Lodowick Carlell.

Lodowick Carliell; his life, a discussion of his plays, and The deserving favourite, a tragi-comedy reprinted from the original edition of 1629 online

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AT LOS ANGELES





COAT-OF-ARMS OF CARLYLE OF BRYDEKIRK'




1 " Quarterly first and fourth, argent, a cross flory gules; crest, two dragons'
necks and heads addosse, vert; motto, Humilitate. So illuminate in old books."
Nisbet's Heraldry (Edinburgh, 1722), Vol. I, p. 132.



LODOWICK CARLIELL



HIS LIFE
A DISCUSSION OF HIS PLATS

AND

"THE DESERTING FAVOURITE"

A Tragi-Comedy reprinted from the original edition 0/1629
tvith Introduction and Notes



BY



CHARLES H. GRAY, Ph.D. (Chicago)

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH IN
THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS



CHICAGO

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS

1905



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COPYRIGHT, I905
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO



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PREFACE

The following pages present the life and works of Lodowick
3 Carliell — his career in detail, and his literary production
through a representative play and a summary and criticism of
his other plays. It is designed thus to introduce an author
who needs such a service; for CarlielPs biography has not been
written until now, and his works are almost lost. The justifi-
cation of this attempt to revive the memory of an author
^ well-nigh forgotton must depend upon considerations as to the
[ value of his performance in the development of English litera-
^ ture, and in particular of the drama. In both the writer
believes that Lodowick Carliell should have a place, and he
hopes to complete this undertaking by reprinting at some
^ future time the remainder of Carliell's plays.
J Assistance is gratefully acknowledged from Professor F. I.
5 Carpenter, of the University of Chicago, who lent his copy of
^ The Derserving Favourite, with other rare books, and gave
r ^ painstaking and skilful aid throughout the work ; and from
Professors J. M. Manly and R. M. Lovett, of the same institu-
tion, whose counsel and criticism were invaluable. Thanks
are due Miss Edith Rickert for efficient services at the British
Museum and elsewhere in England, and Mr. Milton A.
Ruchanan, for investigations in the National Library at
Madrid. General Thomas Carlyle-Bell, formerly of Dumfries
(deceased), and Colonel William Bell, of Stirling, Scotland,
gave kind encouragement and courteously allowed the
examination of family papers.



386182



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PAGE

Preface 3

Introduction 9

Biography of Lodowick Carliell ..... 9

List of the Plays 46

Discussion of the Plays 47

"The Deserving Favourite" 56

The Source 57

Editions 69

Text 7o

Notes i 6 3

Appendixes 167

Copy of the Disposition of New Park ... 169

"Bridekirk's Hunting" 174

Copy of the King's Warrant in Favor of Eleanor Carlisle 175

Lodowick Carliell's Will 176

Joan Carliell's Will i77



INTRODUCTION



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL

Lodowick Carliell bears a surname that is one of the most
conspicuous in English literature, for he belongs to the family
of which Thomas Carlyle was a later and the most famous
representative. The latter says his grandfather used to collect
a sum sufficient for his half-year's rent, and, leaving the mother
with her little ones to manage very much as she could, he would
meanwhile amuse himself hunting with the Laird of Brydekirk,
who held the relation partly of attendant and henchman and
partly of kinsman. 1 Brydekirk, only a few miles from Eccle-
f echan, was the birthplace of Lodowick Carliell. When Thomas
Carlyle was told that his ancestry had been traced by a Dumfries
antiquary 2 to the first Lord Torthorwald, from whom were
descended the Carlyles of Brydekirk, he "thought on the
whole that the descent was real." 3 And he himself wrote an
article entitled "Short Notices as to the Early History of the
Family of Carlyle," 4 which contains mention of direct ances-
tors of Lodowick Carliell.

But Carliell deserves notice for his own sake. His long
career is notable for the identification of its fortunes with those
of the Stuarts, and for its connection with the stage during
the reign of a house specially favorable to the drama. As a
courtier dramatist of the time of the Stuarts, Carliell is an inter-
esting figure among playwrights. His life, moreover, may now

1 Thomas Carlyle, Reminiscences, ed. by Froude (New York, 1881), p. 15.

2 Probably T. J. Carlyle, author of Review of the History of the Family of
Carlisle (Dumfries, 1881). Such a book was privately printed, but it cannot
be found either at Dumfries or in the British Museum.

