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king therein, afterward he was outed that kingdome, as also yt of
England, but he had a design to erect a Colledge before his conquest
of ffrance, as we may more largely see in Arthur Duck, fellow of yt
house, & the writer of Archbishop Chichley's life. The Colledge
consists of a Warden, 40 fellows, 2 Chapplins, the rest of young men
under four yeers standing and in y® quality of seruants \s^^ seuerell
others necefsary for a family.

The pleasant Jest form'd from their statutes is thus, The fellows must
be bene nati, mediocriter docti, et optime vestiti — well born, well clothed,
and meanly learn'd. But not to play to harshly, they are to be
Honestis Parentibus nati, mediocriter docti in piano Cantu, born of
honest Parents, indifferently well skill'd in singing necessary for the
ancient service of the Mass required, optime vestiti, decently clothed
from the garments of the founder commanded to be bought at Bristoll
fair, being the best cloth to be had & comanded to be of purple
Colour.

All Souls stands in the heart of the City. Between Brasenose &
this Colledge Archbishop Laud had a design to open the great square,
that was, to take away the houses between them as far as the schools,
as you may find in that Bishops diary, printed by M^ Prin, who was
commanded to sease his paper when a prisoner in the Tower. Here
is in the Colledge one fair Quadrangle & the onely one that is paued
with stone in Town. At the upper end of this Court against the wall
is a sumptuous dial lately set up.

It has a very good Chappel pau'd with black and white Marble, «.t
on the wall at y« East end since the King's Restauration is painted y®
Resurrection, among the rest old Chichly rising out of his Tombe.
But the colors haue now lost much of their beauty, and I believe
People in these days haue not the skill to paint on walls as in former
times, for I haue seen on the walls of a Church at Bilbo painting
relaine its Pristine beauty, & doubtless there painted a great many



THOMAS BASKERVILLE'S ACCOUNT OF OXFORD 201

years before, and in the Cloyster of Ashridge, the Lord Bridgewaters
house in Hertfordshier, wch was a Religious house, you may there see
Monkish stories painted on the wall, wch Colours do yet look pretty well
fresh. But to proceed, here is a fair Hall, an excellent Common fire
roome, & a very good Buttery, where the fellows of the house do often
treat their friends, and there among other plate you may see S^ William
Portman's great guilt Bowl of silver.

They haue pretty good walks, considering they are now pent up by
the City euery way.

All Souls, besides y® present Warden, Dr James, D^ in Diuinitie,
hath 40 fellows, 2 Chaplains, 3 Clarks, 6 Choristers, besides other
orders. D^ Sergeant, D^ Clutterbooke, D^s of Ciuil Law. Gentle-
men of my acquaintance in this Colledge, besides y® two D^s afore-
named, were & are M^ Phillip ffel, y® Bishop's brother, and sub Prouost
of Eaton Colledge, dead, my Cosen Scudamore, brother to the present
S^ John Scudamore of Belingam in Heriford sheir, a Knight of the
Bath, he died in ffrance, Mr Clark, now a Parso in Shropshier,
Mr Baker, some time minister of Stanton, M^ Stedman, now minister
of Stanton Harcourt, M^ ffoster, M^ Aldworth, now parso of Locking,
Mi^ Orlebant, M^ Pember, Mr Wingford, M^ Snell, now one of the
Viccars at Bampton, M^ ffinch, the late L^d Chancellor's son, M^ Gibbs,
Mr Osborne, Mr Waldron, M^ Broughton, Mr Web, since M^ Stedman's
remoue now minister of Stanton Harcourt.

Here, before I leave this Colledge and the good people in it, I must
remember their mallard night, flfor the graue Judges haue sometime
their festiuall days, and dance togeither at Sergeants Inn; The
Country people will haue their Lott-meads, and Parish ffeasts ; And
Schollers must haue some times of mirth to meliorate their great
sobriety, for

There is a time

When wit & wine

Will tickle the pate with pleasure

And make one breath

And vent with ease

The debates o' the mind at leisure.

