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Darlington Memorial Library
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Pittsburgh Library System
. Geographical^ Hijlorical^
Polittcal, Philofofhical and Mechanical
^ S S A Y S.
THE FIRST, Containing
N A L Y S I
Of a General M A P of the
MIDDLE BRITISH COLONIES
A M E R I C A',
And of the Country of the Confederate Indians ^
A Description of the Face of the Country ;
The BouNDARiE^jof the Confederates j
A N^D THE
Maritime and Inland Navigations of the feveral RIVERS
and L A K ES contained therein.
By LEWIS EVAN S, -^nsc
Printed by B. FRANKLIN, and D. HAL L. MDCCLV.
And fold by R. and J. D O D S L, E Y, in Pall-Mail, London.
[ ^'ii ]
P R E F A C E.
THE Map, that ihefe Sheets accompany, and that they are intended to explain and
fupply, is prefented to the Public, when a longer 'Time was indeed necejfary to have
given it the Degree of CorreÂ£lnefs that was intended it. But the prefent Conjuncture ef Af-
fairs in America, and the generous Affifiance of the Affembly of Penfthania, have brought it
to Light, when the Public will, it is hoped, receive Advantages from it, that will render an
Apology for its premature Publication needlefs ; and think it worthy the Encouragement of a
BODY who devote the Public Money to the Public Service.
Il" comprizes fuch an Extent, as is conne5fed with that very valuable Country on the
OHIO, which is now the Object of theBritifh and French Policy, and the different Routes
of both Nations thither. 'The Lake Ontario is equally open to both ; to the one by the River
St. Laurence % to the other by the Rivers Hudfon, Mohocks and Seneca. But the French hav-
ing, thirty Tears ago, fixed themfelves on the Streights of Niagara, by building Fortreffes en
Lands confeffedly Britifh, fecured the Key en that Side to all the Country Weftward. Thofe
in Power fee at lafl its Confequence, and are proje^ing the Recovery of it ; and with great
Judgment, for that Purpofe, are eftablifhing a naval Force on Lake Ontario, as very necef-
fary in the Recovery and Securing of it. 'The Iffue of this Enterprize will have great In-
fluence en cur Affairs, and of all Things it becomes the Colonies to pufh it en with
Vigour. If they fucceed here, the Remainder of the Work will be eafy -, and Nothing fo,
without it. The Englifh have fever al Ways to Ohio -, hut far the beft is by Potemack.
B T Reafon of the little Acquaintance the Public has with thefe remoter Parts, where the
Country is yet a Wildernejs, and the Neceffity of knowing the Ways ef Travelling there, efpe-
daily by Water : In the Map is pointed out the Nature of the feveral Streams ; as where
rapid, gentle or obfiruShd with Falls, and ccnfequently more or lefs fitted for Inland Navi-
tion with Canoes, Boats or larger Fefels -, and where the Portages are made at the Falls, or
from one River, Creek or Lake to another. And for difiinguifhing the Extent of the Marine
Navigation, the Places, that the Tide rsaches, in the feveral Rivers, are pointed out. And
â– in thefe Sheets, both the Marine and Inland Navigation are treated of at Length.
A S the Natures of the Soil and Streams depend upon the Elevation and Depreffion of the
Land -, / have particularly explained here the different Stages that it is divided into. It were
to be wijht, that we had like Accounts of all Countries ; as fuch would dijcover to us great
Regularity, where an unattentive Obferver would imagine there was Nothing but Confujion -,
and at the fame T'ime explain the Climates, the Healthinefs, the Produce and Conveniencies
for Habitations, Commerce and Military Expeditions, to a judicious Reader in a few Pages,
better than Volumes of Remarks on Places, drawn without thefe DijlinSiions .
T O render this Map ufeful in Commerce, and the Afcertaining the Boundaries of Lands,
the Time of High-Water, at the Full and Change of the Moon, and the Variation of the
Masnetical Needle are laid down. But as thefe deferve particular Explanations, I have.,
for want of Room, concluded to treat of them at large in a feparate Efjay.