3 Froude, Thomas Carlyle — A History of the First Forty Years of His
Life (New York, 1882), p. 2, note.

4 Journal of the British Archceological Association (London, 1854), Vol.
IX, p 174.

9



IO LODOWICK CARLIELL

be known in its full course, without the gaps that make the record
of many of the early English dramatists incomplete or vague.
Born about the time of the accession of James I, Carliell came
to court during the last years of that king's reign; produced
his plays under the patronage of Charles I; suffered reverse of
fortune and the extinction of his profession through the civil
wars; and was restored to fortune and fame under Charles II,
in whose reign he died. His life is a document of dramatic
history, illustrating the last chapter of that intimate connection
between the stage and the throne which characterizes the early
periods of the English drama.

Like many another of the early English playwrights, great
and small, Lodowick Carliell has been to us but an author.
Of the man, his career and personality, there was no known
record, not even a random item concerning dramatic employ-
ment or the customary vicissitudes of a poet's Bohemian life.
All that was known was the scanty information gleaned from
the title-page of one of his plays and the general tradition
concerning him. The following passage from Langbaine's An
Account of the English Dramatic Poets, 1691, the work of a
contemporary of Carliell, may well serve to illustrate the amount
of recorded information about our author soon after his death

(i675):

Lodowick Carlell, Esq. — This Gentleman flourisht in the Reigns of
King Charles the First and Second. He was an Ancient Courtier, being
Gentleman of the Bows to King Charles the First, Groom of the King and
Queen's privy-chamber, and served the Queen-Mother many years. His
Plays (which are Eight in number) were well esteem'd of, and most of them
appeared on the Stage, at the Private-house in Black-friars, notwithstand-
ing the prohibition of the Stage in those days. The Names follow.

The plays are then briefly discussed, principally with reference
to sources. The Dictionary 0} National Biography, the best
modern authority on English biography, representing a sum-
mary of all trustworthy extant information, has to offer sub-



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL



II



stantially nothing more. We have known, then, practically only
Carliell's eight plays, and these little more than by name, for
they have never been republished in modern times, and copies
have become very scarce — inaccessible, indeed, to all but the
specialist. And as to the author himself, we have known
nothing about the details of his life. It will be the purpose of
this chapter to construct from facts newly discovered a biography
of Lodowick Carliell.

The name of the subject of this biography is spelled in various
ways: Carlell (on the title-pages of his plays), Carlisle (Win-
stanley's Lives of the Most Famous English Poets), Carliell
(Hazlitt's Handbook to the Popular, Poetical, and Dramatic
Literature o] Great Britain), Carlile (Calendar o) State Papers).
The last spelling has claims to correctness, since on the title-
page of one of the playwright's known plays, Arviragus and
Philicia, his autograph is said to occur as "Lodowick Carlile." 1
But this assertion cannot be accepted as decisive. The following
signatures are tracings from receipts in the Exchequer Accounts
(Bundle 438, No. 11; year 1631):




1 Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (London,
1877), Part I, p. 312.



12 LODOWICK CARLIELL

In the'disposition of New Park, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, occurs
the following signature:



^feJotyi^ &Y&




All these signatures are evidently by the same hand, and we
must conclude that the true spelling of our author's name is
Lodowick Carliell. 1

This matter of spelling is, of course, not essential; in any
one of its forms the name is unmistakable, especially when
taken in connection with the given name of Lodowick. There
does enter, however, a difficulty involved in the name — one of
such gravity that it had best be discussed at the outset. It
concerns nothing less than the playwright's identity. The
facts are these : The Exchequer receipts already referred to are
of 1631, but the disposition is of i679(?), and yet Lodowick
Carliell was buried in the year 1675. Evidently a discrepancy,
and a contradiction sufficient to render suspicious all state-
ments made concerning Lodowick Carliell the dramatist, unless
it can be removed; for the Carlisle family in all its branches
was a large one, and there were at this time three, perhaps four,
bearing the name Lodowick. One was the dramatist's grand-
son; one died abroad in 1691 and is possibly the same person
as the preceding; another died in 1721 ; and still another seems
to have died in 1725, as letters of administration were granted
then to his widow. 2 Although it seemed probable, on account

1 The signature upon the title-page of Arviragus and Philicia was probably
written by the owner of the book, for Oldys makes note in his copy of Langbaine
opposite Arviragus and Philicia, 1639: "It has not any Author's Name to it
in the copy of that date which I have seen." "Langbaine, Interleav'd with
MS. Notes by Oldys," Vol. I, p. 46. My own copy of Arviragus and Philicia
is without author's name upon the title-page. — Ed.

