Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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decernuntur^ etc., belongs to the same day.

The year (54 a.d.) is indicated in the earlier texts by the
consulate, Asinio Mar cello Acilio Aviola coss., probably inter-
polated from Suet. 45, where the names occur in the same
form. Cf. Tac. xii. 64. They are absent from the St. G.,
Val., and other principal mss. Besides, as BUcheler re-
marks, the determination of the year is here unnecessary, for
there is sufficient reason to suppose that the Ludus was pro-
duced very shortly after Claudius's death.

anno novo : not in the ordinary sense in which the expres-
sion was used by the Romans, as by us. Here it means the
beginning of Nero's reign, and is explained by the words that
follow.

initio : Wachsmuth would eject this word as a gloss to the
preceding, The elaboration, however, is quite as likely to
be the author's own.

saeculi felicissimi: Rousseau takes saeculi in the precise
sense of the century which began with the secular games that
Claudius celebrated, according to a chronology of his own de-
vising, at the cost of some ridicule. But it is more to the
point, here, if taken to signify the happy era inaugurated by
the coming of Nero to power. The allusion, during his Quin-
quennmtn^ would be immediately intelligible. Compare

155



156 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. i.

Apollo's song in chapter 4. The Q^x^^xts,sion felicitafi saeculi
instantis occurs in a similar sense in a senatusconsultum of
about A.D. 45 {C.I.L. X. 1401).

nihil nee offensae nee gratiae dabitur : Similarly, Tacitus in
beginning his Histories says : Mihi Galba, Otho, Vitellius nee
beneficio nee iniiiria cogniti. The mock-seriousness of the
present resolve is well in character. Seneca may have had
the grievance of his exile in mind. The second part, at least,
of his promise is kept with philosophic loyalty.

me liberum faetum : i.e. to speak his mind. But the phrase
seems to have been a common one. Cf. c. 12 : populus Ro-
manus ambulabat tanqtiam liber ; recall Claudius's remark in
refusing a request of the Ostians (Suet. CI. 40), si quern
alium^ et se liberum esse. Otto cites also Petron. 117: nee
minus liber sum quam vos,

ex quo : This is perhaps to be noted as a mannerism. Cf.
ex quo in senatu iuravit, below ; ex quo cu7n ani7fui luctatur
(c. 3) ; ex quo deus f actus sum (c. 10). Similarly, in c. 4,
ex eo desiity etc. For the same phrase elsewhere, cf. e.g. Pe-
tron. 64 : ex quo podag7-icus f actus sum ; also Verg. Aen.
ii. 163 and 648. Compare the Greek, d<^' ov, Aristoph. Plut.

II73-

suum diem obiit : as we say, " his time had come." Cf. Pe-
tron. 61 : supremum dietn obiit ; so commonly also obiit,
alone.

verum : predicate to proverbium. Mommsen and Birt in
suggesting bis verum and Wachsmuth with bifaria7n veru7n,
seem to mistake the sense of the proverb. So perhaps do
Biicheler and Otto in their explanation that Seneca has dis-
torted it from its original sense. Claudius was not born 3.
monarch, but being fatuus he had of course the luck to
become one.

aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportere : apparently a popular
saw. The two terms are similarly coupled in the Greek
proverb, fJL(x}p<2 koI ^ao-tXet vo/jiof; aypa(f>o<;. (Porphyrio to
Her. Sat. ii. 3, 188). Compare Caligula's epigram, aut frugi



c. I.] NOTES 157

hominem esse oportet, aut Caesarem (Suet. Cal. 37). In
c. II, Crassum vero tatn fatuum ut etiam regnare posset is
evidently a reminiscence of the present proverb. Erasmus
includes this in his Adagia (No. 1201) with an extended dis-
cussion of royal fools and the points which royalty and folly
have in common. Cf. Juv. vi. 223 : Sit pro ratio7ie voluntas.
On Claudius' claims to the title oi fattius, see esp. Suet. CI.
3? 4? 15? 3^? ^^^ 39- Cf. id. Nero, 33, Nero's pun on the
word morari, in allusion to his stepfather.

in buccam : The very colloquial flavor of the word in this
sense suits the air of jocular candor with which the writer
begins his narration. Cf. Mart. xii. 24:

Hie mecum licet, hiCy luvate, qiiicquid
In buccam tibi venerit, loquaris.