ALONG the Wejiern Margin of the Map is drawn a Line reprefenting the greateft
Lengths of Days and Nights (without Allowance for the Refraction) which will affifi Tra-
vellers, in forming feme Judgment of the Latitude of Places, by the Help of their Watches
1^ HOUG H many of thefe Articles are almoji peculiar to the Author's Maps, they are
of no lefs Importance than any 'Thing, that has yet had a Place amongfi Geographers. But
Want of Room in the Plate, has obliged me to leave out, what would have very much affijied
my Explanation of the Face of the Country, I mean a Seftion of it in feveral Direftions ;
fuch would have exhibited the Rifing and Falling of the Ground, and how elevated above the
Surface of the Sea ; what Parts are level, what rugged \ where the Mountains rife, and
how far they fpread. Nor is this all that a perpendicular Section might be made to repre-
fent ; for, as on the upper Side, the Elevations, Deprejfions, outer Appearances and Names
of Places may be laid down ; on the lower, the Nature of the Soil, Subflrata and particu-
lar Foffils may be exprejl. It was with Regret I was obliged to omit it. But in fome
future Maps of feparate Colonies, I hope to be furnifhed with more Room.
THE prefent, late, and antient Seats of the original Inhabitants are expreffed in
the Map ; and though it might be imagined that feveral Nations are omitted, which are
mentioned by Authors, it may be remarked, that Authors, for Want of Knowledge in Indian
Affairs, have taken every little Society for a feparate Nation ; whereas they are not truly
more in Number than I have laid down. I have been fomething particular in thefe Sheets
in reprefenting the Extent of the Country of the Conlederates or Five Nations ; becaufe,
whatever is fuch, is exprefly acceded to the Englifi by Treaty with the French,
^ ^ '' AN
[ I ]
A N A L Y S I S
A General MAP of the
MIDDLE BRITISH COLONIES,
The Country of the Confederate hidians^ &c.
AS different Parts of this Map are done with very different Propor-
tion of Exaftncfs, Juftice to the Public, requires my diftinguiflhing
the Degree of Credit every Part deferves j and to make fome Re-
compenfe for the Defedls of thofe Places, where no a6lual Surveys
Jiave been yet made, by giving fuch a^Defcription as the Nature of the Sub-
ject will admit ; which may, at this Time, be of as much Confequence
as the nicell Surveys deftitute of this Advantage.
The Britifh Settlements are done, for the greater Part, from adual Sur-
â€¢-veys. The Latitudes of many Places taken with good Inftruments, and the Latitudes."
Longitudes of Philadelphia and Bofton, obferved by different Perfons, and Longitude of
well agreeing, give a Foundation for the Proje6lion of the Map. And as ^^?\ \^^
Philadelphia is a fine City, fituate near the Center of the Britifh Dominions on agree,
this Continent, and whether inferior to others in Wealth, or Number of
Houfes, or not, it far excels in the Progrefs of Letters, mechanic Arts, and
the public Spirit of its Inhabitants ; Reafons fufficient for paying it the parti-
cular Diftinftion of making it the firfl Meridian of America. And a Meridian Philadelphia
here I thought the m.ore neceffary, that we may determine the Difference of made the firtt
.the Longitude of Places by Menfuration -, a Method far excelling the beft * *'
aflronomical Obfervations \ and as we may be led into feveral Errors by al-
ways reckoning from remote Meridians. Thofe who have only feen the
Plans and Maps of this City, muft be cautioned not to give any of them
Credit, for it extends only on the Weft Side of Delaware, about a Mile and a
Half in Length, and about Half a Mile in the greateft Breadth. â– Near the
Weftern Extremity is the Statehoufe, the Spot propofed for my Meridian to
"be drawn through.
2 'The Extent of the BngliJJ) Settlements and Trade.
