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Hundreds of French mixed-bloods have taught in
Indian and mission schools. In the very early days
it was not an unheard-of thing that the children of
white neighbors should be taught by such. Mary
Cadotte, the metisse mother of Truman and Lyman
Warren, before her marriage taught English at Red
Lake, Wis. Angelique Adhemar, sister-in-law of Mme.
Alexis La Framboise, opened a school at Michilimacki-
nac, at which all the girls of the post were educated
until the death of La Framboise, when the widow and
her children removed to Montreal. The metisse
mother of Mrs. Baird of Green Bay opened the first
girls' boarding school in the Northwest, (supra, p.


Teacher in Carlisle Indian School


The French-Indian in the Learned Professions

67), teaching reading, writing, sewing and gen-
eral housekeeping. Charles Henry Beaubien,
metis son of ' ' the first citizen of Chicago, ' ' a graduate
of Princeton College, in 1829 elected to teach school
in that village when his younger brother, Medard,
went into business. He was possibly the first teacher
in Chicago. He died young, however, at the age of
twenty-six. Alexis Grignon was a teacher among
the Menominee in 1874. The rank and file of French
mixed-bloods of the present day who attend Carlisle
or other Indian superior schools, especially women,
go into teaching, most of them holding subordinate
positions in Reservation Schools, though a few are
matrons or even superintendents. Some are teach-
ing in public and private schools. Miss Ella De-
loria, who bears a name honored in the missions of
the Episcopal Church, has recently graduated from
Teachers College, Columbia University.

The profession of the law appears to attract
many educated French-Indians, the cast of whose
minds seems peculiarly adapted for grappling with
legal subtleties. Among the earliest to distinguish
himself in this profession was Jean Baptiste Botti-
neau of Ossia, Minn. — Ozawidjeed — ^'le petit avocat
du Pere Malo/' the devoted champion of the Turtle
Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. Son of the
noted guide and military scout, Pierre Bottineau
(supra, pp. 127, 128), and Genevieve La Ranee, he was
born in Dakota Territory in 1837 and died at his
home in Washington, December 1, 1911. His early
[ 169 ]

Our Debt to the Red Man

life was spent at St. Anthony's Falls, where we have
already seen his father exercising a refined hospitali-
ty. There Jean Baptiste studied and practised law,
and for a number of years held the office of Justice
of the peace. In 1862 he married Marie, daughter
of Frangois and Marguerite (Dumas) Eenville. He
was a man of great force of character, highly intel-
lectual and broadly humanitarian, generous to a fault,
delighting to aid the oppressed and afflicted.

The practice of law was not by itself sufficient
to absorb J. B. Bottineau's exuberant energy. He
also held the offices of United States and State tim-
ber agent, and was highly successful in the real es-
tate business and in the fur trade, his uncle, Charles
Bottineau (Little Shell or Petite Coquille) being his
partner in trade in the Red River country. Events
at the close of the Civil War and the decline of the
fur trade brought upon the firm a loss of $80,000,
yet without impoverishing Mr. Bottineau. Later he
devoted the bulk of his large fortune to the interests
of his tribe, for whose sake and to prosecute whose
claim against the Government he went to reside in
Washington, where he lived twenty years and spent
many thousands of dollars. The valuable pamphlet
which, in behalf of these Chippewas, he drew up and
submitted to the Fifty-sixth Congress, June 6, 1900,
(Senate Document 444), is a mine of historical and
documentary evidence, his argument for the right
of these mixed-blood Indians to their land being sup-
ported by extracts from such travellers as Zebulon
[ 170 ]

The French-Indian in the Learned Professions

M. Pike, Alexander Ramsay, Alexander Henry, and
such Indian agents as Father Belcourt and many
others, and by reports of Commissioners sent by
Government at various times to investigate the sub-
ject. His eloquent argument for the rights of a
tribe to which the government of this country is
deeply indebted should, it would seem, convince
every disinterested hearer. Yet he died with the
question still undecided, and five years later (1918)
''The Turtle Mountain affairs are still pending," to
the shame of Congress.

J. B. Bottineau was a man of fair culture, hav-
ing in early life read much, especially along the lines
of liberal thought and mysticism. He was a strong
and consistent advocate of Indian education, indus-
trial, technical, professional and moral, and a vig-
orous supporter of the government policy of main-
taining such schools as that as Carlisle. He lived and
died a Roman Catholic.^

It may properly be here observed that the loyalty
of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewas in North
Dakota, to whose interests J. B. Bottineau gave such
devoted service, is proverbial. The Band is largely
composed of French mixed-bloods, who have been of
great assistance to the Government in its conflicts
with hostiles, and notably in protecting its interests
against Canadian smugglers. Of 261 signers of the
treaty of 1892, by which this band ceded to the

^ The facts hei'e narrated are drawn from an obituary notice written
by Prof. J. N. B. Hewitt.


