Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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ing provincial nations. On Claudiuses fondness for the Greeks,
cf. e.g. Suet. 42. Of the Gauls the Aeduans are specially
meant ; see reference above. Cf. Sen. de Benef. vi. 19, 2 seq.^
si princeps civitatem dederit omnibtes Gallis, etc., perhaps
alluding to the same circumstances. Claudius's conquest of
the Britons was still freshly in mind. After Britannos, the
editio princeps added the words : Saiiromatas et si qui ultra
glacialem boream incolunt barbari. As a comic exaggeration
they would perhaps help the flm, and so are not to be thrown
out on subjective grounds ; but they are lacking in the best
MSS., and are so obviously taken from Juv. ii. i, that they
have been generally rejected by the critics, from Rhenanus



1 68 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 3.

down. Schenkl compares Sen. de Providentia, iv. 14, gentes,
in qtiibus Rotnana pax desinitj Germanos dico et quicquid
circa Istrum vagarutn gentiu7n occursat. perpetua illos
hienis . . . premit^ . . . super durata glacie stagna persul-
tant, etc.

togatos: the use of the toga being restricted to Roman
citizens.

peregrines in semen : Mercury apparently was more con-
servative than Fate. But according to the census of 48 a.d.
(Tac. Ann. xi. 25), there were not quite six million citizens, so
as Biicheler remarks there was enough Per egrinen-S amen left.

capsulam : The diminutive, " little box," gives a comic aspect
to the operations of destiny.

fusos: Cf. Verg. Eel. iv. 46, and Ov. Her. xii. 4, for ex-
amples of the use of these as attributes of the Fates.

Augurini : elsewhere unknown to us.

Babae: mentioned in Seneca's Ep. 15, 9; quam tu nunc
vitam did existimas stultam? Babae et Isionisf Evi-
dently he was a familiar example of stupidity. The name
suggests it. Cf. babaecalis, Petron. 37 ; also such formations
as baburrus, the Greek /8ap/3a/)o?, and our babble. Stahr
thinks the humor lies in the alphabetical series. A, B, C, of
the three names for which the three fusi are taken from the
box, Clotho disposing of the three blockheads as we say " in
one-two-three order."

tres uno anno : Yet Mercury and Clotho began talking in
the actual death hour of Claudius ; the point of view as to
the time of the action is not consistently maintained. See
Introd. p. 66.

nee . . . incomitatum : On Claudius's well-known depend-
ence upon those about him, cf. Suet. 2^, fin., and elsewhere.

convictoribus : Cf. c. 14 : P. Petronius vetus conviUor eius.
On the friends and table companions of the emperor, see
Friedlander, Sittengesch. Ro7ns, I. pp. 148-153 (6th ed., 1888).

4. haec ait, etc. : The following verses are a not very
happy interruption to the progress of the action, an appeal.



c. 4.] NOTES 169

so to say, to the imperial gallery, explained not by the needs
of the play, but by the requirements of the audience. Cutting
the thread of one emperor's life naturally suggests spinning
that of his successor, but there is no sufficient artistic apology
for the lines, which are redundant with commonplace. For
the picture of the spinning, Bucheler compares Catullus, Ixiv.
311 seq. :

Laeva colum molli lana retinebat a7nictum
Dexter a turn leviter dediicens fila 5tipi7iis
Formabat digitis turn prono in pollice torquens
Libratutn tereti versabat turbine ftisum.

abnipit . . . tempora: /.^. of course the thread correspond-
ing to that part of Claudius's career. We should have ex-
pected this function to be performed by Atropos, as that
indicated in the first line by Lachesis. The technicalities
of the myth seem to be rather loosely adapted.

Lachesis : the disposer of lots, who spun out all events and
actions in each human life, while Clotho held the distaff.

