Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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upon Trimalchio's favorite pronoun, e.g. in c. 56, in the repe-
tition Q>i ego puto,

tot annis vixi : Note, as below in multis annis regnavit, the
ablative of the time when, rather than the accusative of dura-
tion. Apparently the idiom was commoner in the sermo vul-
garis than in literature. See Introd. p. 72, on the familiar
plebeian epitaph formula ; cf. Petron. 57 : annis quadraginta
servivi ; also Sen. jE^. 108,5: multis . . . annis per seder i7it.
On the effect which Fever's constancy had had upon Clau-
dius's health, see Suet. 2 and 31.

Luguduni natus est : So also says Suet. CI. 2 ; Cf. Dio Cas.
liv. 36. Claudius's mother, Antonia, was following her hus-
band, Drusus, to the German wars, 10 B.C. Wachsmuth and
Mahly consider the words a gloss.

Marci municipem vides : This is the reading of the mss.,
and that it is not to us clearly intelligible does not necessarily
condemn it. BUcheler, in his editio minor, thinks it a cor-
ruption of a Gallic name, as is Marcomagnum, from /xapKav
ecum. Gertz proposes the name Mo?nori, of the Celtic augur
(Mw/xo/Dos), who was said to have given the name to Lugu-
dunum (cf. Plutarch, de Fluviis, vi. 4). BUcheler in his
larger edition (1864) said that Marci is quite senseless, and
substituted Planci, after Gronovius, from L. Munatius Plan-
cus, who in 43 B.C. was one of the founders of the Colonia
Claudia Copia A2igusta Lugudunensis . Ruhkopf and other
modern editors adopted the conjecture of Rhenanus, Munatii,
which is less probable, as the founder of the colony was com-
monly known as Plancus ; cf. Sen. Ep. 91, 14, alluding to
the great fire in Lugudunum [colonia'] a Planco deducta . . .



c. 6.] NOTES l8l

quot . . . gravissimos casus infra spatium htmianae senec-
tutis tulitl See also Cicero's coirespondence with Plancus.
It is scarcely to be supposed that Marci is simply a mistake
of Plancus 's praenomen, though this is possible. In that case,
to call Claudius one of Marcus's citizens would be an easy
jest. De Boissieu {Inscr. de Lyo7t, p. 125) thought that
Mark Antony, the triumvir, is referred to. He cites this pas-
sage in connection with the statement in Appian (^Bel. Civ.
iv.) that Antony had the government of Gaul for two or
three years, beginning in 43 B.C., and reproduces quinarii
struck at Lugudunum by Antony during that time, in support
of the theory that the town was under his patronage, and
from him called Marci 7Jiunicipiuin. Turnebe's explanation
of the phrase {Advers. ii. 304, i), that it denoted such a
kind of citizen as Cicero was, non verum germanu?nqiie,
sed ifiq:eili?mm, etc., is perhaps notable as an imaginative
effort.

quod tibi narro: "That's what I say." Cf. narro tibi in
Cicero's Letters, ad Attic, i. 16, 10; ii. 7, 2; xiii. 51, 2.
See Introd. p. 68.

ad sextum decimum lapidem ... a Vienna: There may
be additional irony in thus locating Lugudunum, as if it were
a suburb of the rival town. See Tac. Hist. i. 65. Vienna,
the ancient capital of the Allobroges, was in Claudius's time
a Roman colony in the province of Narbonensis. The dis-
tance agrees with that given in the Itinerariurn Anto?iiniy
per compendium XVI.

quod Galium facere oportebat : evidently an allusion to the
capture by Brennus. Compare the similar pleasantry about the
Irish, that they rule every country but their own. Claudius
himself recalled (Tac. An7i. xi. 24), capti a Gallis sumus.

ego tibi recipio : the reading of the best MSS. The editio
princeps and many of the later ones give ego reddo tibi,
Recipio in this sense is like the Greek dvaS€;^o/xat, " I warrant
you," I take the responsibility, a usage especially frequent in
Cicero's letters.