Our Debt to the Red Man

United States all rights in their lands except the
Turtle Mountain Reservation, 166 names aire clearly
French, and undoubtedly the majority of the others
have more or less French blood. And it is this, their
last refuge, which their ''paternal" government is
now disputing with them !

Among successful lawyers of the present day is
former United States Senator Charles Curtis of Kan-
sas, who is one-eighth Indian and five-eighths French,
on the maternal side. His grandmother was the
daughter of Louis Gonville and a daughter of White
Plume, a Kansas (Sioux) chief, who married a
Frenchman, Lewis Pappan. Mr. Curtis is practising
law in Topeka, Kansas. He is a member of the So-
ciety of American Indians.

Prominent among French-Indian lawyers is
Thomas L. Sloan of Bender, Nebraska, a French-
Omaha whose name was put forward by the tribes
composing the recently organized Indian Federation,
and many influential men both east and west, for the
office of Indian Commissioner, now, however, ably filled
by the Hon. Cato Sells. Carl Quay-se-good (one of the
two Chippewa delegates to Mr. Wilson's inauguration,
the late lawyer, Gus Beaulieu being the other) , studied
law in the University of Minnesota. Thomas St. Ger-
main, a graduate of Yale University and a noted
athlete in his college days, though a lawyer, has re-
cently gone into the sale of sporting goods, the athlete
''Chief Bender" being his partner.' Mrs. Marie
[ 172 ]

Expert Accountant of the Education Division of the U. S.
Indian Bureau, Treasurer of the Society of American Indians.

The French-Indian in the Learned Professions

Louise Bottineau Baldwin, daughter of the late J. B.
Bottineau, who has long held a responsible position in
the Lidian Department (supra, p. 128), was admitted
to the Bar of the District of Columbia in 1914, having
performed the notable feat of completing the three
years' course in the evenings of two years, and gradu-
ating with the highest distinction. "Side by side
with men fresh from college she competed for honors.
Every one knew her as the Indian woman whose wits
were keen and whose mind was just a little bit more
capable than the rest. Indian capacity was on trial,
and Mrs. Baldwin, as a loyal Chippewa, a loyal In-
dian, finished her course with honor," says the Quar-
terly Journal of American Indians, ''proudly, but
none too proudly." Mrs. Baldwin, who is Treasurer
of the Society of American Indians, has offered her-
self to the "War Department for service oversea. She
speaks French as fluently as English, and her skill
as an accountant will make her valuable to the audit-
ing staff.

It is but recently that Indians have entered the
medical profession, the long course of study required,
including hospital practice, having deterred many
from entering this field of usefulness. Yet thcr-^
are those who have won respect in this calling. The
late Peter Wilson, a French-Oneida, a graduate of
Dartmouth, was "a wonder as physician and sur-

3 Charles M. Guyon, the metis football player of Carlisle 1905, carries
on a branch office of the Spalding Company in Atlanta.


Our Debt to the Red Man

geon." Dr. Susan La Flesclie Picotte, government
physician for the Omahas*, sister of the still remem-
bered ''Bright-Eyes/' and of the ethnologist Francis
La Flesche, is honored among women physicians of
every race.

Dr. Oscar De Forest Davis, French-Chippewa,
has become highly successful in the practice of his

A metis Chippewa is at the present writing
studying medicine in Georgetown Medical College.
Mr. Dennison Wheelock, D. D. S., prominent in the
Society of American Indians, is practicing dentistry
in "West De Pere, Wis. The need of physicians of the
Indian race was urged by Mr. Chauncey Yellowrobe
on the occasion to which reference has already been
made (supra, p. 101). The noted full-blood physi-
cians, Dr. Charles A. Eastman and Dr. Carlos Mon-
tezuma, have already been named.

But though few have heard the call of the medi-
cal profession, the appeal from the bedside of the
sick has been answered by many and an ever increas-
ing number of Indian girls, most if not all of them
of French blood. The majority of these are gradu-
ates of Carlisle. The pioneer in this profession is
probably Miss Estaiene de Peltaquestagne, whom
General E. H. Pratt characterizes as ''a noble and ef-
ficient woman, a nurse of such quality as to receive
a salary of unusual amount." Gen. Pratt especially

* Dr. Picotte died in the spring of 1916. Her loss seems almost ir-


The Feench-Indian in the Learned Professions

names Miss Peltaquestagne with Mrs. Rosa Bourassa
La Flesche as "exceptional characters, indicating
that mixing French and Indian blood has produced
fine results."