Pieria . . . lauro : in compliment, of course, to the Apollo-
like Nero.

mutatur . . . metallo : in exaggeration of the foregoing co-
lorem assumpsere novum. The notion of alchemistic transfor-
mation was famiUar at least since the days of Midas. Cf.
Petron. 43 : in manu illius plumbum auru?n fiebat.

aurea . . . saecula : Cf. the picture in Verg. Ed. iv. The allu-
sion was hackneyed enough. Recall the verses written against
Tiberius (Suet. Tib. 59) :

Aurea mutasti Saturni saecula^ Caesar :
Incolumi nam te ferrea semper erunt.

Tithoni . . . Nestoris annos : Cf. 11. 16-18. With the pro-
verbial use of these names to typify great age, Otto compares
our *^as old as Methusaleh." Cf. Martial, ii. 64, 3 ; v. 58, 5,
and elsewhere, Nestor being often coupled with Priam ; Car-
mina Priapea (ed. Bucheler), 57 and 76; Sen. Ep. 77, 20:



I/O THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 4.

NafH si ad naturam 7'erum respexeris^ etiam Nestoris \yita\
et Sattiae brevis est. Also especially Statius, Silv. i. 4, 123-
127:

Nectite nunc laetae candentia fila, sorores,
Neciite ! nemo 7nodu7n transmissi comptitet aevi.
Hie vitae natalis erit. tu Troica dignus
Saecula et Euboici transcendere pulveris annos
Nestor eosque situs I

Phoebus adest, etc. : in further compliment to Nero.

fallitque laborem : a familiar use of the verb, here however
explained by the preceding words. Cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 12:
studio fallente laborem^ and the same phrase in Ovid, Met,
vi. 60. Cf. also ibid. viii. 651, medias fallunt sermonibus
horas^ and elsewhere.

fraternaque carmina: According to the account that the
Parcae were daughters of Jupiter and Themis, Apollo was
their half-brother. >

mihi similis vultu, etc. : For an account of Nero's personal
appearance, see Suet. Nero, 51. But at the present writing
Nero still was more youthful. He seems to have been him-
self thoroughly convinced by this and similar flattery with
which he was commonly greeted. We are reminded some-
what of the fashion in which Queen Elizabeth's vanity was
satisfied and played upon. Nero in his way was equally a
coquette.

nee cantu nee voce minor: On Nero's musical studies, see
Suet. Nero, 20 ; Dio, Ixi. 20, and Ixiii. 20. On Apollo's sup-
posed jealousy of his voice, Dio, Ixiii. 14. For other opinions,
see Suet. Nero, 39. Compare also Lucian's dialogue entitled
Nero, on the Isthmian canal and Nero's tour in Greece ; espe-
cially Musonius's second speech, commenting on Nero's opin-
ion that the Muses sang no better than he, and Musonius's
third speech, discussing the emperor's voice and musical abil-
ity. Cf. Tac. Ann. xvi. 22, on Thrasea's failure to sacrifice
pro . . . caelesti voce.



c. 4.] NOTES 171

felicia lassis saecula : The editio princeps and other old edi-
tions read lapsis. Cf. Racine, Britannicus, 11. 200-203 •

Rome, a trois affranchis si longtemps asservie,
A peine respirant dti joug qu" elle a porte,
Du rdgne de Neron compte sa laberte.
Que dis-je ? la vertu semble mhne renaUre, etc.

Cf. also Jove's prophecy in Verg. Aen. i. 291, and Hor.
Car7n. Saec. 57-60, upon the Augustan Age, in the same vein.

legumque silentia rumpet: Cf. c. 12 : iuriscofisulti e tenebris
procedebant, etc. Cf. also Sen. ad Neronem de Cle?nentia, i.
1,4: legibus, qiias ex situ ac tetiebris in lucem evocavi.