The Extent The Settlements made by the Englifh are bounded on one Side by the
of the BritiQi Qcean, and on the other by no certain Line or Diftance.; for in fome Places
ettements. ^.j^^^ ^^^ ^^^ above 30 or 40 Miles from the Heads -of Tide, and m others
11 C b 150 or 200. In general, they may be confidered as extended to No. 4 (| *
f Cc on Connefticut River, and thence to Saretoga-f on Hudfon's River, and to
Â§ C d f D d Cafe's Â§ on the Mohock's River â€¢, thence back, by the Lakes ^, at the Head
of Sufquehanna, to the Head of Delaware, and thence down the laft mention-
ed River to the Mouth of Legheiwackfein || c^ â€¢, from whence to include
thofe of Penfilvania, you crofs over to Sufquehanna River Â§ by the Pur-
chafe Line laid down in the Map ; and further along Weft ward, fo as to in-
clude the Southern Branches of Juniata, Frank's Town -f, and Ray's
Town ^. The fcattered Settlements thence to Ohio along Yoghioganijl and
Monaungahela II are lately broke up by the Incroachments of the French in
that Quarter. Thofe on Green Briar Â§ and its Branches, and downward to
the Fork, and thence Southward by Stahlmakers ^, at the Head Fork of
Holfton River, to the Line dividing Virginia and Carolina, complete the
Line, and yet remain undifturbed. This may be fuppofed to include our re-
moteft Settlements ; but for many Miles in Breadth, they are very widely
fcattered ; not fo much for want of People to improve and plant, but
Schemes in almoft every Colony to prevent them.
II Fj & G j
Trade much There have been Britifh Subjefls fcattered over many Places, befides thofe
farther fct- above-mentioned, efpecially on C.hio, Wawyaghtas, and the Branches of Che-
rokee River to the Weft ; and the Lake Ontario Northward ; but they can-
not with any Propriety be faid to be Settlers, becaufe they have not acquired
Titles to the Soil under their King, nor cultivated the Land by Hujbandry ; two
Things abfolutely neceffary to denominate a Settlement.
At the IVawydghtas Â§, the Englifh 1'awtghtawi Town ^, Lower Shawane
Town 11, and many Places on Ohio and Lake Erie, our Traders have occa-
fionally fettled a Trade, and purchafed Ground for their Houfes -, and tho*
they might not be deemed Settlers as Planters or Colonets, they may with
the greateft Propriety be fuch as Traders,
Longitude The Longitude at the Top is computed from Philadelphia ; at Bottom
computed from London, according to the late Mr. Thomas Godfrey's Obfervations
^''Â°'" .^'^''^' and my own at Philadelphia. And I was induced to give thefe the Preference
* The Letters in the Margin point out a ready Way of finding a Place in the Map. In
the Eaft Margin is a Row of Capitals ; at Top, another of fmall Letters, in each Degree of
Latitude and Longitude. Carry your Eye from the Capital Wellward till you come into the
Square, under the fmall Letter, and there you will find the Place referred to.
tC> In the Letter-prefs Printing I am obliged, for want of proper Chara^f^ers, to fubflitute
gh in the Indian Words to exprefs a certain Sound that the Italians, French and Englifh are
c?eflitute of ; and that other modern Nations, who have it, are not agreed to exprefi by any
fettled Charafler. The Hollanders ufe g, the Irifli gh, the Welch and Germans ch. In the
Engraving, I have revived the antient Greek Charafter which was ufed to e.vprefs the fan^e
By L. EvANbo
/ Longitudes and Latitudes. ^
^ to that made at New- York by Mr. Burnet, becaufe of their Agreement ,, . . rf
with Mr. Th. Robie's Obfervations at Bofton. The Diftance from Phila- 4^0y a.-t'^^^
delphia to Conohaflet, at the Mouth of Bound Brook, on Maflachufet Bay,
has, the far greater Part, been meafured in long Lines, on pubhc Occafions,
and the reft is luppUed by Surveys * of particular Tradls of Land and Roads.
And if Bound Brook is 19 or 20 Miles Eaftward of the Meridian of Bofton,
as I imagine it is, there is no fenfible Difference between the Obfervations,
but what arifes from the Difference of 4 '* between the two Places, as laid
The principal Obfervations of Latitude are thefe,
Bofton, - - - - - 42:25 Latitudes ob-
N. Boundary of Con- 1 . â– \ ferved.
nefticut, - - j 4^ â€¢ 2 C By Governor Burnet.
New-York, - - 40 : 42 -3
N. Station Point, - - 41:40 By the Jerfey and N. York Commifllon-
â€¢Philadelphia, - - - 39 -SJ-^ (ers, 1719.
