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/J>. V ^v ^
THE /\:^'- ' <y>
HENRY G. WESTON.
Volume IX. 1875.
AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY,
530 ARCH STREET.
American Baptist Ministry icw Years Ago,
Prof. Tyndall's Belfast Address,
Scientists and Theologians; How they
Disagree, and Why, ....
The Dramatic Element of Pulpit Oratory,
Origin of the Human Race,
By John A. Broadus, D. D., Greenville,
S. C, I
" Prof. Samuel M. Shute, Washington,
D. C 21
" George Dana Boardman, D.D., Phila-
" Prof. Lewis E. Hicks, Granville, Ohio, 48
*Â« Rev. S. H. Stackpole, Boston, . .75
Â«* J. Wheaton Smith, D.D., Philadelphia, 93
" Enoch Pond, D. D., Bangor, Me., . 102
Execetical Studies, 117
Book Notices, 119
Present State of the Baptismal Contro-
The Philosophy of Evolution,
Charter of Brown University,
The Vatican Council and Civil Allegiance,
The Native Language of Palestine,
The Puritan Exodus, ....
Notices of Books,
By Alvah Hovey, D. D., Newton Centre,
Mass., . . ... 129
" S. H. Carpenter, LL. D., University of
Â« Reuben A. Guild, LL. D., Providence,
â€¢ R. 1 165
Â« Rev. I. N. Carman, Norwalk, Ohio, . 188
" Heman Lincoln, D.D., Newton Centre,
" Rev. George H. Whittemore, A. M.,
Rochester, N. Y 216
" T. J. CoNANT, D. D., Brooklyn, N. Y., 225
Â« Rev. R. G. Moses, Camden, N. J., . 235
Scientists and Theologians; How they
Disagree, and Why,
The Sources of Luke's Gospel,
Ezra, the Scribf.,
An Historical Inquiry,
The Future of Africa,
By Rev. J. Colver Wightman, Taunton,
" Prof. Lewis E. Hicks, Granville, Ohio, 281
" Albert H. Newman, Rochester, N. Y., 306
Â« J. A. Smith, D. D., Chicago, . . 322
Â« Prof. C. H. Toy, Greenville, S. C, . 339
" Rev. Henry S. Burr age, Portland, Me., 350
" Alexis Caswell, D. D., Providence,
Romans, VII. 7-25,
By Rev. W. N. Clarke, Newton Centre,
" Rev. A. J. Gordon, Boston, . .412
" Rev. E. Benjamin Andrews, Granville,
Ohio, ...... 430
" J. A. Smith, D. D., Chicago, . . 451
" Rev. William T. Burns, Yonkers,N.Y., 467
" A. S. Patton, D.D., NewYork, . .490
Notices of Books, , . ^04
Index !!...! l! 507
Arnold's Literature and Dogma,
The Missionary Future in the Light of
Kenan's Antichrist, . â€¢ . . .
John, the Apostle, and his Writings,
THE BAPTIST QUARTERLY.
THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MINISTRY OP ONE
HUNDRED YEARS AGO.*
THERE are few things so advantageous, in the detailed study of
history, as to establish ourselves at some definite point of the
past, and look carefully around, until all that lies within the horizon
of that time is thoroughly known. The period just named for this
purpose is of peculiar interest to American citizens, as lying at the
threshold of American independence, and also to Baptists, for then
our brethren were just drawing near the end of their struggles and
sufferings, and preparing the way for more joyous and prosperous
work in a new and blessed day of freedom. The limits of a lecture
will of course not allow any general study of that grand epoch. Even
confining ourselves to the one theme of the Baptist ministry at that
time, we shall be able only to glance rapidly along the outlines of this
single department in the wide field of view.
It requires a great effort of imagination to go back one hundred
years. In 1774 there was nothing of our present magnificent country
but the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic coast, from New Hamp-
shire to Oeorgia. In many of these, as we look back, we see that
only the eastern part of the territory is settled, even in Pennsylvania
* Pablio lecture in opening tbe session of the Sontbern Baptist Theological Seminaiy^
Greenrille, 8. C, Septembor 1, 1874. Tbe materials are of course drawn mainly from
Benedict and Sprague, Taylor, Howell, Horey, etc Who among as will write tbe history
of American Baptbts?
VOL. IX.â€” No. L A (1)
2 The Baptist ^arterly.
and Virginia hardly one-half, and in New York and Georgia, only
the southeastern corner. The first feeble settlements in Kentucky
and Tennessee are but a few years old. There has been in the colonies
great political discontent for some fourteen years, particularly mani-
fested in Massachusetts and Virginia, which has grown into a wide-
spread opposition to the home government. The " Boston tea party "
occurred last winter, December, 1773. The first Continental Con-
gress is to meet in Philadelphia three days hence, September 4, 1774.
