TKEES OF NEW ENGUND
DAME AND BROOKS
John Wnu Gregg
HANDBOOK OF THE
TREES OF NEW ENGLAND
WTTH RANGES THROUGHOUT THE
UNITED STATES AND CANADA
PLATES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS
ELIZABETH GLEASON BIGELGW
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY
LORIN L. DAME AND HENRY BROOKS
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Trees may be occasionally spontaneous over a large area
without really forming a constituent part of the flora. Even
the apple and pear, when originating spontaneously and
growing without cultivation, quickly become degenerate and
show little tendency to possess themselves of the soil at the
expense of the native growths. Gleditsia, for example, while
clearly locally established, has with some hesitation been
accorded pictorial representation.
The geographical distribution is treated under three heads :
Canada and Alaska ; New England ; south of New England
and westward. With regard to the distribution outside of
New England, the standard authorities have been followed.
An effort extending through several years has been made to
give the distribution as definitely as possible in each of the
New England states, and while previous publications have
been freely consulted, the present work rests mainly upon
the observations of living botanists.
All descriptions are based upon the habit of trees as they
appear in New England, unless special mention is made to
the contrary. The descriptions are designed to apply to
trees as they grow in open land, with full space for the
development of their characteristics under favorable condi-
tions. In forest trees there is much greater uniformity ; the
trunks are more slender, taller, often unbranched to a con-
siderable height, and the heads are much smaller.
When the trunk tapers uniformly from the ground upward,
the given diameter is taken at the base ; when the trunk is
reinforced at the base, the measurements are made above the
swell of the roots ; when reinforced at the ground and also
at the branching point, as often in the American elm, the
measurements are made at the smallest place between the
swell of the roots and of the branches.
A regular order has been followed in the description for the
purpose of ready comparison. No explanation of the head-
ings used seems necessary, except to state that the habitat ifc
used in the more customary present acceptation to indicate
the place where a plant naturally grows, as in swamps or upon
dry hillsides. Under the head of " Horticultural Value/ 7 the
> requisite information is given for an intelligent choice c
trees for ornamental purposes.
The order and names of families follow, in the main,
-Engler and Prantl. In accordance with the general tendency
of New England botanists to conform to the best usage until
an authoritative agreement has been reached with regard to
nomenclature by an international congress, the Berlin rule^
has been followed for genera, and priority under the genus
for species. Other names in use at the present day are given
as synonyms and included in the index.
Only those common names are given which are actually
used in some part of New England, whether or not the same
name is applied to different trees. It seems best to record
what is, and not what ought to be. Common names that are
the creation of botanists have been disregarded altogether.
Any attempt to displace a name in wide use, even by one
that is more appropriate, is futile, if not mischievous.
The plates are from original drawings by Mrs. Elizabeth
Gleason Bigelow, in all cases from living specimens, and
they have been carefully compared with the plates in other
works. So far as practicable, the drawings were made of life
size, with the exception of the dissected portions of small
flowers, which were enlarged. In this way, though not on
a perfectly uniform scale, they are, when reduced to the
necessary space, distinct in all their parts.
So far as consistent with due precision, popular terms have
been used in description, but not when such usage involved
Especial mention should be made of those botanists whose
assistance has been essential to a knowledge of, the distri-
bution of species in the New England states : Maine, Mr.
M. L. Eernald ; New Hampshire, Mr. Win. F. Flint,
Report of Forestry Commission ; Vermont, President Ezra
Brainerd; Massachusetts, trees about Northampton, Mrs.
Emily Hitchcock Terry ; throughout the Connecticut river
valley, Mr. E. L. Morris; Rhode Island, Professor W. W.
Bailey, Professor J. F. Collins ; Connecticut, Mr. C. H.
Bissell, Mr. C. K. Averill, Mr. J. N. Bishop. Dr. B. L.
Robinson has given advice in general treatment and in mat-
ters of nomenclature ; Dr. C. W. Swan and Mr. Charles H.
Morss have made a critical examination of the manuscript ;
Mr. Warren H. Manning has contributed the " Horticultural
Values " throughout the work ; and Miss M. S. K. James has
prepared the index. To these and to all others who have
given assistance in the preparation of this work, the grateful
thanks of the authors are due.
LIST OF PLATES
TEXT AND PLATES
LIST OF PLATES.