2 Nicholas Carlisle, Collections for a History of the Ancient Family of
Carlisle (London, 1822), p. 404; and Colonel Bell's manuscripts.



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL 1 3

of the agreement of all the items gathered concerning Lodowick
Carliell, that they referred to the dramatist, yet to be certain
it was necessary to remove this conflict of dates. The date of
the Exchequer receipts is unquestionable, being taken from the
original records in the Rolls House, London ; the date of burial
is likewise beyond doubt, being copied direct from the church
register. The only thing left was to prove the date of the dis-
position. The .original document is in Edinburgh, and on
examination it solved the difficulty. A copy of the entire docu-
ment will be found in Appendix A; here I quote only the
decisive passage:

. . . . & in witness whereof (written by Mr patrick Crawfurd
servitor to John Crawfurd wryter to his Maiesties Signet) I have subscribed
thir presents with my hand Att the Pell Mell in Westminster the twenty
fourth day May Mvj & seventie ane years Before thir witnesses Charles
Gray Residenter in the Pell Mell in Westminster and James Rolls Writer
in Edinburgh filler up heir of and inserter of the date & witnesses namis

Lodowick Carliell

The explanation is a very simple one: the copyist, who
made the copy in 1749, read "ane" as "nine," and various
people who have considered the problem during the past eighty
years, since the appearance of Nicholas Carlisle's book, after
suggesting various untenable theories, have gone no farther.
The date of the disposition is 167 1, instead of 1679. In the
original deed the two words might be confused, but with a glass
the reading is clear, namely, "ane." Furthermore, Lodowick
Carliell's signature to the disposition is unquestionably in the
same hand that signed the early receipts. It altered very
little in forty years. This agreement of signature, the dis-
crepancy in dates having been removed, is the very best kind
of argument as to the identity of the person of that name. We
must feel sure that all the facts collected concerning Lodowick
Carliell who signed the Exchequer receipts, who disponed New
Park, are connected with the dramatist, the subject of this
biography.



14 LODOWICK CARLIELL

Moreover, this disponement proves to be exactly the missing
link connecting the playwright definitely and indubitably with
the Brydekirk branch of the Carlisle family; without it there
is nowhere any definite statement of Lodowick CarlielFs par-
entage. Again I quote only the significant passage:

Be it kend till all men be thir present letters Me Lodovick Carliell
esquyer and Brother and air to umquhill James Carliell sone to umquhill
Harbert Carleill of Brydkirk heretable proprietor of the lands and otheres
underwritten .... to have sauld .... All & Haill The ffourtie
shilling land of auld extent of New Park.

Having established this point of parentage, we may now
find our author in the genealogy of the old and important family
of Carlisle, whose history has fortunately been gathered in the
following work: Collections for a History of the Ancient Family
of Carlisle, "by Nicholas Carlisle, Assistant Librarian to his
Majesty, and Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries
of London" (London, 1822). But as the relationships given
by Nicholas Carlisle are not in all cases established, the genealog-
ical table on the opposite page is tentative and merely the most
reasonable that can be drawn up from the known facts.

The traditional ancestor of the Carlisle family was Crinan,
Abthane of Dunkeld, whose son Maldred married Bethoe,
daughter of Malcolm II of Scotland; and their son was the
Duncan whom Macbeth slew in 1039. * Needless to say, the
descent is not clearly established, although it has apparently
been accepted by the family. Lodowick Carliell belonged to
the Brydekirk branch of the Annandale family of his name.
Briefly the record of the Carlisles down to the first Carlyle of
Brydekirk is as follows:

1. Sir Ade, or Adam, de Karleolo, who had a charter of
Kynemount and other lands in Annandale about the year 1 1 70,
was a vassal of William de Bruce, second Lord of Annandale. 2

1 Manuscript notes of General Carlyle-Bell.
3 Nicholas Carlisle, Collections, p. 68.



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL



15



GENEALOGY OF THE FAMILY OF CARLISLE



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1 6 LODOWICK CARLIELL

2. Gilbert de Carlel, 1296, swore fealty to Edward I of
England. 1

3. Sir William de Carliolo, mentioned before 1303, married
Lady Margaret Bruce, sister of King Robert Bruce. 2

4. His son, Sir William de Karliolo, Lord of Luce, was
killed in 1333. 3

5. Thomas de Carliolo and John were brothers of the last
named. "Dominus Thomas de Torthorwald" was witness
to a charter concerning the fishing of the water of Annan, and
he and James were witnesses to the Earl of Carrick's grant of
land to augment the park of Kynemount. Thomas was slain
at Durham, 1346. 4