The colonists intend to maintain their rights by force if necessary;
but very few are as yet looking forward to independence. The
Virginians have been engaged all summer in a great Indian war,
which will end a few weeks hence with the " bloodiest and most
decisive " of all the Indian battles at the mouth of Kanawha.
Let us now survey the leading Baptist ministers of the several
groups of colonies. Many able and useful men have long ere this
passed away. In the previous century Hansard KnoUys and Roger
Williams were Baptist preachers in New England within less than
twenty years after the landing of the Pilgrims, and John Clark founded
the church at Newport in 1644, only twenty-four years after the
landing. Still others were coming over from England and Wales, and
by the end of the seventeenth century there were seventeen American
Baptist churches in existence, situated chiefly in Ehode Island and
Massachusetts, but several of them in Pennsylvania and New Jersey,
and one in Charleston, S. C. Passing to the eighteenth century, we
find that Elisha Callender, a graduate of Harvard College, and a
Baptist pastor beloved by all denominations in Boston, died in 1738,
which is thirty-six years ago. A few years afterwards died Valen-
tine Wightman, a man of marked ability and extensive attainments,
who founded many churches in Connecticut. And still earlier in the
century was Abel Morgan, who came over from Wales to Philadel-
phia in 1711, and was greatly respected for his ministerial knowledge,
zeal, and usefulness, until his death in 1722. These three â€” Morgan,
Callender, and Wightman â€” are all that we have time to glance at of
the departed worthies, though various other good ministers of the
time are known to history.
Coming to those who are still alive in 1774, we must look first at
leading ministers who are by this time growing old, or already widely
known â€” those who belong mainly or largely to the past.
A number of these are found in New England. Timothy Wight-
man succeeded his father, Valentine Wightman, in Groton, Connecti-
cut, and though a man of less power than his father, has been very
devout and useful, and has brought his church into a very healthy
American Baptist Ministry of too Tears Ago. . 3
oonditioDi with repeated revivals. He is now fifty-five years old, and
is greatly beloved and full of pastoral work. Gardinef Thurston, of
Ehode Island, is a little younger, and has spent all his life at New-
port He was not educated at college, but has always had a great
thirst for knowledge, and been very diligent both in general and in
theological studies. At first assistant to an aged pastor for eleven
years, and giving part of his time to business for a support, he after-
wards succeeded him, and has for fifteen years been full pastor, and
entirely supported by the church. He is a charming man in private
intercourse, and in preaching is not only interesting and instructive,
but pathetic and solemn, and plainly depends much on the special
support and blessing of the Holy Spirit. In Massachusetts is the
fiamous Isaac Backus, now fifty years old, and in the fulness of his
powers. Beared a Gongregationalist in Connecticut, and converted'
during the " Great Awakening " produced by the preaching of Whit-
field and others, he presently went off with the Separatists or New
Light Congregationalists, who contended for a converted membership
and strict discipline, and for an internal call to the ministry. After
preaching some years in this connection he became a Baptist, and at
length pastor of a new Baptist church in Middleborough, Massachu-
setts, in which position he has now remained for eighteen years. Two
years ago he was chosen agent for the Baptist churches in Massachu-
setts, to labor for securing religious liberty, and has done the work
with great zeal and ability, corresponding with the English Baptists
on the subject, and also corresponding with the patriotic Samuel
Adams, as the Virginia Baptists are doing with Jefferson and Madi*
son. He will shortly be in like manner appointed agent to attend
the Continental Congress, which is about to meet in Philadelphia.
Mr. Backus has already published several laermons and a number of
pamphlets on questions of Scripture doctrine or of religious liberty^
And he has been busily collecting materials for a history of the Bap^
lists in New England, the first volume of which will be ready in twd
or three years. Very diligent and painstaking in the collection of
materials, and laborious in general, his writings are full of reliable-
information and vigorous argument, though somewhat deficient iui
literary finish. He is a man of powerful physique, strengthened by
early work on a farm and by much travelling on horseback. His
commanding appearance, deep-toned voice, grave argumentative style,.
earnest and masterful nature, and fervent piety, make him, though
not exactly an attractive, yet a highly impressive preacher. Ajid,
altogether, he is at this time probably the most influential Baptist
minister in New England. While passing, ovec various others, wa^
4 "The Baptist ^arterly.
must not fail to notice Noah Alden, of Massachasetts, now forty-nine
years old, who was originally a Oongregationalist, but has been for
nineteen years a Baptist minister, greatly respected for his wisdom
in regard to politics as well as religion, and very useful in his
These are the older men among the leading Baptist ministers of
New England at the time of which we speak, Wightman, Thurston,
Backus, Alden. Several others are younger, though already well
known and influential. Foremost among them are Manning and
James Manning was born in New Jersey thirty-six years ago,
attended the famous Baptist School at Hopewell, N. J., conducted by
Rev. Isaac Eaton especially " for the education of youth for the min-
istry," and graduated with the highest honors at Princeton College.