6en. Ep. 118, i : Nee faciajn, quod Cicero, vir disertissimus,
facere Atticum iubet, ut etiam si re7n nullam habebit, quod in
buccam venerit, scribal ; Cic ad Attic, xii. i : Garrimus
quicquidin buccam f Compare also id. vii. 10, and instances
in Petronius and Persius.

quis unquam ab historico, etc. : The joke is sufficiently
broad, but might be cited as a hint of the good* time coming
for the historical critics.

iuratores : assistants of the censors who received the sworn
returns of the citizens. Cf. Plant. Trinum. 872, Census quom
sum, iuratori rede rationem dedi ; also Liv. xxxix. 44.

Here it is to be understood that the historian does not have
to account for what he has in his possession. For a similar
use, cf. Symmachus, Oral, pro Synes. i .

quaerito: Bucheler's reading, better in view of si quis,
above, and of scis and ititerrogaveris, than the quaerite of
earlier editions. But cf. scitis and audite in chapter 5.

Drusilla: Julia Drusilla, second daughter of Germanicus
and Agrippina (the Elder) ; sister and mistress of Caligula ;
see Suet. Cal. 24. On his extravagant mourning for her at
her death, a.d. 38, cf. ibid, and Dio, lix. lo-ii. Seneca



158 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. i.

reprehends this in his Consol ad Polyb. 17. Dio tells of her
consecratio and says that a shrine and college of twenty priests
and priestesses were established in her honor. Medals, both
Greek and Latin, are extant representing her apotheosis, and
there are various honorary inscriptions to her as a divinity,
e.g. C.I.L. XI. 3598, on a pedestal now in the Lateran,
DIVAE DRUSILLAE SORORI c. caesaris AUGUSTI GERMANICI.

According to Dio, it was Livius Geminius who testified to
his fellow-senators that he had seen Drusilla going up to
join the gods. He got 250,000 denarii for it. Compare, for
a similar witness when Augustus went to heaven, Suet. Aug,
100, and Dio, Ivi. 46.

non passibus acquis : from Verg. ii. 724, with comic com-
parison to the " little lulus," who could not keep up with his
father. On Claudius's unsteady gait, cf. c. 5, and also Suet.
30, and elsewhere.

velit, nolit : a familiar colloquialism for the fuller form, sive
velit, sive nolit, like our "willy nilly." Cf. Petron. 71, horo-
logium in medio, ut quisquis horas inspiciet, velit nolit, nomen
meum legal; Sen. de Vit. Beat. iv. 4, necesse est, velit nolit,
sequatiir hilaritas, etc. ; id. de Brev. Vit. viii. 5 : mors . . .
cui, velis, nolis, vacandum est; id. Ep. 117, 4, velint nolint,
respondendum est. Otto compares the Greek ovy^ iKiov ckwv.
Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 512.

Appiae viae curator: an office generally held by men of
consular or praetorian rank. On the curatores viarum and
their functions, see Mommsen, Rd7n. Staatsrecht, II. 668 seq.
and 1077 seq. (3d ed.) ; compare also inscriptions showing
the cursus honorum of the senatorial order.

qua sets et Divum Augustum et Tiberium Caesarem ad deos
isse : Both emperors died in Campania, and their bodies
were taken to Rome for the funeral rites by this road, that of
Augustus from Nola (Suet. Aug. 100), that of Tiberius from
Misenum (id. Tib. 75). Only for Augustus was it precisely
a route ad deos, for Tiberius had not been legally deified.
But the writer's courtesy is all-embracing.



c. I.] NOTES 159

soli narrabit, etc. : The senator's sensitiveness is significant
of other recompense than the 250,000 denarii.

ex quo in senatu iuravit : Dio (lix. 11) describes his oath;
wjjxxrev, cfaiAetav koI cairro) koI rots iraLalv ct \pcohoiTO,
iTrapdo-afxevos ktL

quod viderit: These words, regarded as a gloss on the
preceding by Heumann and Bucheler, were, according to
Neubur, rejected as early as 1604 by Gruter. But the imita-
tive passage in the Vi'^a Walae (in Mabillon's Ada Sanc-
torum ord. S. Benedicti; cf. Hermes, vi. 126), eique pro tarn
bono nuntio nemo credidit, quicquid viderit verbis conceptis
affirmavit se niilli dicttirum^ etc, which is of probably the
first half of the ninth century, gives a reason for supposing
the words genuine. Related to the following clauses, the
tense of viderit must be explained by a shift in the writer's
point of view before he reached vidisset, and quod as standing
for an indefinite relative.