In Literature and Art

IN the field of literature French mixed-bloods
make a creditable if small showing. We have
seen Antoine Le Claire collecting legends and
traditions of the Sauks and Foxes/ In 1823 Oliver
Rosseau, or Rossin, a French Chippewa of Detroit,
collected Indian traditions around the deserted Indian
village of Andersontown, Indiana, under the direction
of General Cass. The ''History of the Objibways"
(Minn. Hist. coll. V, 1850-52) by William Whipple
Warren, brother of the Hon. Truman Warren, and
son of Mary Cadotte and Truman Warren, in whose
veins, says the author of "Unnamed Wisconsin,"
"flows honorable Objibway blood," is "an important
account impartially written by an Indian" (Monette).
His brother Truman, whose brilliant career was cut
short by early death, ^ had collected many myths and
legends of his mother's tribe. Louis Porlier, a grand-
son of Judge Jacques Porlier, a benefactor, as we have
seen, of the Wisconsin Historical Society, contributed
to its Collections an interesting "Narrative" of the
early time. Several Viauds and Grignons contri-
buted Reminiscences to the collections of this Society.
The historical romance by the one-quarter Ottawa,
Frances R. Howe, has already been named (p. 133),

1 Compare supra, p. 91.

2 Supra, p. 162.


In Literature and Art

The Rev. Clement H. Beaulieu, a priest of the Protest-
ant-Episcopal Church, has become Editor-in-chief of
The Tomahawk, a paper founded and for many years
edited by his relative the late metis lawyer Gus

The Renville Family has contributed not a little
to literature, if the word may be used in its broadest
sense. The large part taken by this family in the
civilization of the North West has already been
shown. (Supra, pp. 143, 144) . But the most important
service of Joseph Renville to his own people was the
aid he rendered to Dr. J. S. Williamson and Dr. S. R.
Riggs in the translation of the Bible, in which Renville
dictated the translation of every word into Dakota,
also helping with the Grammar and Dictionary. He
further wrote a Dakota catechism. His grand-
nephew, Victor, son of Gabriel Renville, Chief of
Scouts, U. S. A., wrote the "Tribal History of the
Dakotas. ' *

It is interesting to observe that though few
French names are found among the heads of business
organizations in Minnesota at the present day,
(lumbering perhaps excepted) a considerable propor-
tion of the members of the Historical Society of the
State and of the contributors to its annals are French,
and in view of what we know of the settlement of the
Territory, a certain number of these probably have
Indian blood.

Mrs. Josephine Andre Wood of Oklahoma is at
work upon a History of the French-Indians and

Our Debt to the Red Man

their ancestors, and also upon a study of the Five
Civilized Tribes. Her father was the son of Major
Pierre Andre of Vincennes, w^ho was Paymaster
to the Indians for many years, and probably mar-
ried an Indian woman. The son, Pierre M. Andre,
went to the Indian Territory (like many other
Frenchmen, says his daughter), in a spirit of adven-
ture and with the desire to observe Indians running
their own government and acting as a sovereign na-
tion in the very heart of the United States. Though,
like many other Frenchmen, he married an Indian
woman, he was a thorough Frenchman at heart, and
named his daughter after the Empress Josephine,
whom he greatly admired.

The importance of preserving by writing those
legends and traditions which until now have been
held in memory and handed down from generation to
generation is vividly felt by educated Indians and
their friends. Such publications as The Bed Man
and the Quarterly Journal S. A. I. have already in-
cluded articles which, though some of them are from
the inexperienced pens of Carlisle students, show what
treasures will be lost if the movement to preserve them
does not receive more generous support than it has
thus far enjoyed. The Potawatomie story which Mr.
Alanson Skinner relates (Journ. S. A. I., 1; '15) of
the young man who fell in love with the corpse of a
beautiful girl and tended it with such devotion that
the Master of Life was touched, and caused her to
live again, has the same theme as the legendary episode

[ 178 ]

In Literature and Art

of the young nobleman of India, in the so-called Acts
of St. Thomas, but is clothed with far more reticence
and nobility, and with the significance that ''Love is
ever Lord of Death, ' ' entirely lacking in the Apochry-
phal writing.