6. James, son of Thomas, was killed at the battle of Halidon
Hill, 1333. He had no issue. 5

7. Sir John de Carlyle had a license, March 29, 1329, from
Thomas Ranulph, Earl of Moray, to enclose his park of Kyne-
mount. 6

8. Sirjjohn de Carlyle was one of the sureties, November,
1398, for keeping a truce with the English. He died before
1436.7

9. Sir William de Carlelle of Torthorwald was a man of
considerable importance. In 141 3 he was one of the hostages
for the payment of the ransom of the Countess of Douglas.
In 1436 he was one of the train of knights and esquires who
attended Margaret of Scotland into France upon her marriage
with Louis the Dauphin. In 1443 he gave a bell to the
town of Dumfries and acquired an estate called Limekilns.
A Sir William de Carlelle was a guarantee for truce with the
English in 1449, 1451, 1453, 1457, 1459; but only in 1457 is he
called "de Torthorwald, Scutifer." He died in 1463. 8

1 Nicholas Carlisle, Collections, p. 71. 2 Ibid., p. 73.

3 Ibid., pp. 67, 74, 75, 80. 4 Ibid., pp. 78, 80. 5 Ibid., p. 79.

6 Ibid., p. 81. 7 Ibid., p. 81. 8 Ibid. pp. 81-83.



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL 1 7

The first eight mentioned are doubtless more or less closely
connected with Lodowick's ancestry; and though it is impos-
sible to determine their exact relationship, the allusions to them
give a general impression of the early rank and importance
of the family. The last mentioned, Sir William, had two sons :
John, who became the first Lord Carlyle, and "Adam Cairlell,
Senior," who in i486 was attorney to the seizin of his brother
in the lands of Torthorwald. 1 Adam, the son of the latter,
had a charter from John, Lord Carlyle, dated May 7, 1495, °f
the lands of Brydekirk and Turnshaw and part of Dalebank,
and of Dalebank again in 1498. 2 This begins the Brydekirk
branch, to which Lodowick belonged. Alexander, son of
Adam, had from Michael, fourth Lord Carlyle, a charter of
Brydekirk and Limekilns in 1543, and in 1546 seizin of the
lands of Brackenquhat, and in 1559 a precept of Brydekirk. 3
Adam, son of the preceding, had in 1559 precept from Michael,
Lord Carlyle, of Limekilns, Potterlands, Milnside, Bracken-
quhat, Rutherford, Buss, Gibson's Field, and Strait. He had
two sons, Alexander and Herbert, of whom the former left
two daughters, but no sons. 4 Herbert, born 1558, became
in 1593 one of the "curators" of his kinsman John, Lord
Michael's grandson. In 1619 he is mentioned as one of the
vassals of Torthorwald, styled sometimes "of Bridekirk" and
sometimes "callit of Bridekirk, or Braidkirk." He died in
1632 and was buried in Annan churchyard. 5 His four sons
are styled: Adam of Bridekirk, James of New-Park, Lodowick
of New-Park (the subject of this biography), and Lancelot of
Cairns. His daughter, Elizabeth, married John of Bracken-
quhat (the second). 6 Lodowick Carliell had two children:
James, whose issue was Lodowick and James; and Penelope,
who married John Fisher of the Middle Temple, Gent, and
left three children. 7

1 Ibid., pp. 170, 171. * Ibid, p. 171. slbid., p. 171. 4 Ibid., pp. 171, 173.
5 Ibid., p. 181. <> Ibid., p. 192. 7 Will of Joan Carliell, Appendix E.



1 8 LODOWICK CARLIELL

Lodowick's boyhood was probably spent at Brydekirk, in
Dumfriesshire, situated in the extreme south of Scotland and
bordering upon Solway Firth. Dumfriesshire contains the
plain where the Cheviot Hills make a barrier not quite complete
between England and Scotland, and, being thus the natural
passage-way between the countries, it was the scene of much
guerrilla warfare. The people of Dumfriesshire were bred to
the use of arms; and as they were themselves necessarily sub-
ject to frequent losses of their flocks and property by the depre-
dations of their neighbors on the English side, so they often
depended upon what they could acquire in the same manner.