verbis conceptis : like our " in so many words." Cf. Serv.
ad. Aen. xii. 13. Concepta autem verba dicuntur iurandi
formula quam nobis transgredi non licet. Cf. also Plant.
Cist. 98 : At ille co7iceptis iuravit verbis ; id. Bacchid. 1028 :
Ego ius iurandum verbis conceptis dedi ; and elsewhere.
Similarly, Petron. 113: iurat Eumolpus verbis conceptissimis ;
id. 133: conceptissimisque iuravit verbis.

carta clara affero : cf. Ter. Hecyra, 841 : Vide . . . ut mi
haec certa et clara attuleris ; with a change of form, Liv. i.
18: uti tu signa nobis certa adclarassis ; Cic. ad Attic.
xvi. 13 : Tu mihi de iis rebus quae novantur omnia certa^
clara.

ita ilium salvum et felicem habeam : like our " so help me,"
etc., inverted. The more natural Latin formula likewise
would be something nearer ita ?ne salvum or ita ilium pro-
pitium habea?n. Such asseverations are common enough in
colloquial usage. Cf. eg. Petron. 61, Sic me felicem videas ;
ibid. 69, Sic me salvum habeatis ; and ibid. 44, ita meos
fruniscar. Apparently the narrator recalls with sympathetic



l6o THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 2.

irony the solemnity of Livius Geminius^s imprecation, quoted
above from Dio.

2. iam Phoebus, etc. : These lines are by way of indicating
the autumn season, as the following ones the time of day. The
poetical redundance is an evident affectation. In Seneca's
Ep. 122, there is some more playful jesting over the sun's
movements in a different vein, with quotations from the poets.
With this description, cf. Propertius iv. 20, 4 (ed. Teub.) :

Phoebe^ moraturae contrahe lucis iter.

In a Petronian fragment given in Baehren's Poetae Lat.
Min. IV, No. 75 (Blich. Petron. ed. 1862, Frag. 38), occurs
a description of autumn with some similarities.

ortum: This is the MS. reading. Bucheler, in his editio
minor^ gives orbem, a suggestion of Fromond, approved by
Haupt Bucheler earlier (ed. 1864), like Ruhkopf and Schus-
ler, gave ortum. And the emendation seems unnecessary ;
contraxerat ortum lucis, though unusual, is by no means im-
possible, and is more specially expressive of the change of
season than the other reading. Phoebus, by shortening his
journey, had narrowed the space or time within which he rose
above the horizon.

tempora somni : the best MS. reading and that of the editio
princeps. Ruhkopf and other editors, following the Codex
Weissenburgensis of Rhenanus, give cornua somni, the added
picturesqueness of which involves an unnecessary complication
of figure.

victrix . . . Cynthia: Diana, of M t. Cynthus. Note that the
line repeats the sense of the preceding one. BUcheler com-
pares Ausonius's Epist. xxiii (ed. Teub.) to his son, 11. 3-4 :

Luna —
Vinceret ut tenebras radiis velut aemulafratris,

gratos . . . honores . . . autumni : cf. Hor. Epod. xi. 6 :
December . . . silvis honorem decutit. Also Mart. Epig. vi.
80, 5 : Tantus veris honos.



c. 2.] NOTES l6l

carpebat: Here, as in 1. 6, the word is better than other
words which have been suggested to avoid the repetition ;
e.g. BUcheler's spargebat or rapiebat, though Haupt's turpabat
would be more satisfectory. But the repetition of the word
is probably a mere betrayal of haste on the part of the writer.

visoque senescere Baccho : The St. G. and Val. Mss. show
iussoqtfe, etc. [/. Fickert], which is the reading adopted by
Blicheler and other recent critics, instead of the traditional
viso of the editio pri7iceps and most of the rest. But a
change in the manuscript from one of these words to the
other would have been slight and easy, and I venture to
choose viso^ which makes the more obvious and natural sense,
in spite of the ingenious idea evolved from iusso senescere
Baccho. This, Bucheler (following Schusler) says, means
wine left for greater maturity on the vines. The explanation
gives an unusual shade of meaning to the word senescere, and
seems somewhat forced. * Viso^ he adds, passt offenbar nicht
zti * rarasy sems.'' He does not explain why, and it is hardly
apparent.