As touching the first institution of this Ceremony (which is uery 26
ancient; saith M^ Stedman) I cannot give any account of it, but
when they haue a mind to keep it, the time is always within a night
or two of All Souls. Then there are six Electors wch nominate y®
Lord of the Mallard, wch Lord is to beare the expences of the



202 COLLECTANEA. IV

Ceremony. When he is chosen, he appoints six officers, who march
before him with white staues in their hands, and meddalls hanging
upon their breasts tied with a large blew ribbond. Upon ye meddalls
is cut on the one side the iJ^ of the IMallard w*^ his officers, on the
other ye mallard as he is carried upon a long Poll. When y^ L^ is
seated in his chair with his officers of state (as aboue s<^) before him,
they carry him thrice about the Quadrangle and sing this song :
• Griffin Turkey Bustard Capon

Let other hungry mortalls gape on

And on their bones wt^^ stomacks fall hard

But let All Souls men haue the mallard

Hough the bloud of King Edward, by ye bloud of
King Edward

It was a swapping swapping Mallard.

Stories strange were told I trow

By Baker, Holinshead, and Stow

Of Cocks & Bulls & other quere things

That were done in the Reignes of their kings

Hough the blood &c.

Swapping he was from bill to eye

Swapping he was from wing to thigh

His swapping toole of generation

Out swap'd all the winged Nation

Ho the bloud &c.

The Romans once admir'd a Gander

More than they did their Chiefe Comander

Because it sau'd if some don't foole us

The p[lace] called from y^ head of Tolus

Ho the bloud &c.

Then let us sing & dance a Galliard

To the remembrance of the mallard

And as the mallard does in Poole

Let's dabble diue and duck in Bowie

Ho the bloud &c.

\Here follows a copy of the music to which the song teas then
sung. It is printed, together with a corrected version^ in the ' Remini-
scences of Oxford' O.H. S., vol. xxii, 1892.]

The mallard song being sung by one man, all the rest y' are
present bearing the Chorus. When that is done they knock at all the



THOMAS BASKERVILLE'S ACCOUNT OF OXFORD 203

middle Chambers, where most of y® Seniors lodge, of whome they
demand crowns a piece (I suppose a forfeiture for not afTisting at
the ceremony) wch is readily giuen, then they go with 20 or 30 Torches
(which are allwayes carried before them) upon the Leads of y^ Coliedge
where they sing their song as before. This ended, they go into their
common rooms, where they make themselves merry with what wine
euery one has mind to, there being at that time great plenty of all
sorts. When they have there sufficiently refresh'd themselves, to con- ,
elude all they go into the Buttery where euery one has his Tumbler /
of Canary or other wine. Then he that bore the mallard chops of his
head, dropping some of the bloud into euery tumbler, which being
drunk off, euery one disposeth of himselfe as he thinks fit, it being
generally day-brake.

This Coliedge is Capacious and large enough to Lodge and entertaine
60 Schollers, and they come hither from any Coliedge in Town, for
which reason they have more generall acquaintance in the University
then the Schollers of other houses.

At All Soules they Enter a Founders Kinsman in golden letters in
their Register Book, and he is immediately Fellow of y® House without
a years probation.

[Lisl 0/ Fellows omitted?^

Of this Coliedge was Robert Record, a Cambrian by birth, but in
what County M^ Anthony a Woods my acquaintance, the author of
Athence Oxontensis, in all his search could not find, although descended
of a Gentile family, who is as famous for Arithmetick, as William Lilie
for Grammar. He was y® Author of Records Arithmetick. About
1525 he first saluted ye Oxonian Muses, and in 153 1 he was elected
fltellow of All Soules Coll: being then Bachelor of Arts. Making
Phisick his profession, he went to Cambridge where he was honored
with ye degree of Doctor in that faculty, Aho 1545. And honored of
all that knew him, for his great knowledge in seuerall Artes and
Sciences. 'Tis said that while he was of All Soules Coliedge & after-
ward, when he retired from Cambridge to this University, he publicly 27
taught Arithmetick and ye grounds of Mathematickes with ye Art of
true Accompting. Such as have a mind to read more of him may
finde it in y® 84 page oi Athence Oxoniensis.

Hauing roome yet leaft in this scantling of paper alotted to ye
memory of Alsoules, my worthy Benefactors to y® narative of this
Coliedge must not be forgot how and where they are, viz M"" Baker &
M"" Steadman Noble Soules before noted among my acquaintance in
this famous Coliedge.