Annan was the principal residence of those bold men of Annandale,
famous in Scottish history for exercising such constant warfare with the
English borderers that they became even in respect to their Scottish neigh-
bors incapable of the order, the moderation, or the civil submission of
peace. 1

Brydekirk is four miles distant from Annan. In the petty
warfare and general lawlessness of the border life, the Carlisles
figured prominently. When in 1547 the English, headed by
Sir Thomas Carleton, made a foray into Annandale, the Laird
of Drumlanrig, and with him his friends and kinsmen, Alex-
ander Carlell, Laird of Brydekirk, and his son Adam, the young
laird, refused to submit to the authority of the king of England,
or to give assurance of peaceful behavior. 2 In 1587 complaint
was made before the Commission of the West Marches of
Scotland against the West Marches of England by the friends
of Adam of Carliels and the Bells against Walter Grame of
Netherby, Davie and Willie his brothers, Richie's Will, and
Rob of the Fald, for burning Goddesbrig and killing or carrying
off 3,000 cows and oxen, 4,000 sheep and goats, and 500 horses
and mares, estimated at £40,000 Scots. 3 It is not surprising

1 R. Forsyth, The Beauties of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1805), Vol. II, pp.
204, 271.

2 Nicholas Carlisle, Collections, pp. 171, 172. 3 Ibid., pp. 172, 173.



BIOGRAPHY OF LODOWICK CARLIELL 1 9

to find that a feud arose from the death of Adam Carlill, " Scots-
man," between the Grames and the Bells, Carlills and Irwins,
which in 1582 was spoken of as "like to be the gretest feud
ever on these Borders." 1 "The brokin men, thevis and male-
factouris of the surenamis of Johnnestoun, Bell, Armestrang,
Carlile, Batiesoun, Irwing and uthiris" are mentioned in an
act concerning the form of trial of complaints in the West
Border, Dumfries, November 26, 1597. 2 And an act con-
cerning attempts at subterfuge by those "brokin" men of the
West March to whom his Majesty had granted their lives
under certain conditions, names among others the Carliles. 3
Again in 1594 the Carleillis are included in a strongly worded
decree regarding thievery and other kinds of lawlessness. 4
Records of forays and of bonds to keep the peace are frequent
in the name of the Carliles. 5 And today the minister of Bryde-
kirk, although he knows no details, has a strong impression,
based on local tradition, that they were a lawless, fighting lot.
Although Lodowick Carliell was not an actor in this life of
the border banditti, since, as will be shown, he left home as a
lad, yet he must have inherited rugged characteristics from his
forefathers. What they were like may be inferred from Thomas
Carlyle's description of his grandfather, of whom he says:

The man in honor, the man, of those days, in that rude border country,
was a drinker and hunter; above all a striker. My grandfather did not
drink, but his stroke was ever as ready as his word, and both were sharp
enough. He was a fiery man, irascible, indomitable, of the toughness and
springiness of steel. 6

x Calendar of Border Papers, ed. by Joseph Bain (Edinburgh, 1894), Vol.
I, p. 84.

2 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, Vol. V, p. 423.

3 Ibid., p. 425. 4 Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IV, p. 72.

s Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, Vol. II, p. 364; Vol. VI, pp.
472, 846.

6 Thomas Carlyle, Reminiscences, ed. by Froude (New York, 1881), pp.
17, 26.



20 LODOWICK CARLIELL

Of the same purport, but describing the other sex, is the fol-
lowing account of a visit made to Lodowick's birth-place,
by Alexander Carlyle, D.D., in the year 1732:

Among the places we visited was Bridekirk, the seat of the eldest cadet
of Lord Carlyle's family, of which my father (William Carlyle, D.D.)

was descended We did not see the laird, who was from home;

but we saw the lady, a much greater curiosity I had never seen

such a virago as Lady Bridekirk, not even among the oyster women of
Prestopans. She was like a serjeant of foot in women's clothes; or rather
like an overgrown coachman of a Quaker persuasion. On our peremptory
refusal to alight, she darted into the house like a hogshead down a slope,
and returned instantly with a pint bottle of brandy — a Scots pint, I mean —
and a stray beer-glass, into which she filled almost a bumper. After a
long grace said by Mr. Jardine, .... she emptied it to our healths,
and made the gentlemen follow her example; she said she would spare me
as I was so young, but ordered a maid to bring a gingerbread cake from the
cupboard, a luncheon of which she put in my pocket. The Lady was


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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