serus vindemitor : though it was only the middle of Octo-
ber. Pliny's definition of the zustum vindemiae te?npus is
quoted by some of the editors, ab aequinoctw ad vergiliarum
occasum^ from the 24th of September to the beginning of
November. Vindemitor, for the more usual vindemiator.

puto magis intellegi, etc. : For other remarks in the same
tone, see Introd. pp. 83, 84; especially Ausonius, in the epis-
tle already quoted : Nescis, puto, quid velim tot 7/ersibus
dicer e, etc. (p. 266, ed. Teub.). On the tense of intellegi,
see Introd. p. 71.

si dixero, mensis erat October: Note the colloquial para-
taxis, so frequent in Petronius and Plautus. See p. 71.

dies III. idus Octobris : October 13, as confirmed by Dio,
Ix. 34. Friedlander, curiously, gives the date as October 12.

inter philosophos : The slur recalls our " when doctors dis-
agree," etc. Jokes at the expense of philosophers have of
course always been in order. Here there is special flavor in

M



l62 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 2.

one by Seneca against his own kind. Compare Lucian's fre-
quent satire on their pedantic disagreements.

quam inter horologia conveniet : Water-clocks were notori-
ously inaccurate.

inter sextam et septimam : between twelve and one o'clock.
Cf. Suet. Nero, 8 : id de Claudio palain factum est, ititer
horain sextain septimamque, etc. So also Tac. Ann. xii.
69: medio diet. Claudius's death occurred in the morning,
but Agrippina did not allow it to be announced till midday.
Seneca naturally gives the official hour.

* nimis rustice ! ' inquies : ' sunt omnes poetae,' etc. : The manu-
script reading here is nmiis rustice adqtiiescunt o?nnes, etc.
The passage has been much disputed. Blicheler's text reads :
' nimis rustice ' inquies : ' cum omnes poetae^ etc., and the fol-
lowing ut is bracketed. Schoppe, according to Ruhkopf and
Biicheler, had already proposed practically the same reading.
Gronovius had : Nimis rustice, inquies tu nunc, Horni poetae
non contenti . . . inquietant : tu sic, etc., the ut being omitted.
The need for cutting this out is an objection to the change in
the first part of the sentence. A fair case could be made out
for the manuscript reading, which is kept by Fickert, Schenkl,
and Birt ; the last explains adquiescunt in the sense of making
a pause in the narration {quod rhetor es in tractatiojie nominant
TY]v avoLTravXav tcov irpay^aTdiv) for the sake of dwelling upon
the beauties of nature. A reading adopted by Ruhkopf and
several of the other editors is acquiescunt oneri poetae.
Neubur changed to honori in the same place. Haupt pro-
posed : Nimis rustice. adsuescunt omnes poetae . . . ut etiam
medium diem inquietent. Haase gives: Nimis rustice ad-
quiescis. nu7ic \_adeo'\ omnes poetae, etc., adeo being in-
serted before non contenti to precede the result clause
with ut. All these latter readings require the assumption
that the writer is simply talking to himself, but for this
the text offers no preparation. He is talking to his reader,
or his auditor, in scis and interrogaveris, just before. It
seems to me that the ijtquies of Bucheler's reading should be



c. 3.] NOTES 163

kept, but from the latter part of the manuscript adquiescunt I
have ventured sunt instead of cu?n^ as a sHghter change, and
one which allows retaining the ///. The unusual position of
sunt^ detached from contentZy must of course be explained as
a matter of emphasis. In some of Seneca's essays a similar
order is somewhat frequent. Cf. e.g. De Const. Sap. ix. 2 ;
est et ilia inuria frequens ; De Prov. vi. 9 ; non stmt volnere
penitus impresso scrtdanda praecordia. Haase's adeo would
be an improvement of the text, but is not required.

Seneca is amusing himself over the common poetical ten-
dency to indulge in effusive description, which appears to
have been peculiarly marked in his day. Compare, in Petron.
1-2, Encolpius's complaint of the bad taste shown by the
declaimers of the period. It was of a tolerabilis poet a that
Seneca said {Ep. 122, 11) : ortus et occasus libentissime
inserebat; but ordinary versifiers even went beyond such
accredited themes as sunrises and sunsets. Cf. again Auso-
nius, Ep. xxiii (Teub.), milhim . . . ad poeticam factindiam
Romanae iuventiitis aeqtiari^ though this was of a later day.
Cf. also Quintilian's chapter de Tropis (viii. 6, 59-61) :
ornatum . . . solum [7rtpL<i>pa<nv] qui est apud poetas fre-
quentissimiis.

iam . . . Phoebus diviserat : Neubur, in his edition, inserts a
cum with the beginning of the following prose, as correlative
to the iam. Mahly suggests the same. But the regulariza-
tion is unnecessary, the abrupt change in the form of diction
being enough. Compare the asyndeton with the beginning
of tu sic trans ibis, just before.

fessas : with habenas by a not uncommon shift in the agree-
ment, instead oi fessus agreeing with the subject. Haase,
Fickert, and some other editors, however, change to the latter
form.