Shamokin, - - - - 40:401
Owege, - - - - 41 : 55 I,
Onondaga, - - - - - 42 : 35 f
OfwegO; - - - - 42 : 17 I
Sandy -Hook, - - - 40 : 28 j
Ray''s Town, - - - 39 : 59 7 By Col. Fry.
Shanoppen s Town, - 40 : 26 J â€¢'
S. Side of S. St. Louis, ^s- iS By Champlain, in 1603^
Ville Marie, - - - - 45 : 27
Tho' there have been many other Obfervations made in feveral Places, in
the Settlements, I have always chofeato adjuft their Situations by the adual
Menfurations â€¢, becaufe many of the Inftruments yet ufed, are not fufficiently
accurate to determine the Latitude of Places with Nicety.
A Map I publifhed oiP E N S ILVJNIJ, N EIT-J E RS ET, ^^^f^^^^^^,^
N EW-TORK, and DEL J WA R E f, in 1 749, is reduced to a former Map.
fmaller Scale in this, and forms thofe four Colonies. The Errors are redi- j^^ ^^^^^^
lied, the principal of which were, Albany placed too far North, Shamokin ^^^ reftified,
too far Weft, and all the Route thence to Ofwego five Miles altogether too
much North â€¢, befides feveral Imperfedions, in Places where later Obferva-
tions and Difcoveries have given us Knowledge of. In the firft Impreflion
,of my former Map I committed fome Miftakes in the Names of Places, near
A 2 the
* We call nothing Surveys but aftual Menfurations with a Chain, and the Courfe taken with
a good Surveying Inftrument. Gourfes with a Pocket Compafs and computed Diftances we
\ So The three Lower Counties of New-Cajile, Kent, and Sujfex, upon Delaware, were called,
before they were annexed to Penfilvania, when this Name was given in Contradiftinftion to
the three upper Counties of Chefter, Philadelphia and Bucks. As it exceeds in Length and
.Barbarity all the favage Names in my Title put together, I have reftored tire Colony its old
INAvae oi Delaiuare. ~
.t^ Tbe Author's former Map : The Eaftern
Capes of De- the Entrance of Delaware Bay on the Weft Side Â§, and in my Attempt to
'^H^IT" redlify them, in the fecond Edition, did but add to the Confufion. I have
Jince had an Opportunity of making a thorough Enquiry into this Affair, and
conclude, that the Names that the Places thereabouts are now called by, and
, are the fame as kid dov/n in my General Map, are the only Names they ever
had, and ftill retain amongft thofe acquainted with them ; as Lewes, Whore-
kill Road, Cape Hinlopen, Falfe Cape, and Fenwick's Ifland : Excepting
that Mr. William Penn called Cape Hinlopen by the Name of Cape James ;
and Whorekill Lewes^ on his firft Arrival in 1682 j the former is fcarce
known at this Day, and the Name Lewes is confined to the Town, while the
Creek ftill retains the Name of the V/horekill.
All muft admit that the prefent Names are rightly laid down ; but what
is related in regard to the antient Names muft be underftood as only my Opi-
nion. There are others, who think, on no lefs Opportunity of forming a
Judgment, that Cape Hinlopen was formerly called Cape Cornelius ; and that
Fenwick's Ifland v^ta^ the Falfe Cape, or Cape Hinlopen, of the Dutch, and others,
till the Arrival of the Englifh in thofe Parts. under Mr. Penn.