I. Larix Americana 4
II. Firms Strobus 6
III. Firms rigida 7
IV. Finns Banksiana 9
V. Finns resinosa 11
VI. Ficea nigra 14
VII. Ficea rubra 16
VIII. Picea alba 18
IX. Tsuga Canadensis 20
X. Abies balsamea 22
XI. Thuja occidentalis 24
XII. Cupressus thyoides 26
XIII. Juniperus Virginiana 28
XIV. Fopnlus tremuloides 30
XV. Fopnlus grandidentata 32
XVI. Populus heterophylla 34
XVII. Populus deltoides 35
XVIII. Populus balsarnifera 37
XIX. Populus candicans 39
XX. Salix discolor 41
XXI. Salix nigra 43
XXII. Juglans cinerea 47
XXIII. Juglans nigra 49
XXIV. Carya alba 51
XXV. Carya tornentosa 53
XXVI. Carya porcina 55
XXVII. Carya amara 57
XXVIII. Ostrya Virginica 58
XXIX. Carprnns Carolinian a 60
XXX. Betula lenta 62
XXXI. Betula lutea 64
XXXII. Betula nigra 66
XXXIII. Betula populifolia 68
XXXIV. Betula papyrifera 70
XXXV. Fagus ferruginea 72
XXXVI. Castanea sativa, var. Americana 74
XXXVII. Quercus alba 77
XXXVIII. Quercus stellata 78
XXXIX. Qnercus macrocarpa 80
XL. Quercus bicolor 82
LIST OF PLATES.
XLI. Quercus Prinus 84
XLII. Quercus Muhlenbergii 85
XLIII. Quercus rubra 87
XLIV. Quercus coccinea 89
XLV. Quercus velutina 91
XL VI. Quercus palustris 93
XL VII. Quercus ilicifolia 94
XLVIII. Ulmus Americana . 97
XLIX. Ulinus fuha 98
L. Ulmus racemosa 100
LI. Celtis occidentalis 102
LII. Morus rubra 103
LIII. Liriodendron Tulipifera 106
LIV. Sassafras officinale 108
LV. Liquidambar Styraciflua 109
LVI. Platan us occidentalis Ill
LVII. Pyrus Americana 113
LVIII. Pyrus sambucifolia 115
LIX. Arnelanchier Canadensis 117
LX. Cratsegus mollis 121
LXL Prunus nigra 123
LXII. Prunus Americana 124
LXIII. Prunus Pennsylvanica 125
LXIV. Prunus Virginiana 126
LXV. Prunus serotina 128
LXVI. Gleditsia triacanthos 130
LXVII. Robinia Pseudacacia 132
LXVIII. Rhus typhina 135
LXIX. Rhus Vernix 137
LXX. Ilex opaca 140
LXXI. Acer rubrum 142
LXXII. Acer saccharinum 144
LXXIII. Acer Saccharum 146
LXXIV. Acer Saccharum, var. nigrurn 147
LXXV. Acer spicatum 149
LXXVI. Acer Pennsylvanicum . 151
LXXVII. Acer Negundo 153
LXXVIII. Tilia Americana
LXXIX. Cornus florida 167
LXXX. Cornus alternifolia
LXXXI. Nyssa sylvatica 160
LXXXII. Diospyros Virginiana 162
LXXXIII. Fraxinus Americana 164
LXXXIV. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica 165
LXXXV. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata .... 166
LXXXVI. Fraxinus nigra 168
LXXXVII. Viburnum Lentago 169
ATKINS, C. G Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
AVERILL, C. K V
Populus balsamifera, L.
(Rhodora, II, 35) 36
Prunus Americana, Marsh. . . . 123
Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm. . . 84
BAILEY, L. H Populus candicans, Ait 37
BAILEY, W. W Celtis occidentalis, L. 100
Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var.
lanceolata, Sarg. . . . . . 166
BARTRAM, WILLIAM . . . Quercus tinctoria (1791) .... 89
BATCHELDER, F. W. . . . Betula nigra, L 65
Salix discolor, Muhl.
(Laconia, N. H,,) 41
BATES, J. A Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
Sassafras officinale, Nees . . . . 106
BISHOP, J. N v
Celtis occidentalis, L. 100
Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh. . . 164
Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceo-
lata, Sarg 166
Juglans nigra, L. (in lit., 1896) . . 48
Morus rubra, L 102
Populus heterophylla, L 33
Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm. . . 84
Thuja occidentalis, L 23
BlSSELL, C. H V
Cratsegus Crus-Galli, L 117
Pinus sylvestris, L. (in lit., 1899) . 12
Prunus Americana, Marsh.