1 82 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 6.

ubi Licinus : the reading of Bucheler. Earlier editions
give Licinitis, as in the mss., from a mistaken assimilation to
the Roman gentile name. He was a native Gaul, a slave and
freedman of Julius Caesar. Dio Cassius (liv. 21) outlines
his career. By Augustus he was appointed procurator of
Gallia Lugudunensis, where he acquired great wealth and
became notorious for the tyranny with which he satisfied his
envy of those who had once been his superiors. Hence the
humorous regnavit. He carried his ingenious extortions to
the length of collecting monthly dues fourteen months in the
year, reasoning that since December was the tenth month, it
required two more after it. When he learned that Augustus
had been informed against him, he voluntarily presented to
the emperor his ill-gotten gains, which he said he had gath-
ered for that purpose, and so saved his skin. His name
became proverbial for a rich parvenu. Cf. Sen. Ep. 119, 9;
Pers. ii. 36 ; Juv. i. 109 and 306 ; Mart. viii. 3, 6. The
epitaph by Varro Atacinus, written on his famous marble
tomb, is given in Meyer, Anth, Lat. I. Tj^ as follows :

Marmoreo Licinus ttifnulo iacet, at Cato nullOy
Pompeius parvo : quis putet esse deos f

Cf. Macrob. Sat. ii. 4, 24, on Licinus's contributions to
Augustus's public works, and the trick by which the emperor
doubled one of them.

tu autem : Bucheler thinks this is addressed to Claudius,
who had said he came from Ilium rather than Lugudunum, the
plura loca calcasti being an allusion to Claudius's long expedi-
tions to Britain (Suet. 17; Dio, Ix. 21 ; Pliny N. H. iii. 16,
119), and Claudius's rage a direct reply. But it is far more
natural to understand Febris as continuing her talk to
Hercules, the tu autem marking her transition from the
correction of his mistake to a direct reproach for his stupidity.
Hercules's wanderings to and fro in the earth were not only
familiar, but expressly referred to in c. 5. Excandescit



c. 6.] NOTES 183

hoc loco clearly indicates that Claudius's outburst was an
interruption.

mulio perpetuarius : Note the formation of the word. This
is defined by Friedlander as meaning one qui peregrinatores
eodetn vehiculo, eisdein mme7itis quoctitique vellettt deportaret,
etiafn in locos remotissi7nos. In the Codex Jiistiniatms^
perpetuarius is applied to an hereditary tenant.

Lugudunenses scire debes et : The et^ which appears in other
MSS., is lacking in that of St. Gall., and Blicheler, omitting it,
brackets Lugudunenses. But the repetition as it stands is
rhetorically good, and it is easier to suppose et accidentally
dropped in the St. G. MS. than Lugjidunenses accidentally,
or even stupidly as a gloss, inserted elsewhere. For scire we
should have expected cognoscere, but the speaker appears, by
a species of zeugma, to have suited his word to the follow-
ing clause. Gertz, however, proposes the reading, qua?n
ullus mulio perpetuarius Lugudunensis ; with the explanation
that Lugudunum totius Galliae caput erat, in media terra
sit Jim, SiOTrep kol ^Ayptinras ivTcvOev ra? oSovs €T€fjL€ ut ait
Strabo, p. 208 ; veri simile ergo mihi videtur muliones
Lugudunenses praeter alios multa et longa itinera per-
currisse.

Xanthum et Rhodanum : for the sites of Ilium and Lugu-
dunum. Birt suggests that here may be a play on the
words : he ought to know the difference between yellow
(fav^d?) and red (Jiohayo^ from pohov) .

excandescit . . . irascitur : Cf. Suet. CI. 30 : ira turpior ;
ibid. 38 : irae atque iraanidiae conscius sibi, etc.

quid diceret nemo intellegebat : See Introd. p. 6.

Febrim duel iubebat: Cf. c. 13: qiws Narcissus duci
iusserat. Ducere, either with or without specification of the
ter?ninus ad quem, was the regular legal term for leading
away to prison or execution. See Lexicon.

gestu solutae manus : " limp " ; not strictly comparable
Xo pollice verso (Juv. iii. 36). On Claudius's trembling hands,
cf. Dio, Ix. 2. Compare also Pallas's odious fashion of



1 84 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 6.

giving commands nutu aut niami , , , ne vocem consociaret
(Tac. Ann. xiii. 23).

decollare : properly, to remove (a burden) from the neck.
For its first use in the sense of " behead " by Fenestella, cf.
Diomedes's explanation (Keil. G.L. I. p. 365) : Veteres aute7n
securi caesos dicebant. The usage appears to be colloquial.
Cf. Petron. 51 ; also Suet. Cal. 32, miles decollandi artifex;
Sen. de Ira, iii. 18, 4, on Caligula's cruelty so great ut . . , ad
lucernam decollaret. On Claudius's taste for this sort of
thing, cf. Suet. 34.

putares onmes : No others than Febris and Hercules have
been mentioned ; see Introd. p. 67, and note on 7iu?itiatur.

adeo ilium nemo curabat : as he had often been snubbed
before. On his subservience to his freedmen, Introd. p. 11.