To complete what was left imperfed in my former Map, efpecially in
Mr. William New-Tork, I have been in a particular Manner afllfted by Mr. William
Alexander's ALEXANDER, whofe numerous Obfervations and Colleftions add greatly to
A I ance, ^.j^^ Merit of this Part of the prefent One, as it will Authority with all who
Besides a general Map of Gonnedicut, which the Rev. Mr. Clap fa-
Authorities voured me with, I have been afTifted in drawing the EASTERN C 0-
for the Eaft- LO N I E S by Memorials preferved in Douglas's Summary of the Co-
ern Colonies, j^^^ Lines, as adlually run round three Sides of C O N N E C T I C UT and
RHODE-ISLAND, and between N EJV-H A MP S H I R E and
MA SSACHUSET', and the Extenfion of thefe Lines in two Places ta
Hudfon's River. As for that, faid to be run from Deerfield to this RiverÂ»
there is certainly a Miftake of feveral Miles in the Length of it. Thefe, with
feveral Surveys by MefTieurs Helm, Kellog, and Chandler, amongft
II C b which is an entire One of Connedicut River from No. 4 (| to the North Side
Jfi Db pf Connedicut Colony^, given me by Mr. Pownall, together with his own
itinerary Obfervations on the Face of the Country, the Ranges and Bearino-s
of the Hills, and Diftances of Places, contribute to give thefe Parts a great
Degree of Exadlnefs. Nor am I obliged, in thefe Parts alone, to this Gen-
tleman, but for the Correftions of many Articles, which had efcaped me in
the former Mapj and fome other valuable Papers he procured me.
The greateft Part of FIR G INJA is compofed with the Affiftance of
Fry and Jef- MefTieurs Frv and Jefferson's Map of it ; and as this had the AlTiftance
ferfon's Map of adual Surveys of the Divifion Line with Carolina, and of the Rivers i2<?-
Virginia, pahannock and Potomack, from their Entrances to their Heads, joined to the
Experience pf twp.ikilful Perfons, it would . have been Affedation to have
and Souther?! Colonies. Â«
omitted the Advantage of it. But however, an aftual Survey from Phila-
delphia to the Mountains, near the great Bent of Potomack, by the Penfilvania
Surveyors in 1739, enabled me to give the J u ft Longitude of that Place from
Philadelphia, which they miftook by 10 or 12 Miles ; and this obliges me to
give Potomack, and the whole Country, a Pofition fomething different. As
, chat Performance is very valuable, I contrived mine to interfere as little as
pofTible with it â€¢, and omitted the Counties and numerous Gentlemens Seats
that it contains, to give Room for the Roads, Infpeftion-houfes, Court-houfes,
and, the Seats of fome Half a Dozen Gentlemen, noted in the literary Way.
I AM obliged to the fame Map, and Capt. Hoxton's Chart of Chefopeak Mariland but
â– Bay, for MAR I LAND, But this Colony is the worft done of all the imperfeft.
Settlements in mine, yet the Bay from Annapolis to the Head I have lately
had an Opportunity of adjufting -, as well as to meafure the Iflhmus acrofs
from the Head of Elk to Delaware River, about three Miles below New-
Caftle. There is a confiderable Error in my General Map, which came
Time enough to my Knowledge to be mentioned here, tho* not to be redi-
fied ; and that is, the Breadth of the Peninfula from Fenwick's Ifland to the
South Side of Little Choptank, which I make 65 Miles, whereas Mr. Par-
'SONS, one of the Surveyors, who ran the Line acrois, informs me, that it
Ihould have been 70,
The BEL aw a re Colony is adjuiled by Part of a Circle of 12 Delaware
Miles Radius, run round New-Caftle as a Center, and an a6tual Menfuration Colony,
of the whole Length of the Colony, by the late Mr. Thomas Noxon.
To recount all the Surveys of Roads, Trafts of Land and general Lines, The Author's
that I have been favoured with, in the Compofition of my former Map, Acknow-
which makes fo confiderable a Part of this, would be endlefs.* But I muft 'fl^!"^"' Â°^
not omit here to repeat, with Gratitude, my Thanks, not only for the Fa- given^hlm,
vours many Gentlemen did me, but the Chearfulnefs they fhewed in affift-
ing in a Defign intended for public Service. It would have been almoft im- Such Aflift-
pofTible to have fucceeded in the Compofition, notwithflanding all thcfe Helps, ^nce particu-
without my perfonal Knowledge alfo of almoft all the Country it contained. |arlyneceflary
One of the greateft Miftakes in it arofe, from my going from Kinderhook to and "hyT '
Albany by Night, where the Skipper deceived me in the Diflance. An Eu-
ropean may be at a Lofs to know, why there is a NecefTity for thefe Sorts of
Helps in making a Map of a Country ; for that Reafon it muft be obferved,
that all America, Eaft of MifTifippi, low Lands, Hills and Mountains, is every-
where covered with Woods, except fome interval Spots of no great Extent,
cleared by the European Colonets, Here are no Churches, Towers, Houfes
or peaked Mountains to be feen from afar, no Means of obtaining the Bear-
ings or Diftances of Places, but by the Compafs, and aflual Menfuration
with the Chain. The Mountains are almofl all fo many Ridges with even All the
Tops, and nearly of a Height. To look f'-om thefe Hills into the lower Mouatains
:LandSj is but, as it werq, into an Ocean of Woods, fwelied and depreft ^^'i^e.