(in lit., 1900) 123
Rhus copallina 137
BRAINERD, EZRA .... Carya porcina, Nutt 53
Cratsegus punctata, Jacq 118
Ulmus racemosa, Thomas .... 99
BREWSTER, WILLIAM . . . Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
BRITTON, NATHANIEL LORD Acer Saccharum, var. nigrurn . . 172
BROWNE, D. T Ilex opaca (Trees of North America,
xil BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES.
Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, XVIII, 150
Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
CHAMBERLAIN, E. B. . . . Ulinus fulva, Michx. (1898) ... 97
CHURCHILL, J. R Prunus Americana, Marsh. . . . 123
COLLINS, J. F v
Gleditsia triacanthos, L 129
DAME, L. L Cratsegus Crus-Galli, L 171
Salix fragilis, L. (Typical Elms and
other Trees of Massachusetts,
p. 85) 44
DAY, F. M Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
DEANE, WALTER .... Sassafras officinale, Nees (1895) . . 106
DUDLEY, W. R Populus heterophylla, L 33
EGGLESTON, W. W. . . . Carya porcina, Nutt 53
Celtis occidentals, L 100
Moms rubra, L 102
Platanus occidentalis, L 110
Populus deltoides, Marsh 34
Sassafras officinale, Nees .... 106
Ulmus racemosa, Thomas .... 99
ENGLER, ADOLPH v
FERNALD, M. L Fraxirms Pennsy Ivan ica, 'Marsh, var.
lanceolata, Sarg. (in lit., Sept.,
Gleditsia triacanthos, L 129
Populus balsamifera, L. var. candi-
cans, Gray (Rhodora, III, 233) 171
Salix balsamifera, Barratt 171
Salix discolor, Muhl. (in lit., Sept.,
FLAGG Morus rubra, L 102
FLINT, W. F v
Acer Negundo, L 151
Quercus alba, L 75
Flora of Vermont .... Betula lenta, L. (1900) 61
Cratsegus Crus-Galli, L. (1900) . . 117
Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.
Picea nigra, Link (1900) .... 12
Pinus rigida, Mill (1900) .... 6
Populus deltoides, Marsh. (1900) . 34
Quercus alba, L. (1900) .... 75
FURBISH, Miss KATE . . . Cratsegus coccinea, L. (May, 1899) . 119
Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
GOODALE, G. L Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES. Xlll
GRANT. Sassafras officinale, Nees .... 106
GRAY, ASA Ilex opaca, Ait. (Manual of Botany,
6th ed.) 138
HAINES, MRS Firms Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
HARGER, E. B Picea nigra (Rhodora, II, 126) . . 13
HARPER, R. M Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.
(Rhodora II, 122) 104
HARRINGTON, A. K. . . . Picea alba, Link 17
HASKINS, T. H Ulmus raceinosa, Thomas (Garden
and Forest, V, 86) .... 99
HOLMES, DR. EZEKIEL . . Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh 159
HOSFORD, F. H Cratsegus mollis, Scheele .... 120
HOYT, Miss FANNY E. . . Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
HUMPHREY, J. E Picea alba, Link ....... 17
Quercus palustris, Du Roi
(Amherst Trees) 91
JACK, J. G Cratsegus coccinea, L. (1899-1900) . 119
JESSUP, HENRY GRISVVOLD . Carya amara, Nutt 55
Ulmus racemosa, Thomas ... 99
JOSSELYN, JOHN .... Sassafras officinale, Nees (New Eng-
land Rarities, 1672) .... 106
KNOWLTON, C. H Pinus rigida, Mill. (Rhodora, II, 124) 6
MANNING, WARREN H vi
MATTHEWS, F. SCHUYLER . Morus rubra, L 102
MICHAUX, FILS, FRANCOIS Ulmus fulva (Sylva of North Amer-
ANDRE ....!. ica, III, ed. 1853) 97
MORRIS, E. L v
MORSS, CHARLES H vi
OAKES, WILLIAM .... Morus rubra, L 102
PARLIN, J. C Sassafras officinale, Nees (1896) . . 106
PRANTL, KARL VON v
PRINGLE, C. G Pinus Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
Pyrus sambuci folia, Cham. &Schlecht. 113
Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm. . . 84
RAND, E. L Pinus Banksiana 8
Rhodora, III, 234 .... Acer Saccharum, Marsh., var. bar-
batum, Trelease 172
Acer Saccharum, Marsh., var.