3. Claudius animam agere, etc. : Haase and some other
editors make the chapter begin with the following line, Tti77i
Mercurius, etc.

Rhenanus thought these words a covert allusion, cum anima



1 64 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 3.

etiain pro vento ponatur, to Claudius's habit mentioned at the
end of chapter 4. But anmta?n agere is the common phrase
for " give up the ghost." Nee invenire exitum poterat^ how-
ever, is a comic elaboration of the figure. Cf. cum anima
luctatur^ below. Compare also Shakespeare, Richard Illy
i. 4, where Clarence says :

" And often did I strive
To yield the ghost ; but still the envious flood
Stopt in my soul, and would not let it forth
To find the vast and wandering air ;
But smothered it within my panting bulk,
Which almost burst to belch it in the sea."

As to the fact in Claudius's case, cf. Suet. CL 44 : excrucia-
tu7nque doloribus node tot a ; also Tac. Ann. xii. 67.

Mercurius . . . ingenio eius delectatus : Why? Hardly
in our modern sense of simple amusement, though cf. Cicero's
ad CO delectari facilius quam decipi {Div. in Caecil. 13).
The clever Mercury was in no danger of being taken in. It
may have been due to his fondness for chicanery, which
Claudius unintentionally encouraged. See note, c. 12, on the
causidici. Bucheler suggests an ironical allusion to the taste
for eloquence of the facundus nepos Atlantis^ since Claudius
was not a bad speaker on a set occasion (cf. Tac. Ann.
xiii. 3), or possibly to Claudius's literary studies; more
especially, however, to his gambling (Suet. 33) and his
encouragement of commerce. Note (Suet. 18) his interest
in the provision market, and his giving of ship-subsidies,
mercaturae causa. Compare Petronius's Trimalchio, who
had Mercury as his patron. Here the god appears also
desirous of performing his office as conductor of the dead.
Cf. c. 12, 13.

unam e tribus Parcis : Clotho ; see below, c. 4, init.

tam diu : This seems to refer to the length of his life
rather than the mere effort implied in nee invenire exittim
poterat, though Cortius compares Juno's pity of Dido's longum



c. 3.] NOTES 165

dolor em^ Aen. iv. 693. Here is a specific contrast with the
Consol ad Polyb. c. 12 : Di ilium deaeqiie terris diu contmode7it,
acta hie divi Atigusti aequet, annas vincat. Compare also
the ingeniously malicious flattery of L. Vitellius (Suet.
Vitell. 2) : Hiiiiis et ilia vox est ' Saepe facias , cum saeculares
ludos edenti Clatidio gratidarettir.

cesset: an emendation of Bucheler^s (ed. min.). The St.
Gall MS. reads fiec ufnquaitt tatn diti cruciatus esset, Haase
and Blicheler (ed '64) give exiet^ from which the corruption
to esset would have been particularly easy. But exiet for
exibit is late and very exceptional, and the c in cesset may
easily have been dropped from confusion with the final s of
cruciatus written cursively. Another reading adopted by
Ruhkopf and Holtze is cruciandtis esset ; others proposed
are less probable.

annus sexagesimus quartus : as says also Suet. CI. 45 :
Excessit . . . sexagesimo quarto aetatis, imperii quarto
deci7no anno. Cf. Dio, Ix. 34 : /LtcTT/AAafc . . . ^T/o-a? e^iy/covra
Kttt Tpva. €77]. Cf. Suet. CI. 2 : Claudius natus est lulio
Antonio^ Fabio Africano conss. {i.e. 10 B.C.) Kal. Aug.

ex quo cum anima luctatur: cf. Sil. Ital. x. 295; luctatur
morti.

rei publicae : The earlier editions have respondit, apparently
from a copyist's mistake arising from the abbreviation of rei
publicae in the mss. (reip) : see Introd. p. 92.

