320
and while she sat watching the White King (for
she was still a little anxious about him, and had
the ink all ready to throw over him, in case he
fainted again), she turned over the leaves, to

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