Lucifer, Hesperus, Sol: Cf. Serv. ad Verg. Aen. i. 530:
Stella . . . qiiae ^(i)<jcf>6po<s Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer,
qu7im antegreditur solem ; quum subsequitur autem Hesperos.
Sol comes climactically after.

primos . . . axes : Bucheler refers to the adjective as nicht zu
erkldren, and suggests the reading pronos, as in Ovid, Met.
X. 652. But primos seems a simple case of shifted agree-
ment. Logically, it would be an adverb, or if an adjective,
agree with the subject. Cf. /essas /labenas (c. 2).

carcere : used generally, of the starting-point. On the word,
see Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 151, 153.

talis Caesar : Cf. Suet. Nero, 53 ; Destinaverat enim, quia
Apollinem cantu, Solem aurigando aequiperare existimaretuTj
imitari et Hercidis facta; this defined ambition, of course,
was a later affair.

fecit illud : Various changes have been suggested to rid the
text of illud, which Bucheler brackets, because of the indefi-
niteness of its reference to the bidding of Apollo, just con-
cluded; Mercury's injunction, fac quod faciendum est, to
Clotho, is doubtless too remote to be thought of But illud
seems better than no object at all ior fecit, and the expression
may well stand as a colloquialism, one of those marking the
break-down of the demonstrative force of ille in the plebeian
speech.



1/2 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 4.

plena manu: Cf. our "open-handed"; as Sen. Ep. 120,
10: plena manu dantem. The phrase is repeatedly used by
Seneca. Cf. also Cic. ad. Attic, ii. 25, i. Similarly, Petron.
43 : 7}tanu plena, unci a fuensa ; and z'dz'd. 64 : nianuque plena
scapulas eius . . . verberavit, where the phrase perhaps means
with doubled fist., or simply abundantly. Compare also the
French : depensant a pleines 7nains sans compter.

de suo : The meaning of the phrase after a verb of giving
is plain enough. Its rather colloquial abridgment of form is
comparable to the temporal ex quo (c. i,etc.). Cf. e.g. Cell,
xii. I, 20: addidit enini hoc de suo; Petron. 75 : archisellitim
de suo paravit, etc. ; similarly in an inscription C.I.L. XII.

4333-

XaCpovras, €v<|>ii|jLovvTas, etc. : from Euripides's Cresphontes,
preserved in quotations by Strabo and Strobaeus. See
Nauck, Fr. 452, or Dindorf's edition, vol. ii. p. 908, frag. 13
of the Cresphontes, or Beck's ed. ii. p. 435 seq. Cicero
translates the fragment in his Tusc. Disp. i. 48, 115, from
which Tyrrell (JLatin Poetry^ p. 19) gives this version in
English :

" When a child's born, our friends should throng our halls
And wail for all the ills that flesh is heir to ;
But when a man has done his long day's work
And goes to his long home to take his rest,
We all with joy and gladness should escort him.'*

With cynical finesse Seneca distorts the last verse from its
sense in the original connection : there are at least two kinds
of congratulation upon the end of a long life, and, as here,
the same phrase will sometimes serve for both.

animam ebulliit : clearly a vulgarism, but after the analogy
of anima7n efflare. Compare its use in Petron. 42 and 62.
The figure is evidently of the bubbles which arise from boil-
ing water. The verb is used absolutely in ebulliat patruusy
Persius, ii. 9.

ex eo desiit : Cf. the frequent ex quo, c. i, etc.



c. 5.] NOTES 173

desiit vivere videri : For the reflection on Claudius, cf. visits
est quasi homo (c. 5). For the form of expression, see
Introd. p. 69.

comoedos audit : referring to those who were introduced
by Agrippina ostensibly to entertain Claudius after he was
in fact dead. Cf. Suet. CI. 45.

non sine causa illos timere : a joke similar in animus to
the modern ones about things which make one tired.

ultima vox, etc. : a play from Claudius's defects of speech
to the habit implied in Suet. 32,yf«.