7. tu desine: Note the colloquial insistence upon the
pronoun.

fatuari : to talk nonsense ; from fatuus, a fool ; as accord-
ing to the Graeco-Latin glossaries, /xwpacWtv; but with per-
haps a punning allusion to the other sense of the word, to
talk oracularly, like Fatuus the inspired Faunus ; i.e. drop
your incomprehensible tone and come down to facts, hard
facts, as the following indicates.

ubi mures f errum rodunt : This seems calculated to impress
the timid Claudius with the strenuousness of life in the region
to which he has come. Otto, however, interprets the proverb,
which does not elsewhere occur, as a particular reference to
mice getting their heads into the trap, and compares the Greek
saying, apri /jlvs ttltttj^ yeverat, Demosth. 12 15, 10 (Reiske's
pp. in Oratt. Attici.^\ cf. Theocr. xiv. 51; i.e. "now,
Claudius, you have walked into a place where you will get
caught." Blicheler cites from Pliny an instance in which
mice once ate iron {N. H. viii. 57, 222, ed. Teub.).

ne tibi alogias excutiam : like similar vulgar threats in Eng-
lish. Alogias, a plebeian Grecism; see Introd. p. 69. Cf.
Petron. 58, in Hermeros's angry tirade, non didici geofuetrias^
criticuj et alogias rnenias.



c. 7.] NOTES 185

tragicus fit : The suggestion of sham recalls Dionysus's im-
personation of Heracles in the Frogs. Hercules was always
dramatic. Here he strikes an attitude, and declaims.

cluas : the Greek kAvco ; in Latin more commonly of the
second conjugation, but not thoroughly classical ; chiefly used
by Plautus and Lucretius. It contributes here intentionally
to the artificial effect.

stipite clava : Hercules's well-known weapon.

profatu vocis incerto: Claudius apparently mumbles an
interruption.

mobile . . . caput : Cf. caput mover e^ c. 5.

regna tergemini . . . regis : Geryon, whose cattle, accord-
ing to the familiar story, Hercules drove to Argos {/nachia
urbs) by way of Gaul.

duobus imminens fluviis iugum: Seneca, in his letter to
Lucilius (91) on the burning of Lugudunum, also mentions
the location of the town on a hill. Cf. de Boissieu, Inscrip-
tions de Lyon, p. 126, on the site.

Ararque dubitans, quo suos cursus agat, etc. : Cf. Caes. B. G.
i. 12 : Fluinen est Arar, quod . . , in Rhodanum influit incredi-
bili lenitate, ita ut oculiSj in utrafn partem fluat, iudicari non
possit. Cf. Plin. N. H. iii. 4 (5), 33 : Araris . . . praeia-
centibus stagnis.

haec satis animose et fortiter ; nihilo minus, etc. : Schusler
quotes Sen. de Ira, i. 20 ; Non est quod credas irascentium
verbis, quorum strepitus magni, minaces sunt, intra mens
pavidissi?na.

mentis suae non est : Hercules was bluffing ; his manner did
not "accuse" his mind. Mentis is subjective genitive. It is in
a different sense that we say, " It was not to his mind." Con-
trast also the same expression in Cic. Pison. 21, mentis suae
esse, where it is like mentis cofnpotem esse. With Hercules's
anxiety compare that of Silenus, Jul. Caes. 4, tl itot apa
SeLvov i7/xa9 c/ayao-erat ;

^copov ttXtj^-^v : an easy parody. In Greek tragedy, a Oeov
irXrjyrj was proverbial for an unexpected stroke of irrespon-



1 86 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 7.

sible destiny. Cf. e.g. Soph. Ajax^ 278 : SeSotKa /xt) 'k ^eov
irXrjyrj rts lyKa. In the present instance the irresponsibiUty
is that of a crazy man. Note the same substitution of /xcopov
for Beov at the end of c. 8.

virum valentem : The use of participles in -ns as attributive
adjectives marks a certain plebeian tendency in the language.
The phrase has been objected to (by G. D. Koeler, t. Ruh-
kopf), but it easily justifies itself by the comic effect which it
doubtless had to a Roman ear, somewhat as "strong man"
has occasionally in our vernacular.