nigrum, Britton 172
Rhodora, III, 58 .... Ilex opaca, Ait 139
Rhodora, III, 234 .... Prunus Americana, Marsh. . . . 171
ROBBINS, JAMES W. . . . Sassafras officinale, Nees .... 106
Ulmus racemosa, Thomas .... 99
ROBINSON, DR. B. L vi
ROBINSON, John .... Cratsegus coccinea, L. (1900) . . . 119
XIV BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES.
ROBINSON, R. E Finns Banksiana, Lamb .... 8
RUSSELL, L. W Diospyros Virginiana, L. . . . 161
Quercus palustris, Du Roi ... 92
Quercus stellata, Wang 77
SARGENT, CHARLES S. . . Cratsegus coccinea, L. (Botanical
Gazette, XXXI, 12, 1901, by
Crataegus mollis, Scheele (Botanical
Gazette, XXXI, 7, 223, 1901) . 121
SETCHELL, W. A. ... Populus heterophylla, L 33
STONE, W. E Quercus palustris, Du Roi (Bull.
Torr. Club, IX, 57) .... 91
SWAN, DR. C. W vi
TERRY, MRS. EMILY H. . . Picea alba, Link 17
TRELEASE, WILLIAM . . . Acer Saccharum, Marsh., var barba-
TUCKERMAN, EDWARD . . Bctulapapyrifera, var. minor, Marsh. 68
WAGHORNE, A. C. ... Cratsegus coccinea, L. (1894) . . 119
Ait. Alton, William.
B. S. P. Britton, Nathaniel Lord,
Sterns, E. E., and Poggenburg,
Borkh. Borkhausen, M. B.
Carr. Carriere, Eli Abel.
Cham. Chamisso, Adelbert von.
Coulter, John Merle.
DC. De Candolle, Augustin
Desf. Desf ontaines, Rene"
Du Roi, Johann Philip.
Ehrh. Ehrhart, Friedrich.
Engelm. Engelmann, George.
Jacq. Jacquin, Mcholaus Joseph.
Karst. Karsten, Hermann Gus-
tav Karl Wilhelm.
Koch, Wilhelm Daniel Joseph.
L. Linnaeus, Carolus.
L. f. Linnaeus, fils. Carl von.
Lam. Lamarck, J. B. P. A. de
Lamb, Aylmer Bourke.
Link, Heinrich Friedrich.
Marsh. Marshall, Humphrey.
Medic. Medicus, Friedrich Casi-
Michx. Michaux, Andre\
Michaux, fils. Francois Andre'.
Mill. Miller, Philip.
Muhl. Muhlenberg, H. Ernst.
Nees Nees von Esenbeck, C. G.
Nutt. Nuttall, Thomas.
Peck, Charles H.
Poggenburg, Justus F.
Pursh, Friedrich Trangott.
Roem. Roemer, Johann Jacob.
Sarg. Sargent, Charles S.
Schlecht. Schlechtendal, D. F. L.
Schr. Schrader, Heinrich A.
Sterns, E. E.
Sudw. Sudworth, George B.
T. and G. Torrey, John, and
Vent. Ventenat, Etienne Pierre.
Walt. Walter, Thomas.
Wang. Wangenheim, F. A. J.von.
Waugh, Frank A.
Willd. Willdenow, Carl Ludwig.
TKEES OF NEW ENGLAND.
PINOIDE.E. PINE FAMILY. CONIFERS.
ABIET ACE JE . CUPRES S ACEJE .
Trees or shrubs, resinous ; leaves simple, mostly evergreen,
relatively small, entire, needle-shaped, awl-shaped, linear, or
scale-like ; stipules none ; flowers catkin-like ; calyx none ;
corolla none ; ovary represented by a scale (ovuliferous
scale) bearing the naked ovules on its surface.
LARIX. PINUS. PICEA. TSUGA. ABIES.