vae me : The accusative after vae is very rare, but is in
the line of the tendency of plebeian Latin to allow the accusa-
tive to usurp many of the uses of the other oblique cases.
It is found in Plant. Asi7i. 481, and according to some editions,
in Catull. viii. 15, and in Cic. de Repub. i. 38, 59. Compare,
in principle, the use of the accusative with evenio in Petron.
44 : aediles male eveftiat.

concacavi : Note the hybrid formation, a Greek verb with
Latin prefix. Cf. praeputio^ c. 8.

quod an fecerit, nescio : Qitod is here relative, with retro-
spective reference. The reading quid autem fecerit^ found
in several early editions, is less apt.

omnia certe concacavit; cf. AureL Vict, de Vit. et Mar.
Imp. (CI.) : Ita liberti eius . . . omnia foedabant. After
concacavit^ the first edition and several succeeding ones
added the words : nee post boletiun opipare medica;;ie?itis
conditum phis cibi sumpsit. This would be a stupid in-
trusion of facts if Seneca had written it, but it is evi-
dently a note from Juv. v. 147, and the accounts of Suetonius
and Tacitus.

5. postea : i.e. after Claudius desiit vivere videri.

scitis . . . optima : Here the writer is addressing a plural
auditory; contr. scis in c. i. Opti?ne for certissime.

excidant quae memoriae . . . impresserit : so most of the
editions. BUcheler puts metnoriae before qtie^ but the St. G.
MS. gives excidant que memoriae, etc. Impresserit is



174 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 5.

Bucheler^s reading, instead of the commoner impressit^ from
the St. G. MS. iinpressert.

nemo . . . obliviscitur : SchefFer manages to find here an
allusion to Claudius's forgetfulness.

fides penes auctorem : The ironical value of this phrase
is increased by Sen. Quaest. Nat. iv. 3, i : quod historici
faciunt et ipse faciatn : illi cum multa mentiti sunt ad arbi-
trium suunty unam aliquant rein nolunt spondere, sed adi~
ciunt, 'penes auctores fides erit.'' Sallust is one historicus who
uses the phrase: Bel. Jug. 17. The present auctor is, of
course, Geminius.

nuntiatur : The person of the messenger is apparently held
in suspense in the writer's mind, for presently come the
words, quaesisse se. Gertz suggests, nuntiat Hora lovi
(recalling that ex Iliade scire potuit \scriptor\ Horas Olympi
ianitrices esse), and Wachsmuth conjectures nuntiat {ianit-)
or, which would both avoid this difficulty and help to explain
omnes at the end of c. 6. The suggestion is ingenious, but
the hypothesis of careless composition is elsewhere so well
supported that it would seem to suffice here.

venisse quendam bonae staturae, etc. : Suetonius (c. 30)
describes Claudius's personal appearance : auctoritas dignitas-
que forrnae non defuit . . . praeciptie quiescenti ; na^n et
prolixo nee exili cor pore erat. Scheffer enterprisingly tries
to find a hit even in the bonae staturae, for, as Aristotle says,
those who are large are likely to be slow.

bene canum: Cf. Suet, ibid: canitieque pulchra. Note
the use oibene in the sense of valde ; see Introd. p. 69.

ilium minari, assidue enim caput movere : Suet. 30, fin.,
caput cum semper, turn in quantulocujnqtie actu vel 7}iaxime
tremulufn. Dio, Ix. 2 : i/oo-wSr;?, aicrrc koI tyj KecjyaXrj . . .
vTroTpifjiELv. Compare Cassius's comment on Caesar's ague
(Shakesp. /ul. Caes. i. 2) : " 'Tis true, this god did shake."
It seems to have depended on circumstances whether caput
movere was a sign of menace or of assent. Mahly, however,
objecting to the word in the former sense, proposed j/ieditari.



c. 5.] NOTES 175

pedem dextnim trahere : Cf. Suet. 30 : ingredientern desti-
tuebant poplites ?ninus Jirmi. Cf. c. i, noji passibus aequis ;
also Suet. 21 : non sine foeda vacillatione discurrens^ with
possibly a similar reference. Scheffer observes that Claudius
failed to put his right foot first ; cf. Petron. 30, dextro pede.