patera mathematicos aliquando varum dicera : Ex post facto
veracity, a thrust at the soothsayers that can hardly be
called covert. As to their expulsion fi-om Italy, cf. Tac. An?t.
xii. 52.

omnibus annis . . . effarunt : i.e. bury. Claudius was
several times frightened by dreams and prophecies of his
death. Cf. Suet. CI. 37, on the influence of these terrors.
Recall also the popular pity for him as he was believed to be
on his way to death at the accidental beginning of his reign
(Suet. 10). His health, however, was generally better afi:er
than before he became emperor (Suet. 31). On the imme-



1 66 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 3.

diate presages of his approaching death, which he recognized,
cf. Suet. 46.

non est minim si errant, etc. : His horoscope could not be
cast. There seems to be a certain psychological kinship
between this and raw modern jokes upon faces so ugly that
they would break a camera. Recall Suet. CI. 3, where his
mother portentti^n eum hominis dictitabat.

horam eius : Some of the commentators consider this his
hora natalisy by which would be determined his horoscope
and consequently horafatalis. But cf. c. i : suum diejn obiit.
I incline to take horam eius after efferunt^ etc., as meaning
directly his hora fatalis^ to which the inference from his
birth-hour is implied in the following clause.

nemo . . . natum putavit : a proverbial expression mean-
ing to treat as a nonentity. Cf. Petron. 58 : qui te natum
non putat; Martial, iv. 83, 3 :

Securus nullum resalutas, despicis omnes,

Neque quisquam liber ^ nee tibi natus homo est ;

also id. viii. 64, 18; x. 27, 4; xi. Sy, 2; Plant. Aulul. 231 :
Gnatus quasi numquam siem ; id. Trinum. 850 : neque natus
necne is fuerit id solide scio; Cic. Ep. ad Fam. ix. 15, 4:
quos ego non modo reges appellatos^ sed omnino natos nescie-
bam. Otto compares with the proverb, Aristoph. Vesp.
558 : 05 €/i,' ovS' av ^(ovT* ^Setr. For this attitude toward
Claudius, cf. Apoc. 6 : adeo ilium nemo curabat.

dede neci, melior, etc : from Verg. Georg. iv. 90, referring
to the ^' king " bee.

mehercules : the full archaic form of the commoner fnehercle.
This was originally a man's oath, women having the corre-
sponding ecastor or edepoL See the well-known account of the
custom ex initiis Eletisinis, in Cell. xi. 6 ; and Plautine usage ;
also cf. Charisius (Keil. 6^. Z. i. p. 198). The early distinction
was coming to be lost. Cf. Petron. 17, Quartilla's use oi Me-
dius Fidius^ likewise strictly a masculine expression. Neither
Quartilla's vocabulary, however, nor perhaps Clotho's, in the



c. 3.] NOTES 167

present passage, can be taken as much of a guide to the usage
of polite society.

pauculos : Note the colloquial tendency to the use of diminu-
tives.

civitate donaret : Cf. Dio, Ix. 17 : {jvyyov'^ Sc 8^ mx aXAovs
Kat dvaftovs t^s TroAtretas d7r7/A.ao"e, kox kripovi avrrjv koI ttolw
aveS-qv, rots /xev Kar avSpa rots Se /cat d^po'ots, eStSov. Recall
Claudius's remarkable speech in the Senate on this subject
in connection with the citizenship of the Aeduans (Tac. Ann,
xi. 24; cf. C./.L. XIII. 1668; de Boissieu, p. 133 seg.). Cf.
also C./.L. V. 5050, a bronze tablet found in 1869 ^^^^ Cles,
Gallia Cisalpina, giving an edict of Claudius which confirmed
the contested citizenship of the Anauni. Compare Cicero's
impressions on Julius Caesar's giving of citizenship to the
Sicilians, Ep. ad Attic, xiv. 12.

constituerat enim : Biicheler regards this sentence, on ac-
count of the tense, as a parenthetical remark by the writer,
instead of as part of Clotho's speech. But it seems unneces-
sary to suppose that Seneca intruded himself as an essayist
at this point in the dialogue, any more than to count the
words as a gloss by some one else. Clotho says, "he had
determined," etc. ; but now it has become impossible for
him to carry out his intention.

Graecos, Gallos, Hispanos, Britannos : the four most promis-


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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 10 of 18)