As might be expected, the most important contri-
butions of French mixed-bloods to literature, still
using the word in its largest sense, are in the field of
archeology and ethnology. Mr. Arthur C. Parker,
official Archeologist and Member of the Department
of Education of New York State, the nephew of Gen-
eral Ely Samuel Parker of General Grant 's staff, is of
the Seneca Tribe. With a large proportion of Anglo-
Saxon blood, Mr. Parker through his mother has also
a slight strain of French. His Seneca name is Ga-wo-
so-wa-neh (Star-shaft). Like his distinguished uncle
he is active in efforts to promote the true interests of
the Indian peoples. To that end he took a prominent
part in founding, in 1910, the Society of American
Indians, of which he is now President, as well as the
editor-in-chief of its Quarterly Journal.

Mr. Francis La Flesche, one of the Ethnologists
of the Smithsonian Institution, is especially noted for
his important collaboration with Miss Alice Fletcher
in an exhaustive study of the ''The Omaha Tribe,"
though he has also other work in the field of literature
to his credit. Mr. La Flesche 's family history is in-
teresting. In the early nineteenth century a French
trader by name of Joseph La Flesche married a Ponca

Our Debt to the Red Man

girl/ Their son, Joseph Estimaza, or Iron Eye, was
adopted by the Omaha Chief Big Elk, and was edu-
cated in St. Louis, but returned to the tribe and set
himself to make ''a village of make-believe white
men," in other words to civilize his people. He
gathered around him the young men's party, whicli
strongly supported him in opposing drunkcijess and
other immoralities. Eventually he became the princi-
pal chief of his tribe. ^ ''La Flesche and his band"
were the strong sux)port of the mission seliool at tlie
Omaha Agency in 1868, according to Superintendent
William Hamilton.

His son Francis, brought up in the tribe, observ-
ing all its ritual and rites, which were explained to
him by his father and the old men of the tribe, early
determined to perfect himself in English and gather
the lore of his people. His school education was be-
gun in the agency school, an interesting picture of
which is given in his story of "The Middle Five."
Tji early youth Francis La Flesche accompanied as
interpreter his gifted sister »Susette, better known as
Bright Eyes, in her tour through the principal cities
of the United States, to tell the bitter story of the
removal of the Poncas. Susette La Flesche 's clear ex-
position of the case, her eloquent appeals for humanity
toward her race, her dignity of diction and bearing,
aroused the interest of thousands who listened to her.

J The Ponca is one of the five tribes of the Omaha division of the
Sioux ; their language is the same as that of the other four —
Omaha, Osage, Kansa or Kavtr, and Wea.

2 This the Fontanelles stoutly dispute. See supra, p. 70 n. 3.


In Literature and Art

(says Miss Alice Fletcher in H. A. I., 2; 166), and re-
sulted in a largely signed request to Government that
there should be no more removals of tribes. This re-
quest, though not invariably efficacious, has wrought
a marked alleviation of Indian woes from this source/

Francis La Flesche's education was subsequently
continued in the National University in Washington,
of the Law School of which he is a graduate. He is a
Fellow of the American Association for the Advance-
men of Science and a member of the American An-
thropological Society, has made ethnological collec-
tions for the University of Berlin, the Peabody Mus-
eum of American Archeology and Ethnology, and for
other institutions of learning. He has written much,
and is especially distinguished for his part in the
monumental study of The Omaha Tribe, in which, as
already stated, he collaborated with Miss Alice Flet-

Distinguished among ethnologists of whatever
race is Professor Hewitt of the Bureau of Ethnology,
Smithsonian Institution. Professor John Napoleon
Brinton Hewitt is of mixed French, Scotch-English
and Tuscarora descent, his father, Dr. David Brain-
ard Hewitt, being of Scotch-English ancestry and his
mother, Mrs. Harriet Brinton Hewitt, of French and
Tuscarora descent. He was born on the Tuscarora
Reservation in Niagara County, N. Y., was educated

3 Susette La Flesche in 1881 married Mr. T. H. Tibbals, who had
organized her lecture tours, and went with him to England and
Scotland, where she made addresses and wrote until her death
in 1902.