204 COLLECTANEA. IV

Mr. Baker was sometime Curate of Stanton Harcourt under y^
Bishop of Oxford, and being an Alsoules Schollar had also y^ stipend
allow'd by this Colledge for preaching so many Sermons yearly in
Stanton-Harcourt Church, the parsonage being impropriated to that
College. So, his function causing him to spend many nights at
Stanton, he was pleased to quarter wth me at y® house of our
honoured friends M^ Thomas Stevenson and his wife Elizabeth, wch
was y® means that begot an Intimate friendship and acquaintance
between us, He is an ingenious man, & writ that book intituled The
Head of Wile, or The Turnings <Sf Windings of the factions, printed in
ye reign of Charles y^ 2^. His parents did Hue well in Wostershire,
but in his youthly years hauing had much Education in Norfolk,
I went a Journey with him to those parts as far as Norwhich &
Yarmouth and we were nobly treated by his friends in those parts. He
tooke to wife Mary y® daughter of my worthy friend IMr. William
Porter of Norcoat by Abingdon who was a very ingenious man and
had a pleasant vein in Poetry. M^ Baker and his wife are both aliue,
1694, he is now Parson of Harreshome in Kent.

Oriell Colledge.

28 Oriell Colledge, formerly called S* Mary Colledge, was founded by
King Edward the Second, whence it was sometimes called Kings Coll.
Adamus de Brome was first Provost and Chiefe Benefactor thereof
Edward the 3d endowed it with a INIessuage called Le Oriell, from
which the Colledge took its present name. The same Edward the
third founded the hospitall of S' Bartholomew belonging to this
Colledge. John fifrant, who in the time of Henry ye 8*^ was Master
of the Rolls in Chancery gaue four fellowships for the Countys of
Somerset, Dorset, Wilton, Deuon.

John Carpenter, sometimes Provost and afterwards Bishop of
Wigorn, gaue one fellowship for y® Diocess of Wigorn, and six
exhibitions.

William Smith, founder of Brasen-Nose and sometimes Bishop of
Lincoln, gaue one fellowship for the Diocess of Lincoln, Richard
Dudley, fellow of this Colledge and afterwards Chancellor of Salisbury,
gaue a Manner called Swaynswyck in the County of Somerset for the
maintainance of two fellows and six exhibitioners. John Jackman,
sometimes fellow, gaue a ffarm house in S' Gyles Parish for the
Porter.

The Revenves of this Colledge was afterwards increased by the
munificence of seuerall others, the chiefe whereof were Anthony



THOMAS BASKERVILLE'S ACCOUNT OF OXFORD 205

Blencow and John Tolson sometimes Provost, in whose times & partly
by whose chardge, the Colledge then mightily impaired was rebuilt,
and graced with so stately and sumptuous a structure, that it is now
the only glory and ornament of the University.

Many contributed liberally towards its rebuilding, the chief whereof
were these. Anthony Blencow, D^ of Law & Provost, gaue 1300
pouds wherewith the East part of the Colledge was rebuilt, Henricus
Ashworth, Dr of Physick, formerly fellow, gave loli, Gulielmus Comb,
fellow, gave looli, John Tolson, D^" of Divinity and Provost, also John
Rause, Nicholaus Brook, John Home, Daniell Lawford, John Gandy,
Richard Owen, John Duncombe, Henry Eccleston, John Warren,
Humphrey Lloyd, Richard Winch, William Wyatt, Edward Smallbone,
brother to Mrs Blower of Sufiingwell, James ffarren, Robert Say,
Richard Saunders, William Washborne, formerly fellows, gave so^i
a piece, in all pso^i. John Tolson, Prouost, gaue iiSoii, Matthew
Lyster, knight, formerly fellow, gave 3oli, William Lewis, D' of
Diuinity, sometime Prouost, gaue looli, Robert Drewpert, formerly
fellow-Comr, gave looii, Robert Harley,fellow-Comr, gaue 2 oii, Thomas
Caue, fellow-Comr, gaue 20'i, John Parson, fellow-Comr, gaue lo'',
Richard Knightley, fellow-Com^, gaue looii, Robert Arden, fellow
Comr, gaue soli, Thomas Roe, Thomas Kenrish, ffrancis Keate, John
Southbey, Tho: Adderley, Alexander Pope, Richard Hide, Richard
Swayne, Henry Bridgeman, Henry Jackson, fellow Com^Sj gaue lol'
a piece, William Aston, knight of y^ Garter in y® County of Yorke,
gaue 2oli, George Crooke, knight of y® Garter in the County Oxon,
gaue loli, Robert Smith, Gent, in Com. Oxon, gaue 4oli towards the
rebuilding of y® Colledge.