quaesisse se : See note on 7itmtiatur.

perturbato sono et voce confusa : Cf. Suet. CI. 4, in
Augustus's letter on Claudius, already quoted, qui tain acrac^ais
loqiiatur^ etc. So ibid. c. 30, linguae titiibantia^ and Dio,
Ix. 2 : Kat TO) <j)0)vyfJuxTL iaffxiWeTo. Cf. infra : voceni impli-
catatn ; c. 6, quid dicer et nemo intellegebat ; c. 7, profaiu vocis
incerto ; c. 10, tria verba cito die at, etc.

non intellegere se linguam eius : Cf. ibid. ; also Petron. 73 :
cantica lacerare^ sicut illi dicebant qui linguam eius intellege-
bant.

Herculem qui : So the St. Gall and one of the Paris codices.
Most of the MSS. have quia. Hercules appears in his very
proper function of ake^LKaK<y;. Cf. Lucian, Alex. 4 : dAcf iVaKc
'HpaKAets Kat Zev OLTrorpoTrcue koI Aidaxov/oot (TtoTTJpeSy ttoAc-
fiLOLs Kol ixOpoLS ivTVx^'^v ycvoLTo Kol firj <Tvyy€V€aO(u TOtovro)

TLVL.

quorum hominum : i.e. cuius nationis.

sane perturbatus : Note the colloquial adverb and the dif-
ference between it and bene above.

ut qui etiam non omnia monstra timuerit : This is the MS.
reading, retained in the texts of Schusler and Biicheler's editio
minor y but which nearly all the earlier editors thought it
necessary to emend, even BUcheler, in his edition of 1864,
changing ti?nuerii to sustinuerit : i.e. Hercules had not yet
withstood all monsters. Similarly Fickert and Lindemann,
following Nic. Faber and Lipsius, give do??iuerit. Ruhkopf
and Holze give non itmonia monstra timuerit, the iunonia
being from the reading of Gronovius ; i.e. but possibly Her-
cules did fear this new monster. With a similar idea Baeh-
rens suggests : tit qtii victa non omnia monstra timtierit.
Haase reverses the structure ; ut quern etiam non omnia



176 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 5.

monstra timtierint, here being one which did not. Others
make various combinations. Schmidt defends the ms.
reading, but understands timuerit in the special sense of
pugnaverit, citing from Seneca's Hercules to sustain this
interpretation.

All these efforts are unnecessary. Ut qui introducing a
concessive clause is good Latin ; cf. e.g. Livy, xxxix. 43, i :
. . . Valerius Antias^ ut qui nee orationem . . . legisset, etc.
The apparent difficulty is the word ornniay which is really in
the indefinite sense of any, supported by etiafn. This time
Hercules was afraid, even though he was reputed to be (cf.
videatur above) one who did not fear all the monsters.

ut vidit . . . vacem : zeugma.

novi generis faciem: possibly a hint at Claudius's incon-
siderate introduction of novelties ; see Introd. p. 9. Cf.
Suet. 2 : palliolatus, novo more ; id. 14 : novo circa principefn
exemplo . . . [consul] suffectus,

nullius terrestris animalis, etc. : Cf. Jul. Caes. 4, Silenus
(on the entrance of Augustus), /SajSal, l<\>7j, tov iravro^airov
TOVTOV Orjpiov.

putavit sibi tertium decimum laborem venisse : the twelve
labors of Hercules being one of the most familiar of mytho-
logical allusions. Cf. Petron. 48, numquid duodecim aerum-
nas Herculis tenes? His comic dread of further trouble
has occasioned the efforts of some of the emenders of the
passage ut qui . . . timuerit above.