Buds scaly; leaves evergreen and* persistent for several
years (except in Larix), scattered -along the twigs, spirally
arranged or tufted, linear, needle-shaped, or scale-like ; sterile
and fertile flowers separate upon the same plant ; stamens
(subtended by scales) spirally arranged upon a central axis,
each bearing two pollen-sacs surmounted by a broad-toothed
connective ; fertile flowers composed of spirally arranged
bracts or cover-scales, each bract subtending an ovuliferous
scale ; cover-scale and ovuliferous scale attached at their
bases; cover-scale usually remaining small, ovuliferous scale
enlarging, especially after fertilization, gradually becoming
woody or leathery and bearing two ovules at its base ; cones
maturing (except in Pinus) the first year ; ovuliferous scales
in fruit usually known as cone-scales ; seeds winged; roots
mostly spreading horizontally at a short distance below the
2 TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.
THUJA. CUPRESSUS. JUNIPERUS.
Leaf-buds not scaly ; leaves evergreen and persistent for
several years, opposite, verticillate, or sometimes scattered,
scale-like, often needle-shaped in seedlings and sometimes
upon the branches of older plants; flowers minute; stamens
and pistils in separate blossoms upon the same plant or
upon different plants ; stamens usually bearing 3-5 pollen-
sacs on the underside ; scales of fertile aments few, oppo-
site or ternate ; fruit small cones, or berries formed by
coalescence of the fleshy cone-scales ; otherwise as in
Larix Americana, Michx.
Larix laricina, Koch.
TAMARACK. HACMATACK. LARCH. JUNIPER.
Habitat and Range. Low lands, shaded hillsides, borders
of ponds ; in New England preferring cold swamps ; some-
times far up mountain slopes.
Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, west to the Rocky
mountains ; from the Rockies through British Columbia, northward
along the Yukon and Mackenzie systems, to the limit of tree growth
beyond the Arctic circle.
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, abundant, filling
swamps acres in extent, alone or associated with other trees,
mostly black spruce ; growing depressed and scattered on
Katahdin at an altitude of 4000 feet ; Massachusetts,
rather common, at least northward ; Rhode Island, not
reported ; Connecticut, occasional in the northern half of
the state ; reported as far south as Danbury (Fairfield
South along the mountains to New Jersey and Pennsylvania;
west to Minnesota.
LARIX AMERICANA, MICHX. 6
Habit. The only New England conifer that drops its leaves
in the fall ; a tree 30-70 feet high, reduced at great eleva-
tions to a height of 1-2 feet, or to a shrub ; trunk 1-3 feet
in diameter, straight, slender ; branches very irregular or in
indistinct whorls, for the most part nearly horizontal; often
ending in long spire-like shoots ; branchlets numerous, head
conical, symmetrical while the tree is young, especially when
growing in open swamps ; when old extremely variable, occa-
sionally with contorted or drooping limbs ; foliage pale green,
turning to a dull yellow in autumn.
Bark. Bark of trunk reddish or grayish brown, sepa-
rating at the surface into small roundish scales in old trees,
in young trees smooth ; season's shoots gray or light brown
Winter Buds and Leaves. Buds small, globular, reddish.
Leaves simple, scattered along the season's shoots, clustered
on the short, thick dwarf branches, about an inch long, pale
green, needle-shaped ; apex obtuse ; sessile.
Inflorescence. March to April. Flowers lateral, solitary,
rect ; the sterile from leafless, the fertile from leafy dwarf
ranches ; sterile roundish, sessile ; anthers yellow : fertile
long, short-stalked ; bracts crimson or red.
Fruit. Cones upon dwarf branches, erect or inclining
upwards, ovoid to cylindrical, - of an inch long, purplish
or reddish brown while growing, light brown at maturity,
persistent for at least a year ; scales thin, obtuse to truncate ;
edge entire, minutely toothed or erose ; seeds small, winged.
Horticultural Value. Hardy in New England ; grows in
any good soil, preferring moist locations ; the formal outline
of the young trees becomes broken, irregular, and picturesque
with age, making the mature tree much more attractive than
the European species common to cultivation. Earely for sale
in nurseries, but obtainable from collectors. To be success-
fully transplanted, it must be handled when dormant. Prop-
agated from seed.
NOTE. The European species, with which the mature plant is often
confused, has somewhat longer leaves and larger cones ; a form common
in cultivation has long, pendulous branches.
TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.
PLATE I. LARIX AMERICANA.