He speedily grew very popular as a preacher, and before long
became pastor at Warren, Rhode Island. Here he was the most
active person in founding, just ten years ago, Rhode Island College,
which in a few years was removed to Providence, and is destined at
a later period to be known as Brown University. Of this first
Baptist College in America Mr. Manning was made President and
Professor of Languages, and he and the college have already
gained a warm place in the aflfections of the people of Providence
and of the Baptists of all the colonies. Samuel Stillman, a native
of Philadelphia, was brought by his parents to Charleston, S. C,
when eleven years old, and converted under the ministry of Rev.
Oliver Hart, of whom we shall hereafter speak. He received a
classical education from Mr. Rind, " a teacher of some celebrity" in
Charleston, and then spent a year in studying theology with the
assistance of his pastor, Mr. Hart. He began to preach in Charleston
sixteen years ago, and settled first on James Island, but his lungs
becoming diseased, he went to New Jersey as a better climate. After
preaching there two years he visited Boston, where he was at first
assistant in the Second Church, and soon afterwards, nine years ago,
was made pastor of the First Baptist Church. Here he rapidly sprang
into great popularity and influence. His preaching is attended for
the sake of its eloquence by men having little sympathy with his
thoroughly evangelical doctrines, including prominent lawyers and
politicians. Highly cultivated and careful in preparation, he yet oftea
indulges in "sudden bursts" of unpremeditated, impassioned elo-
quence, and constantly makes free use of anecdote and other illustra-
tion. His religious visits are valued and solicited by persons of all
denominations. He is also taking an active part in the support and
American Baptist Ministry of ioo Tears Ago. 5
management of Bhode Island College, and in all the work of the
Baptists of New England, and has already published quite a number
of excellent sermons. He is now thirty-seven years old. Universally
admired and beloved, fnll of ministerial work in public and in private,
in his own church and elsewhere, deeply devout and richly blessed,
we shall find in all this survey no Baptist pastorate so truly brilliant
as that of Samuel Stillmah in Boston. Indeed it is doubtful whether
there was at that time a more popular preacher of any denomination
Hezekiah Smith, by birth a New Yorker, was educated, like Man-
ning, at Hopewell School and Princeton College. After graduating,
he travelled south for his health, and was ordained in Charleston, S. C.
After preaching a while in the Fedee country, with great acceptance,
he returned northward, went to New England, and finally built up a
new and strong Baptist church at Haverhill, Massachusetts, of which
for the last eight or nine years he has been the beloved pastor. He
has also made numerous preaching tours as far north as Maine, and
his dignified, solemn, truly eloquent preaching everywhere makes a
great impression. He maintains an affectionate correspondence with
Oliver Hart and other brethren in South Carolina. He is now thirty-
seven years old, about the same age as Manning and Stillman.
There is little time to speak of Samuel Shepard, who was a young
Congregationalist physician in New Hampshire, but was converted
to Baptist views by reading a tract found at the house of one of his
patients ; and soon beginning to preach, founded three new churches
in New Hampshire, and three years ago became their pastor. Nor
of John Davis, the younger of that name, a native of Delaware, pre*
pared at Hopewell School, and graduated at the College of Philadel-
phia, and after some years made pastor of the Second Baptist Church
in Boston; a man remarkable for learning, abilities and usefulness,
cut down by death two years ago, when but thirty- five years old.
Leaving New England, we come to the Middle Colonies. Of the
older men who are still living three or four must be mentionedl
Ebenezer Einnersiey, an Englishman by birth, and brought to this
country in childhood by his father (himself also a Baptist minister),
is now sixty-three years old, and has spent his life in and about Phila*
delphia. Never engaging much in preaching, he has been otherwise
a very distinguished man, both as a zealous co-worker with Franklin
in discovering the properties of what they call the Electric Fire, and
as the highly popular professor of English and Oratory in the College
of Philadelphia. He has delivered scientific lectures in the chief
cities, which attracted great attention. In 1772, two years ago, he
6 The Baptist ^arterfy.
resigned his chair in the college, and retired to the country in feeble
health. Abel Morgan, Jr., nephew to the older minister of that name
whom we mentioned, was born in a Welsh settlement in Delaware.