oblitus nugarum : recalling desine fatuari and ne . . . alo-
gias excutiam. Note the same popular expression, quite as
we say "forgetting his nonsense," inPetron. 71 and 136. Cf.
Jul. Cues. 4, Travorat, etTTCv, A^ypcoi/, 6 AttoXAcdv.

gallum in suo sterquilino plurimum posse : evidently a popu-
lar saw, recalling our proverbial "cock of the walk." The
play on Claudius's Gallic origin is obvious. The same pun
appeared also at the time of the Gallic insurrection under
Nero, Gallos eum cantando excitasse. Cf. quod Gallum facere
oportebat, c. 6.

fortissime deorum : Cf. v aide for tis licet tibi videaris, infr.

adfuturum : used particularly of advocates and witnesses.
Cf. Pliny, Ep. iv. 17.

notorem: a late word for the more exact cognitor. It is
practically defined by Seneca {Ep. 39, i), qui notorem dat
ignotus est. Cf. Petron. 92 : at ego ne mea quidem vesti-
menta . . . recepissem^ nisi notorem, dedissem.

tibi ante templum tuum ; This is the reading of the mss.
Bucheler ingeniously emends, changing tibi to Tiburi on ac-
count of Suet. Aug. 72 : [Augustus'] frequentavit . . . Tibur, ubi
etiam in porticibus Her cutis templi persaepe ius dixit ; for, as
he says, there was no temple of Hercules in Rome where the
emperor would have been likely to hold court. But, lacking
other evidence, I have preferred the manuscript reading tibi,
which, it is to be remarked, does not exclude the supposition
that it was Hercules's temple at Tibur to which Claudius was



c. 70 NOTES 187

referring. Wherever it was, Hercules would know, and so
would the Roman public, without the local name. There is
no objection to the colloquial repetition, tibi . . . tuum ; and, as
Tyrrell says (ed. Cic. EpzsL Vol. I. p. 62), the use of the ethi-
cal dative was especially common in Cicero's epistles and the
comic poets, the great repositories of colloquial usage.

ius dicebam totis diebus manse lulio et Augusto : On Clau-
dius's exaggerated faithfulness to this duty, see Introd. p. 9.
Cf. c. 12, guts nunc iudex^ etc. ; Suet. CI. 14; Dio Cas. Ix. 4,
etc. July was the regular month for vacation from court ses-
sions (note mense instead of mensibiis, showing that the two
months are separately considered), and the calendar shows
many holidays for August. Cf. Phny, Ep. viii. 21, 2: mense
lulio quo tnaxi^jte lites interquiescunt. Claudius even held
court, according to Dio, Ix. 5, on the day of his daughter's
betrothal. The peculiarities by which he distinguished his
magistracy were no less likely to be thought of. Cf. Suet. 1 5,
etc. Among them, that he was more inclined to be lax in
winter time is shown by Suet. Galba, 14 : ludicibtis . . . con-
cessum a Claudio beneficmm ne hieme initioqtte anni ad iudi-
candum evocarentur, en'puit Galba. Note the case of totis
diebus^ although the chief idea is of duration, as in tot annis
vixi (c. 6), etc.

miseriarum : perhaps referring to the insults to which he
exposed himself (cf. Suet. 15), and the weariness which some-
times made him go to sleep in court {id. 33), or perhaps to
the woes to which he had to listen.

contulerim : This is the reading of all the best manuscripts
(St. G., Val., Guelf., Paris 6630, etc.), but avoided by nearly
all the editors. Bucheler gives tulerim ; Ruhkopf, Fickert,
Schusler, and others, pertulerifn. Yet co7itulerim^ though
Schenkl calls it senseless, seems quite comprehensible. The
amassing of woes in a law court is a common idea. Or pos-
sibly the prefix co7i- here simply indicates a plebeian compound
without any special distinction of meaning from the simple
verb.



1 88 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 7.

causidicos : The slur is surprising, in view of the end of
c. 12; but Claudius had been chiefly their easy victim rather
than their friend.

cloacas Augeae : For the familiar story of Hercules's Augean
labor, the cleansing of what is variously described as bubile^
ovilia^ etc., see Hyginus, /7Z<^. 30 ; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 299; cf.
Varro, Bijnarcus^ frag. 26 (Bucheler), from Nonius, p. 242 :

Non Hercules potest^ qui Augeae egessit Kcmpov.