The succefsion of its Prouosts were as foUoweth \list omitted\
This Colledge is famous not only for the magnificence of its build-
ing, but also celebrated upon the account of those famous men therein
educated; of whom were Thomas Arundell, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, Richard Praty, Bishop of Chester, John Carpenter, Bp of Wigorn,
Gualterus le Hart, Bishop Nordoviensis \sic\ and afterwards Arch-BP.
of York, Reignaldus Peacock ^, Bishop of Chester \sic\ John Halse,
Bp. of Lichfield & Coventry, Thomas Cornish, Bishop Tynensis^,
Hugo Lloyd, Bishop of Llandaffe, & \hlank\ Lloyd, late fellow of
Oriell, now Bishop of Bangor.

^ The author of The Repressor of Ovenmich Blaming of the Clergy. Pecock
became Bishop of Chichester in 1450.

^ Bishop ot Tenos in partibus, and Suffragan of Wells, 1486-151 3. Thomas
Easkerville is of course wrong in suggesting, as he does in the note here omitted,
that Tynensis refers to Tintern.



2o6 COLLECTANEA. IV

Of this Colledge (among other Noblemen) were S^ Walter Raleigh,
knight of ye Garter, S"" ffrancis Kinaston, knight of y^ Garter, S^ Tho.
Roe, Sr Henry Purefoy, S^ ffrancis Ware, S^ Robert Owen, S"" Richard
Wenman, S^ William Hill.

There belong to the Colledge a Prouost & i8 ffellows. Those at
present are, Robert Say, Proust, M^ Thorn, M^ Dauenant, M^ Kinsey,
Mr Cowslad, Mr Harvey, Mr Stonehouse, Mr Haslewood, Mr Wood-
ward, Mr Gandy, Mr Crowther, Mr ffoster, Mr Dyer, ]\Ir Rayse,
Mr Robinson, Mr Desmaistres, M^ Ingram, Mr Walker, Sr Thurston.

29 [A long 7iote concerning Tintern and Chepstow, and an epitaph to
Henry Martin, the Regicide, is here omitted.^

Gentlemen Schollers of my acquaintance in Oriell Colledge were
and are M^" Washbourn, M^ John Stonehouse of Cockroofe, now Parson
of Radley, M^ Barrey, ye son of M^" Vincent Barrey of Hamton
Pile & my friend Mrs jane Southby of Abingdon, IM^ Thomas
Southby's daughter, M^ Williams a Welshman, y^ person who gaue
me this relation of Oriel.

And of this Colledge was my honoured father Hannibal Baskerville.

This Colledge is capacious and large enough to entertain and lodge
[blafik^ schollers.

30 As S* Catherine's repute gain'd Churches in England to y® honor of
her name, as at London and other places, so at Baliol in Oxon she
hath a Chappell wch bespeakes her story. Before I treat of the insti-
tution of that Colledge, so here take it, as I got it from D^ Savage late
Master of that House.

There was at Alexandria a King called Costus^ very rich, «S: glorious,
but for a long time without ifsue, and being a Pagan, offered many
sacrifices to the gods for Ifsue. But because devils can not creat
a human-soul they were all in vain : mean-while a certain Philosopher
named Alphorabius dwelt in Greace to whome the said King sent to
know whether he should have any Ifsue by his Qucene, to whom the
Philosopher made answer, that it proceeded not from any defect of
nature, but Divine Providence, and therefore advised him to offer
Sacrifice. But the King replying that many Sacrifices had been offered
already, The Philosopher rejoyn'd, that though we call many gods,
yet reason dictated that there w^as one above all the rest, & therefore
advised the King to cast an Image of Gold to the great God of Gods,

' \_Note in Margin.'] This could be but a Regiilus, ^'I'gipt being subject to
y" Roman Juiipire, and so bad been from the time of Cleopatra, and this Kegulus
or Governor is said to be at the best but a Roman gentleman.