/6 '^he Land divided into Stages. The 'Eajlern
. here and there by little Inequalities, not to be diftinguifhed, one Part fram
, another, any more than the Waves of the real Ocean.
Their Uni- The Uniformity of thefe Mountains, tho' debarring us of an Advantage
formity ufe- \^ this Refpeft, makes fome Amends in another. They are very regular in
, their Courfes, and confine the Creeks and Rivers that run between ; and if
we know where the Gaps are, that let through thefe Streams, we are not at
a Lofs to lay down their moft confiderable Inflexions.
The Land is FoR the better underflanding the Authorities whereon the reft of the Map
divided into is founded, â– it muft be previoufly obferved, that -the Land, in the Parts of
ifterent America included in this Map, is divided into different Stages â€¢, and that
Hudfon's Ri- Hudlon's. River divides. the whole into two Series, both running parallel to
ver divides the Sea. That to the Eaftward is fo to the Maffachufets Bay; at firft its
the whole in- Direflion is nearly North, and then it trends more and more Eafterly, accord-
Th^^p'ft^""' ^"o^*^ the Shape of the Shore. This Series confifts of two Stages; and
Series. (fuppofing you travel acrofs it Weft ward from Bofton) the firft begins about
â– Its firft Stage. Water TownÂ§, and continues a, rough hilly Ground till you are paft JVeJi-
Â§ D a Â£fn * II ; thence to within twenty Miles of Hudfon's River, the fecond Stage
I â– ^ ^, o is for a great Part covered with fmall Mountains, running here in long Chains
age. ^^^ Ridges ; which extend Southerly to the Sound dividing Long Ifland from
the Main, and form thofe Cliffs, Ridges and broken ftony Ground, which
f E. b /you obferve in travelling along the Conne6licut Colony Shore -f, and prevent
the Poiribility of making a better Road in that Direftion further within Land.
The. greater Part of Connefticut is of this fecond Stage, and is enriched by
the fine interval Lands between the Chains, the greateft being along the Con-
- nefticut River, and near 20 Miles wide. 'Tis the Courfes of thefe Chains of
Gathered Mountains and Hills that give Direftion to the feveral Creeks and Rivers. To
tand. j.j^g Eaftward of the firft Stage, fomeLand is made by an Accumulation of Sand
from, the Ocean, heaped together by the Meeting of the Recoil of the Flood
Tide from the: North Eaftward with another from the South Eaftward ; and
Cape Cod. forms near all the Land of Cape Cod to the Eaftward of the Bottom of Maffa-
chufets Bay. There are in this Series fome few other Gatherings of Sand, but
Long-Mand. fcarce worth the mentioning here. As for the outer Part of Long-IJland, it con-
confifts of both Sand from the Ocean .and Soil wafht from the Continent,
thrown into this Shape by the Diredion given the Tides and Currents by the
The Weflern The Land, South Weftward of Hudfon's River, is more regularly divided.
Series. ^^^^ jj^j^ ^ greater Number of Stages than the other. The firft ObjeÂ£t worthy
Regard, in this Part, is a Rief or Vein of Rocks, of the Talky or IfinglafTy
Kind, fome two or three, or Half a Dozen Miles broad ; rifing generally fome
fmall Matter higher than the adjoining Land ; and extending from New- York
City South Wefterly by the Lower Falls of Delaware, Schuylkill, Sufque-
hanna, Gun-Powder, Patapfco, Potomack, Rapahannock, James River and
.Ronoak. This was the antient maritime Boundary of America, and forms a