1. Branch with sterile and fertile 5. Fruiting branch.
flowers. 6. Open cone.
2. Sterile flowers. 7. Cone-scale with seeds.
3. Different views of stamens. 8. Leaf.
4. Ovuliferous scale with ovules. 9. Cross-section of leaf.
The leaves are of two kinds, primary and secondary ; the
primary are thin, deciduous scales, in the axils of which the
secondary leaf-buds stand ; the inner scales of those leaf-buds
form a loose, deciduous sheath which encloses the secondary
or foliage leaves, which in our species are all minutely ser-
Pinus Strobus, L.
Habitat and Range. In fertile soils ; moist woodlands or
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, through Quebec and Ontario, to
New England, common, from the vicinity of the seacoast
to altitudes of 2500 feet, forming extensive forests.
South along the mountains to Georgia, ascending to 2500 feet in
the Adirondacks and to 4300 in North Carolina; west to Minne-
sota and Iowa.
Habit. The tallest tree and the stateliest conifer of the
New England forest, ordinarily from 50 to 80 feet high and 2-4
feet in diameter at the ground, but in northern New England,
where patches of the primeval forest still remain, attaining a
diameter of 3-7 feet and a height ranging from 100 to 150 feet,
rising in sombre majesty far above its deciduous neighbors ;
trunk straight, tapering very gradually ; branches nearly hori-
zontal, wide-spreading, in young trees in whorls usually of five,
the whorls becoming more or less indistinct in old trees ;
PLATE I. Larix Americana.
PINUS STROBUS, L. 5
branchlets and season's shoots slender ; head cone-shaped,
broad at the base, clothed with soft, delicate, bluish-green
foliage ; roots running horizontally near the surface, taking
firm hold in rocky situations, extremely durable when ex-
Bark. On trunks of old trees thick, shallow-channeled,
broad-ridged; on stems of young trees and upon branches
smooth, greenish ; season's shoots at first rusty -scurfy or
puberulent, in late autumn becoming smooth and light russet
Winter Buds and Leaves. Leading branch-buds \-^ inch
long, oblong or ovate-oblong, sharp-pointed ; scales yellowish-
Foliage leaves in clusters of five, slender, 3-5 inches long,
soft bluish-green, needle-shaped, 3-sided, mucronate, each with
a single fibrovascular bundle, sessile-
Inflorescence. June. Sterile flowers at the base of the
season's shoots, in clusters, each flower about one inch long,
oval, light brown ; stamens numerous ; connectives scale-like :
fertile flowers near the terminal bud of the season's shoots,
long-stalked, cylindrical ; scales pink-margined.
Fruit. Cones, 4-6 inches long, short-stalked, narrow-cylin-
drical, often curved, finally pendent, green, maturing the
second year ; scales rather loose, scarcely thickened at the
apex, not spiny ; seeds winged, smooth.
Horticultural Value. Hardy throughout New England ; free
from disease ; grows well in almost any soil, but prefers a
light fertile loam ; in open ground retains its lower branches
for many years. Good plants, grown from seed, are usually
readily obtainable in nurseries ; small collected plants from
open ground can be moved in sods with little risk.
Several horticultural forms are occasionally cultivated which
are distinguished by variations in foliage, trailing branches,
dense and rounded heads, and dwarfed or cylindrical habits
6 TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.
PLATE II. PINUS STROBUS.
1. Branch with sterile flowers. 5. Ovuliferous scale with ovules,
2. Stamen. . inner side.
3. Branch with fertile flowers. 6. Branch with cones.
4. Bract and ovuliferous scale, outer 7. Cross-section of leaf.
Pinus rigida, Mill.
PITCH PINE. HARD PINE.
Habitat and Range. Most common in dry, sterile soils, occa-
sional in swamps.
New Brunswick to Lake Ontario.
Maine, mostly in the southwestern section near the
seacoast ; as far north as Chesterville, Franklin connty
(C. H. Knowlton, Rliodora, II, 124); scarcely more than a
shrub near its northern limits ; New Hampshire, most com-
mon along the Merrimac valley to the White mountains and up
the Connecticut valley to the mouth of the Passumpsic, reach-
ing an altitude of 1000 feet above the sea level ; Vermont,
common in the northern Champlain valley, less frequent
in the Connecticut valley (Flora of Vermont , 1900); common
in the other New England states, often forming large tracts of