THOMAS BASKERVILLE'S ACCOUNT OF OXFORD 207

and to do Sacrifice unto him for Ifsue, wch ye King commanded to
be done accordingly, but beside the intent of the Artizan there came
forth the Image of our Crucified Saviour, which when brought into the
Temple all the Idols fell down before, whereupon shortly after yQ
Queen was delivered of a Girle, which from the ruine of the said Idol
was named Catherina, which implies Ruine. But to follow this Legend
a Httle further — she is said to have learned all y^ Liberall Arts by 13
years of Age ; for wch reason she was called Gemma by y® Masters
of Greace. Her father upon his death-bed charged her to worship
this great God of Gods and his Image, 2dly not to mary any but one
sequall to her self in bloud, beauty, learning and riches. Now father
& mother being both dead, she held the Regnes of the Kingdom with
much wisdom. Afterward she travelling to Alexandria lost her way &
lighted upon the Cell of an Hermit, where beholding a Crucifix she
said that that man and she worshiped the same God ; and after long
discourse she was perswaded by the Hermit to be married to Christ as
having all those Conditions, which her father required in her matching :
she yielded, and dreaming that she was married to him, found a ring
upon her finger in the morning. After this she confuted many Philo-
sophers whom Maxentius the Emperour set to dispute with her. She
converted the Souldiers which were to guard her in Prison and after
to execution. She caused the wheels to be broken which were present
to her to torment her. At last she was beheaded, whose Body the
Angells Took and Buried in IMount Sinai out of whose bones continu-
ally flows an oyl, wch cures the members of all Languid persons.

This Lady wheresoever she dwelt has got the honour of a day in
our Callendar devoted to her memory, wch is the 25 of November,
when at night the semsters, spinsters & knitters, to Commemorate
the freedom she left them do eat Cakes and drink ale in aboundance,
if they can get it. Her wheel also, an Emblem of good housewifery,
is hung up for signs in most Market towns.

The Chappell in Balliol Colledge, called the New Chappell or
Saint Catherine's, was built in the Reign of King Henry the 8*^ at y®
Charge of the House, afsisted probably by y^ contribution of friends,
for I find, saith Doctor Savage, that in ye 13 year of y^ Raign of
Henry y® 8, which [was] about Anno 152 1, an agreement was made,
with a mason of Burford for y® finishing of the 3 window thereof on
ye Quadrangle side. But how long it was before 1529 is evident by
ye date of ye glazing of ye windows, it being then that Lawrence
Stubbys gave the East window wch is so fair that the founder of
Wadham Colledge is said to have offered ye Society 200 pounds for



2o8 COLLECTANEA. IV

it to glaze y® East-window of his Chappell, as representing in lively
Colours & exquisite postures, The Pafsion, Resurrection and Afcen-
fion of Christ. But the Chappell being faire they thought not the
tvindow too gawdy for it.

The South window was at y^ same time glazed, containing y® whole
story of the martirdom of S* Katherine. The next to that was y®
gift of Dr Wentworth, fellow of this house, containing y® story of
Hezekiah's sicknefs and recovery: That opposite thereunto con-
taining ye story of Phillip and y® Eunuch was the same year given by
Richard Atkins Esq"^, of Glocester Shier, and fellow Comoner of this
Colledge, about which time the whole Chappell was lined and
adorn'd with Joyners work, at y^ cost of the Colledge and of many
Benefactors, one of the greatest whereof was M^ Popham of Littlecot,
who had been of the house and gaue loo pounds, in memory whereof,
his Arms carved or engraven in wood are placed over the Screen
doors of the Choir.