Cue Debt to the Red Man

in the public schools and Union College, taking both
the classical and modern language courses, including
Spanish. He is familiar with the six dialects of the
Iroquois in tlie United States and Canada, and is
probably the only living master of them, the Iroquois
being in many respects more complex than the Greek.
Beginning life as a ziewspaper correspondent, followed
by a short service as principal of a private school for
young men and married men on the Tuscorora Reser-
vation, he later acted as amanuensis for the ethnolo-
gist, Mrs. Ermine Smith, under whom no doubt his
mind found its true bent, for after a few years in the
railroad and express business, we tind him in 1886 an
ethnologist in the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smith
sonian Institution, a position wliich he still holds.

Mr. Hewitt has devoted much attention to the Ian
guages of the North American Indians, especially the
important Iroquoian and Algonquin linguistic stocks;
also to those of the Maya of Central America and of
the Malay-Polynesian and other kindred peoples,
among which he has established important distinc-
tions. He has studied with care and sympathy the
myths, legejids, tales, rituals of these peoples, their
manners, customs, sociology and mythology. The re-
sults of these studies and researches are embodied in
several important monographs, and in more than sev-
enty-five articles contributed to the Handbook of
American Indians. He has also reduced to order the
vocabularies of many Indian tongues, and has put into
writing over 1500 pages of native texts, embodying

In Literature and Art

the constitution and structure of the Iroquois League,
the general and fundamental laws of its, polity, sociol-
ogy, kinship rights and government, its ceremonials,
rituals, chants and addresses appropiate to various
formal occasions. He has gathered material for a
monograph on festivals, thanksgiving assemblies and
New Year ceremonies, which will also include the
rich and expressive music of the Iroquois, their games
and their medecine and secret societies. The list of
his unofficial publications on ethnological and anthrop-
ological subjects is a long one. Mr. Hewitt has re-
cently been chiefly engaged in editing and annotat-
ing for publication the Seneca material collected by
the late Jeremiah Curtin; he has also edited his own
Seneca texts, supplying them with both free and inter-
linear translations. From time to time Mr. Hewitt has
prepared and read papers on various themes before
the Anthropological Society of Washington, of which
he is a member and officer. He is a founder of the
American Anthropological Association, and an active
member of the Society of American Indians. In 1914
the Cayuga County Historical Society conferred upon
him the ' ' Cornplanter Medal for Iroquois Research, ' '
an honor to which no other man is more justly en-
titled.* Mr. Hewitt was lately mentioned in Les
Droits de L' Homme, the weekly Paris paper founded
by the son of Father Hyacinthe, (Paul-Hyacinthe
Loyson), as "one of the best interpreters of the [In-
dian] race."

♦Abridged from an article in the "Quarterly Journal S. A. I." by
Mrs. Marie L. B. Baldwin.


Our Debt to the Red Man

Mrs. Angel De Cora Dietz, teacher of Indian Art
at Carlisle, comes of a family long celebrated in In-
dian annals. Early in the eighteenth century (1729)
a French officer, Sabrevoir De Carrie, married Wa-ho-
po-e-kan, a daughter of the principal chief of the
Winnebagoes. Their son Chou-ke-ka, born in 1730,
was known to the whites as Spoon De Kaury. He be-
came hereditary chief of the tribe, and was always
friendly with the whites, even when at war with other
tribes. With Pierre Paquette, Le Roy and other
mixed-bloods, ''noble old De Kaury," as Mrs. Kinzie
calls him, helped to make the history of the Middle
West by assisting the Government in treaties with the
Indians. It was principally through his influence
that the treaty of June 3, 1816 was negotiated, he
being then long past eighty. He died that same year
at Portage City. His wife, Flight-of-Geese, was
daughter of the celebrated Winnebago chief Nawkaw
(Walking Turtle) . They left six sons and five daugh-
ters, whose blood runs in several well known metis
families of Wisconsin and Minnesota — Grignon,
Ecuyer, Le Roy and others. Their eldest son, Ko-no-
ka, also called Scha-ship-ka-ka (War Eagle) was
known in early Chicago as Old De Kaury or Grey-
headed De Kaury. He was born in 1747, served in the
British campaign against Sandusky in 1813 (says Mrs.
Kinzie) signed the treaty of Prairie du Chien on be-
half of the Winnebagoes in 1825, at Caledonia, the
largest of the Winnebago villages, containing 100
lodges. Mrs. Kinzie says that he was believed to be 143



Teacher of Art in Carlisle Indian School


In Literature and Art

years old at his death. His son Cha-ge-ka-ka, or Little
De Kaury, succeeded him as chief, but died within six
months. He was the idol of the Indians but was very
rebellious to the plan of government to remove the
Winnebagoes to Nebraska. His younger brother Hop-
ne-scha-ka (White Fiend) De Kaury succeeded in the

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