After his ordination he came with a company of Baptists to South
Carolina, and " was a constituent member of a church called Welsh
Neck, in 1736." Returning, he became pastor in Middletown, New
Jersey, and has now been there for thirty-five years. He never
married, giving as a reason the wish that '' none of his attention and
attendance might be taken off" from his mother, who lived with him
more than thirty years, and died only three years ago. His learning
is really extensive, and he is especially skilful in disputation. Years
ago he had a public debate on Infemt Baptism with Bev. Samuel
Finley, afterwards President of Princeton College. It was Mr.
Finley that proposed the discussion, and as he afterwards printed a
pamphlet, Mr. Morgan replied, and each of them replied again. These
were probably the first works issued in the New World in vindication
of the baptism of believers only, and they are said to show decided
ability and good learning. Though now sixty-one years old, Mr.
Morgan is still a very laborious and useful minister. John Gano,
born in New Jersey forty-seven years ago of a Huguenot family, after
determining to preach, spent two or three years in studies preparatory
to that work, meantime frequently preaching even before he was
licensed. In response to earnest requests from the South for minis-
terial help he was induced, twenty years ago, to come southward, and
travelled extensively. In Charleston he preached in Mr. Hart's pul-
pit in the presence of a brilliant audience, including twelve ministers,
one of them being George Whitfield, and for* a moment (as he has
recorded) felt the fear of man, but soon remembered that he '' had
none to fear and obey but the Lord." Two years later he made
another tour to the South, and settled for two years in North Carolina,
but being driven out by the Cherokee Indians, returned North, and
for a while preached alternately in Philadelphia and New York.
Twelve years ago a church was at last organized in New York, and
Mr. Gano became its pastor, in which position his labors have been
greatly blessed. A small man, yet of manly presence and command-
ing voice, of good mind, respectable attainments and deep feeling, he
is a highly popular and effective preacher.
It is worth while to notice how late the Baptists were in estab-
lishing themselves in New York city. They organized a church in
Boston in 1664; in Charleston, S. C, 1683; in Philadelphia, 1698:
in New York no permanent church was formed till 1762.* Somewhat
1 There was BaptUt preaching in Neir York as early as 1669, and a little church appears to
have been formed there by Valentine Wightman about 1714, but it was afterwards dissolved.
American Baptist Ministry of loo Tears Ago. 7
older than Grano is Morgan Edwards, a native of Wales, a preacher
from his sixteenth year, and educated in the Baptist Seminaxy at
Bristol, England. After preaching a number of years in England
and Ireland, he was sent to America thirteen years ago by the
famous Dr. Gill, in response to a request from the Baptist Church at
Philadelphia that he would send them a pastor. The story is that in
writing to Dr. Gill the church "required so many accomplishments"
in a pastor, that the old gentleman told them he did not know that
he " could find a man in England who would answer their description ;"
but that Mr. Morgan Edwards "came the nearest of any that could
be obtained." After remaining eleven years in Philadelphia, he
removed two years since to Newark, N. J. Mr. Edwards is a man
of genius and scholarship. His Ghreek Testament is " his favorite
companion," and he has also a good knowledge of the Hebrew Bible,
being accustomed to say that the Greek and Hebrew are " the two
eyes of a minister," while his extensive travels and wide general read-
ing have contributed to make him a very interesting man, both in
public and private. He has thus far published three sermons, and a
History of the Baptists in Pennsylvania, besides collecting much
material for other works; and he is very careful and critical in
respect to English style.
Beside these four older men in the Middle Colonies â€” Kinnersley,
Morgan, Grano, and Edwards â€” we must notice two who are somewhat
younger, but prominent and promising â€” ^both of them named Jones.
Samuel Jones is a native of Wales, but was brought to this country
in infancy. His father, himself a pastor in Pennsylvania, and a man
of wealth, was determined to give his son a thorough education, and
accordingly Samuel was graduated A. M. of the College of Philadel-
phia in 1762. For the last eleven years he has been pastor of a
church near Philadelphia, and also occupied in teaching, being very
successful and highly honored in both vocations. By his excellent
judgment and remarkable self-control he is particularly useful in
meetings of the Philadelphia Association, and other ecclesiastical
assemblies. This is noteworthy, for successful preachers much oftener
possess fervor and fire than sound sense and equanimity. David Jones
was born and reared in Delaware, and educated at Mr. Eaton's Hopewell
School in New Jersey, where he says he "learned Latin and Greek."
Having determined to become a minister he went, thirteen years ago,
to Middletown to study divinity with his kinsman, Abel Morgan.
For the last eight years he has been pastor in Monmouth County,
N. J., but two of three years ago made three different journeys to the
distant country about and beyond the Ohio river, preaching to the
8 The Baptist ^arterhf.
Indians, though without much effect. At the time of which we speak