The second best was M^ Boughton, Sub-Dean of his INIajesties
Chappell Royall, who gave 50'i, so that now it gives w'ay to none of
those of y® lefser Colledges for beauty and Proportion. One of the
Chappell windows appears to be given by one of the Compton's
(a Knight) ; S^ William Compton of the Ancestors of the now Earl
of North-Hamton, both by his name and Coat of Arms, and probably
31 he gaue toward the structure itself, for his Charity was great, if it
were answerable to his piety, wch his Posture with his Ladyes, wherein
he is represented in the same window, shews to be devout. 1530.

There was, as D^ Savage notes, in the place formerly where now
Balliol Colledge doth stand, & near it, these Halls, vizt Hart Hall, of
which name there haue been seuerall Halls in Oxford, one at this day
still abiding. Saucer Hall, Margarets Hall, New Balliol Hall, Old
Balliol Hall, which stood neer Jacson the stone-cutters house, and
St Hugh Hall, of which for diversion here his story.

This St Hugh was a Bishop of Lincoln in whose diocese Oxford
then was. He was born at Grenoble in Burgundy, who upon the
importunity of O"^ King Henry the 2^ came over and accepted the
Priorate of Wittham in Somerset Shhier — since y^ difsolution of
Abbeys the Lord Hopton's house, who in my time was the King's
Generall of y® West, Car. i. And afterward y® said See, whose body
after his death, which was at London, was carried thence to the
gates of Lincoln and thence more solemnly to y® Cathedrall Church,
there viz* upon the shoulders of Two Kings of England & Scotland,
and from y® Church door to the Choir by a great number of Prelats.



THOMAS BASKERVILLE'S ACCOUNT OF OXFORD 209

About 20 years after he was Cannoniz'd or Sainted by y^ Pope, and
afio 12.82 his bones were taken out of his coffin and put into a silver
Chest, 82 years after his first interment. And this was 2 years before
Oliver Sutton, Bishop of Lincoln, confirmed Balliol Colledge. But
'tis probable y® Kings of his time would hardly bestow such pains to
bear him to Church, except it were to be rid of him whose terrible
Edict tumbled Rosamond's bones out of her grave at Godstow. It
seems, as the ballad tells us, her crime was too much familiarity with
a King, a crime unpardonable, but however, her Chappell has yet the
good luck to stand when the uery Ruines of the rest of that Religious
ffabrick is almost gone ; They shew'd me where her Tomb was, when
Sr David Walter, a valiant Captain for King Charles ifst, was owner
of it. But let these severityes pafs with their Inventors, since
There is scarse a place in heaven or hell
Where a Divel dos not dwell.
I must again to S* Hugh, the uenerable esteeme the gentle Craft
has still for his memory will not let him dye, so what lately I got in
a Pamphlet, here you have it. \Here follows a lengthy poem on St. Hugh, 32
which, as it appears from the above to have been already printed, is
now omitted. It begins ' When Cupid with his gold Bow Had Shot
S*. Hugh unto the heart.']

As touching Balliol Colledge, which society as to name liued before 33
this structure was built, in Old Balliol Hall and New Balliol Hall, wch
some call Sparrow Hall. John Balliol was its first ffounder, stiled
Baron by Mathew of Westminster, the father of Balliol, sometime
King of Scotes, who was his second son, Hugh his elder brother
and Dervorguille his mother, in whose right he came to lay a
succefsful claim to that Crown, being then dead.

But to go on, o"^ ffounder as to his Paternall or own estate was
Lord of Bernard Castel in the Bishoprick of Durham, and Hoderingay,
in North-Hamton Shier, in right of Devorguille his wife (The Castel
where Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded). And he was one of
those Nobles who afsisted Henry ye 3'i in his warr against Simon
Mountforte, the Barrons, who in the year 1263 began this work. But,
as Dr Savage, Master of that house, doth note, being found dead in
1269, little was done in his Hfe time, nor was it likely that he should
go about such a piece of work in Oxford then, when y® King
threatned y® Ruine of the University, upon y^ Displeasure his Majesty
conceived against the SchoUers, whereof 15000 are said to haue
departed from Oxford, & most of them to Norihamton, more anoying



2IO COLLECTANEA. IV

ye King in the Battel then all ye Rebbels besides ; and y® Ifsue of y®
said Battel was such, if this of North-Hamton & Lewis be the same,



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