facillimum . . . Graeculo: Ruhkopf thinks this refers to
Claudius : i.e. the verse from Homer was easy for him to under-
stand. It is better to refer the jocular diminutive to Her-
cules, which gives facillimum a more direct reference to
ait. Juvenal's passage {Sat. iii. 77) on the Greek parasite,
Omnia novit Graectdus esuriens ; in caehun iniseris, ibit,
is accidentally apt. Cf. id. Sat. iii. 100: natio comoeda est.

tCs 'tr60€v, etc. : from Homer, Od. i. 170. Ruhkopf and
some of the early editors omit i^Se ro/c^e? and end the
quotation with TrroAts. The verse is notable as being the



c. 5.] NOTES 177

one successful guess of Beatus Rhenanus in his attempts to
conjecture the missing Greek quotations in his first edition
of the Ludus. So much of it is also suggestively used in a
Greek epigram by Marcus Argentarius, which would have
been accessible to Rhenanus in the anthology of Planudes
(vii. 95), and is found in the Anthologia Palatina, v. 112
(ed. Teub.) :

OvK€T ipa ' A.t/i,os (fidpfJuiKOv OLOv €xet •
*H 8c 7ra/30s ore KaXtvcra fxvpov koL Tep7rvov''AS(ji)VLV

M.r)VO<f>LXaj vvv (tov rovvofxa irvvBavtrai.
Tts TToOev CIS avhpuiv ; iroOt tol ttoXi? ; rj fioXt^ lyvoj?

TOVT €7r09, 0)5 Ov8ctS OvScV IxOVTt <^tXoS.

Lipsius in the Somm'um (c. 3) uses the verse in the same
way that we find it in the Apocolocyyitosis .

Claudius gaudet esse illic philologos homines : In Seneca's
mind this word apparently had no very favorable color. For
its meaning, cf. his Ep. 108, 24 and 30, on the kind of com-
mentary a philologiis would make on Cicero's De Re Publica.
He was a species of antiquarian, a person jnultiplici variaque
doctrina (Suet. Gramm. 10). On the habit of using Greek
quotations, cf. Cic. de Off. i. 31, 1 1 1 : [uf\ sermone eo debemus
utt, qui innat7is est nobis^ ne, ut qtcidam Graeca iftculcantesj
iure Optimo rideamtir. So also Horace on Lucilius {Sat.
i. 10, 20).

historiis suis: Cf. especially Suet. CI. 41, 42. See also
Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Fragrnenta^ p. 295, where
the extant quotations, chiefly in Pliny's N. H., from Claudius's
histories are gathered. He wrote in Greek twenty books
Tvpp-qvLKdv and eight books Kapx^^ovtaKtov, besides, in Latin,
his two books beginning post caedem Caesaris dictatoris and
his forty-one a pace civili. In addition to these histories
were the eight books de Vita Sua, a defence of Cicero against
the books of Asinius GaUio, a work on the art of dice-playing
(Suet. 33), and one on the three letters which he proposed as



178 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 5.

additions to the Latin alphabet. See Introd. p. 14. On the
value of Claudius's literary labors, which the sperat futururn
aliqiiem historiis suis locum implies was problematical, see
pp. 10, 13.

et ipse Homerico versu: In connection with his fondness
for Greek, and especially for Homeric quotations, note, be-
sides Suet. 42, also his interest in the Trojan legend and
remission of tribute to the Ilienses {id. 25, and Tac. Atin.
xii. 58) and his exhibition of the Troiae lusum (Suet. 21).
Compare also Dio, Ix. 16: kcu aXXa he ttoAAo, koI Trpos eicet-
vovs (J-e. the soldiers) koL irpos rrjv ^ovXyjv ToiovTOTpoira
*EAA7yvt(JT6 7rape4>0lyyeTO' wcrre kol yeAcora Trapo, rots Svva-
fxevoL<; €(TTLv d avTiov crvveivaL 6<f>\i(TKaveiv.