Otto cites Tert. ad Nat. ii. 9, plus fimi Augias conferebat, and
the comparison might be extended to the preceding question :
Qtiid Ster cuius meruit ad divinitatem f

multo plus ego stercoris exhausi : Cortius says of Xh\s,glossu-
lam haec sapiunt. But if it is a little too flat for Seneca, it is
Claudius who is talking.

sed quoniam volo : Perhaps here Claudius begins the persua-
sion which proved effective with Hercules. The break which
follows in the mss., if due, as is supposed, to the loss of even
only one leaf from the archetype from which they are all de-
rived, would seem to have included in the gap more incidents
than have been suggested in the various attempts to fill it.

8. non minim, quod impetum in curiam fecisti: The
changed situation indicates at least something of what must
have intervened. These words are evidently spoken by one
of the members of the Olympian senate (cf. c. 9, /«//.), which
seems to be organized after the pattern of that at Rome. They
are addressed presumably to Hercules, whom Claudius has
succeeded in inducing to be his notor and advocate. The
unsophisticated champion has brought his prot^g^ into the
curia^ and stated his desire that he be admitted to the celes-
tial fellowship. He is met with some unparliamentary re-
proaches, the beginning of which we have lost.

nihil tibi clausi est : Stahr suggests that this is a playful
hint at Hercules's violent entrance into the under world.
Note the use of the partitive genitive as predicate, and its
oddly quantitative eflfect.



c. 8.] * NOTES 189

'EiriKovp€ios 0€6s non potest esse : oUtc avros irpd^jjia €%y. tv
ovT€ aXXois •irap^x*'' • Bucheler reads . . . irpa.yyjo.T l^et ovtc
KT€. The reading here given, which is also that of Haase,
involves a slighter change from the St. Gall text, which has
TT/aay/xa c;(terovT€ ktI. The Val. reading seems to confirm
this position of rt. With ovrc avrbsy etc., a relative is to be
understood, though 6s need not be inserted into the text as it
was by Fromond and others following. Mahly proposes to
insert yap instead, apparently forgetting, since avros would
refer to Claudius, what sort of a person an Epicurean god was.
This definition resembles the phraseology of Diog. Laert. x.
139 : TO fj/iKaptov Koi a(l>0apTOV ovre avro irpayfxa. tl Ixti ovrt
aAAo) 7rap€)(€L. So also is the sententia of Epicurtis given by
Cicero {de iV. Z?. i. 17, 45) : Quod beatum aeternumque sit, id
nee habere ipsu?n negotii qtiicquam nee exhibere alteri. Qi.
id. de Off. iii. 28 : eorum . . . qui demn nihil habere ipsum
negotii dicunt, et nihil exhibere alteri, Cf. also Sen. de Brev.
Vit, xiv. 2 : Licet . . . cum Epicuro quiescere. Claudius
would be excluded on either count ; cf. c. 3, cum anima lucta-
tur, while that he had been a bother to others Augustus was a
witness. Lipsius's Somnium, c. 15, quotes this same defini-
tion of an 'E7riKov/3cto5 OcoS'

' rotundus ' . . . ut ait Varro, * sine capite, sine praeputio ' :
supposably from one of Varro's Saturae Menippeae ; Schenkl
suggests the Fvcu^t aeavrov. The words would fit the iambic
senarius. For a dignified outline of the Stoic conception of
God, cf. Cic. de AT. D, i. 15, 39. The word rotundus (cf.
ibid. i. 8, 18) was an effort to make it objective, which some-
times resulted in a joke. Compare Seneca on the question,
an virtutes animalia sint {Ep. 113, 22): si rotundam
\Jigurani\ illis qualem deo dederint \quidam'\ . . . The added
detail in Varro^s description, Bucheler suggests, is a playful
allusion to the form of the roadside Hermae, simple column^
except for the members named. Note the hybrid word prae-
putio. See Introd. p. 69.



I go THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 8.

nee cor nee eaput habet : referring doubtless to his oblivio et
inconsiderantia?n (Suet. 39). So he is referred to in Julian's
Caesares, c. 6 : tdTL yap cKetVcov [i.e. libertoru7n\ 8t;(a tovtX
T^S TpayiiiStas to hopv<f>6pr]pxx, p^iKpov Siu) cfxivat kol a\j/v\ov.
The words are perhaps a reminiscence of Cato's well-known
gibe at the Roman embassy sent to make peace between Nico-
medes and Prusias (Li v. epit. lib. 1.), dixit Cato earn lega-
tionem nee caput nee pedes nee cor habere (cf. Plutarch, MapKos
KaTCDv) ; similarly the common proverb nee caput nee pedes ^
for neither beginning nor end, Seneca might have included
the pedes also, since Claudius, too, was weak on his legs. Cf.
Petron. 59 : et tu cum esses capo, cocococo, atque cor non habe-
bas, ibid. 63 : non cor habebat, non intestina, non quicquam, of
the supposititious bundle of straw left by the witches in place
of a dead boy.