'IXto^ev fxe, etc. : Odys. ix. 39. The professed descendant
of Aeneas might poetically claim to have been brought among
barbarians (KtKovecro-t), as the Romans would be, from the
Homeric point of view. This verse is parodied in an epi-
gram by Automedon in the Anthol. Pal. xi. 346, where, shortly
after the supposed inquiry, ^rjTeLs, ttov ere <t>ep(x)(n TroSes, comes
the answer (1. 7) :

K-v^LKoOev ere (jyeptav ave/xos '^ap^oOpa^L TreXacro'ev.

TOVTO 0"€ TOV XoLTTOV TeppXX /XCVCt ^lOTOV.

erat . . . avrov^ : evidently an aside by the narrator, though
Schusler oddly concludes : ex verbis illis. ' aeque Hojnericus^
seque7ttem versu?n ipse Claudius etiam adiecisse habendus est.

aeque Homericus : As to the genuineness of these words the
critics are divided. Blicheler (ed. of 1864 and Rh. Mus. xiv.
447) says they appear to be a gloss, and Wachsmuth con-
demns them. Baumstark and Schenkl maintain that they are
genuine. Wehle is unconvinced. Blicheler, in his editio
7ninor, leaves them suspecta. There is reason for retaining
them as a part of Seneca's original expression. Of course,
for the stating of facts, they are tautological. After the phrase,
Homerico versu, sequens versus is obviously aeque Ho7nericus.
As a gloss the words would be stupid enough. But the bal-



c. 6.] NOTES 179

ance of emphasis after verior requires the repetition of them
in view of the grim humor of the quotation, and Seneca's wit
would hardly have required that of a mediaeval commentator
to supplement it.

6. at imposuerat : On the colloquial flavor of this chapter
see the Introd. p. 72. For the use of impono in this mod-
ern sense, cf. Petron. 102 : utctmqtie imponi nihil dor?nienti
posset; and Cicero's letters, ^^jj-/;;/.

Herculi minima vafro : The editio princeps gave the reading,
Herculi minimo discrimine fabulam, which was followed in
many subsequent editions ; most of the inferior manuscripts
have fabros instead of vafro. The homini which appears
after Hercidi in Haase's and Schusler's texts is a conjecture
of Junius.

The gullibility of Hercules is illustrated by Ovid ; cf. Her.
ix. 113. The hero may have been the more inclined to sym-
pathy with Claudius since he himself had been received from
earth to heaven. Cf. Ov. Met. ix. 254 seq.^ where Jupiter
explains to the gods, in regard to the immortal portion of
Hercules :

Idqite ego deftmctum terra caelestibus oris
Accipiain^ cundisque meum laetabile factum
Dis fore confido.

Febris : the officially reported cause of Claudius's death ;
the well-known Roman fever. Cf. Pliny, JV. H. ii. 7, 15-16:
numina . . . invejiimus^ inferis quoque in genera discriptis,
morbisqjie et 77iultis etiam pestibiis, diim esse placatas trepido
7netu ctipi7nus ; ideoque etiatn picblice Febris fafitan in Palatio
dicatum est. So Fever had been a neighbor of Claudius.
Cf. Cic. de N. D. iii. 25, 63; id. de Leg. ii. 11, 28: araqiie
stat in Palatio Febris^ et altera Esquiliis ; cf. also Val. Max,
ii. 5, 6.

ceteros omnas daos Romae reliquerat: BUcheler (ed. 1864)
characterized this clause as suspicious, not because the gods
are presently found all in heaven (see Introd. p. 67), but



l80 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 6.

because es an sick matt, ohne alle Spitze ist. One might find
in the words, however, an additional bit of compliment for
the new regime at Rome.

mera mendacia narrat : Cf. narro, below, and see p. 68.

ego tibi dico : Cf. the same colloquial expression in Plant.
Mil. Glor, 217; cf . also Petron. 64 : Trimalchio ' tibi dico '
inquit . . . ^ nihil narras.'' There is a similar vulgar emphasis


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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 11 of 18)