mehercules : emended in many of the editions to mi Hercules.
But there is even a comic aspect of this careless swearing by
Hercules to his face.

cuius mensem toto anno eelebravit Saturnalicius princeps :
Saturnalicius is BUcheler's reading, after Junius's Saturnali-
tiusy from the MS. Saturnalia eius, which Lipsius and others
condemned as a gloss. Schusler ejects 2X^0 princeps.

It is, as we should say, this Lord of Misrule. Cf. c. 12.
Dicebam vobis, non semper Saturnalia erunt. Recall Tibe-
rius's contemptuous gift to Claudius in his earlier days, of
forty aureiy in Saturnalia et Sigillaria (Suet. CI. 5). With
reference to his fondness for feasting, cf. ibid. 32, 33.
Seneca begins his i8th epistle: December est mensis, cum
. . . ingenti apparatu sonant omnia, taiiiquatn quicquam
inter Saturnalia intersit et dies rerum agendarum : adeo
nihil interest ut {non) videatur mihi errasse, qui dixit
olifn fnensem Decembrem fuisse, nunc aimuin ; a noteworthy
parallel from the same author. Cf. Petron. 44 : . . . semper
Saturnalia agunt. Also ibid. 58, where a boy is charged
with misbehavior : io Sattirnalia, rogo, 7nensis December est f
Cf. Dio Cas. Ix. 19, where the mutinous soldiers of A. Plau-



c. 8.] NOTES 191

tius responded with the same cry, 'lo) 2aT0i>pvaA.ta, to the
speech of Narcissus.

nedum ab love, etc. : according to the emendation of Grono-
vius. A reading involving less change from the MS., and
nearly like that of Ruhkopf, would be: si tnehercules a
Satiirno petisse{s) (for the MS. /.) hoc beneficiiim, cuius
mense{m) toto (ms. in toto) anno celebravit {Saturnalia eius
being regarded as a gloss) princeps, non tulisset {i.e. Saturnus,
as mediator) ilium deum ab love^ q^iem (ms. iovem, qui^ a
simple metathesis) quantu?n, etc. Addressed to Hercules
this would be entirely consistent, but it perhaps involves too
complex a transaction to be quite plausible. As to Satur-
nalia eius, with the text having ?nense instead of fnefisemy
the insertion of these words to supply an apparentiy missing
object for celebravit would be not unnatural. But Saturnali-
cius is quite in the spirit of the passage.

damnavit incesti: by implication, for Jove was guilty
of what Silanus was charged with. Recall the familiar
designation of Juno (^Aen. i. 46), lovisqtu et soror et
coniunx.

Silanum enim generum suum : L. lunius Silanus Torquatus
was betrothed to Claudius's daughter Octavia; the charge
of incest was trumped up against him by Vitellius the censor,
and received with easy suspicion by Claudius. For his history,
see note, c. 10.

propterea quod : This is BUcheler's reading {editio ?ninor),
and on the whole it seems the most satisfactory, as well as
an ingenious adaptation. The best MSS. texts have oro per
quod, which Blicheler in his edition of 1864 gave with the
indication of a break between per and qtwd, as was done by
Nic. Faber. Rhenanus suggested eo quod. The reading
common to most of the editions after Lipsius is oro propter
quidf Oro per quidf has been suggested by Schenkl;
by Haupt, propter quid without oro. But forms of qui as an
interrogative substantive are not uncommon, and it does not
seem quite impossible that even so rude a phrase as the oro



192 THE SATIRE OF SENECA [c. 8.

per quod of the mss. may have been familiar in the brevities
of vulgar colloquy.

sororem suam festivissimam omnium puellarum: lunia
Calvina, as Tacitus says (^Ann. xii. 4), was sane decora et
procax. Apparently by some imprudence she gave her
accusers their pretext. At Silanus's death she was exiled
from Italy. Cf. Tac. Ann. xii. 8. In Racine's play of
Britannicus she figures as amante de Britannicus.

Venerem : evidently because she was so charming. Silanus,
it is alleged, preferred to have her in the double relation of


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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 12 of 18)