Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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Juno. Cf. Sen. Octavia, 219-221, Nuirix Octaviae:

Tu quoqiie terris
Altera luno soror Augusti

quare, inquis : Bucheler reads inquit. It seems to me that
in the mutilated state of the text, at least, it makes the para-
graph more simple and intelligible to put it all into the
mouth of one objector, than to suppose inquit without any
indication of the subject. The question, quare . . . sororem
suam^ by blaming Silanus implies the justification of Claudius.

quaero : Cf. the frequent colloquial insertion of rogo^ like
our ^' say ! " in Petronius ; eg. 55 and 58.

stulte, stude : This is included by Otto in his Sprichworter
as having a proverbial color.

Athenis : Cimon's marriage with Elpinice is the familiar
example of marriage with a half-sister {soror germana, of the
same father).

Alexandriae : as in the marriages of the Ptolemies, brother
and sister.

" quia Romae," inquis : The interruption is presumably by
the same defender of Claudius as before. Some have thought
it to be Claudius himself Bucheler takes this qzda, etc., as
a direct return to Hercules's main contention, a reason why
Claudius should be received as a god ; i.e. that he had got
things in Rome into such fine order that he would be an

c. 8.] NOTES 193

effective addition to heavenly society. It seems better, how-
ever, to relate the words to those more immediately going
before, indicating the contrast between Rome and the other
cities whose moral standards have been cited.

mures molas lingunt : This has the air of a proverb, but
as to its meaning the critics are by no means agreed. Some
think it sets forth the wickedness of Rome ; others that it
indicates quite the contrary. Molas probably refers to the
consecrated sacrificial meal.

Rhenanus took the sentence to refer to the mollities of the
Romans : bad as they were, they were discriminating in their
vices, as the mice would only eat the most select article.
Fromond took it as a jest at the severities of Claudius's
censorship. Neubur emended the passage altogether, making
* atqui Roma7iV inqiiit Claudius 'mores nos obligant,'' -which.
makes very good sense, but dodges the difficulty. Guasco
thought the remark might mean that at Rome the worship of
the gods is so deserted that the mice get at the consecrated
meal. Schusler took it to imply that Claudius showed the
same arrogance in claiming the right to correct the morals of
Olympus, that the mice did in eating molas nobis destinatas,
BUcheler's interpretation has already been given. Stahr
thought that ?nolas means the fruit mentioned by Pliny in
his JVat. Hist. (vii. 15, 63, and x. 64, 184) ; so that the
sense would be that Claudius has stupidly condemned Silanus
for a little careless joking, while the most criminal practices
are in every corner. This, however, is not only far to seek,
but directly contrary to the meaning of the passage.

The connection shows that these words imply a defence of
Claudius, justifying the condemnation of Silanus, since the
thing which was half allowed at Athens, and wholly so at
Alexandria, is at Rome not permissible at all. Mice and
men are so finically careful at Rome (as Develay translates
it, les souris vivent de gdteaux), that Claudius had to apply a
strict standard. It is possible, however, that the meaning
turns upon the more commonly known propensity of mice,


Cf. Plaut. Pers. 58 : Quasi inures semper edere alienum
cibum. Schenkl recalls the name of one of the mice in the
Batrachomyo7nachia (29), Aetxo/xijAr/. On this supposition the
words would mean that Silanus, like a mouse, took what he
was not entitled to.

hie nobis curva corriget: The ms. reading is corrigit ; so
also the editio princeps^ and early editions generally ; changed
by Sonntag.

These words seem clearly to refer to Claudius's censorship,
as also the preceding ones may. (Cf. Suet. CL 16.) Pliny
{Ep. V. 9, Teub.) quotes a similar expression in popular
criticism of a new praetor who was overstrict : Inveniinus qui
curva corrigeret. quid? ante hunc praetor es non fuerunt?
quis auteni hie est, qui einendet publicos snores ? Bucheler
cites also one of the so-called sortes Praenestinae {C.I.L,
I. 1438) : conrigi vix tandem quod curvom est factum
[^] rede.

quid in cubiculo suo facial, nescit : The ms. reading, nescio\
is intelligible, but Bucheler's nescit is so slight a change and
so much better that a principle may perhaps be sacrificed
to it.

This is a difficult passage, in view of what it involves.
Most easily it would seem, as Schusler takes it to be, an
allusion to the fact that Claudius's own marriage with Agrip-
pina was by no means according to the canons. Recall
Suetonius's illustration of Claudius's inconsiderantia (id. CL
39) : ducturus contra fas Agrippiitam uxorem, non cessavit
omni oratione filiain et alujnnam et in grejjiio suo natam
atque educatain praedicere. But such an allusion would hit
her almost as much as it would Claudius, and with her still in
power Seneca would be very unlikely to make it.

Schenkl, with the ms. reading, nescio, took the words as a
reference to Claudius's suspected relations with Julia, his
niece (Dio, Ix. 8), who was driven into exile by the jealousy
of Messalina. Cortius thought that the sentence might refer to
Claudius's body, still lying dead in the cubicidmn. It is best,

c. 9.] NOTES 195

perhaps, mvX^ss, faciat be actually emended to fiat, to take the
words in a very general sense, referring to the debaucheries
which he unconsciously encouraged. Recall his command to
Mnester to do whatever the empress Messalina wanted him to
(Dio, Ix. 22), and his signing the tabellas dotis for her mock
marriage with C. Silius (Suet. CI, 29). Cf. Dio, Ix. 28:
IXvTTOvvTO [ikv OTL fjLovo^ [Claudlus] ovK rjiria-Taro ra iv ro)
/Sao-tXcLU) 8p(i)fji€va. Cf. Tac. Ann, xi. 13 : Claiidms jnatri-
tnonii sui ignarus, etc.

caeli scrutatur plagas : Bucheler puts here an interroga-
tion point ; the antithesis does not need it. Cf. Cic. de Rep,
i. 18, 30, where is quoted the verse, with two others, from
Ennius's Iphigenia (Trag. Frag. 277) :

Quod est ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur plagas.

It had become proverbial ; see also Cic. de Div, ii. 13, 30.
Cf. Varro. Menipp. 233 (Biich. ed.), oculis caeli ri?nari

templum in Britannia: Cf. Tac. Ann. xiv. 31: tem-
plum divo Claudio constitution [in Camuloduno'] gjiasi arx
aeternae dominationis aspiciebatur, etc. This was in the
revolt of Boudicca. Cf. Meyer, Anthol, Lat, 762, 3 :

Oceanusque tuas ultra se respicit aras.

fjiupov cviXdrov ruxctv : another parody ; on wishes that a
god might be propitious, cf. fxoypov irXriyrjvy c, 7. Another
kind of variation is seen in Petron. 62 : genios vesiros iratos
{i.e. instead oi propitios') habeam.

9. privatis intra curiam morantibus, etc. : apparently an
allusion to a rule of the Roman senate. The ms. reading,
morantibus sententiam dicer e nee disputare^ though perhaps
intelligible, taking these infinitives as subjects of venit, is far
from satisfactory. Gronovius, followed by Sonntag, emended
to sententias did indignum putare, which is tautological,
after venit in mentetn. Haupt suggested sententiam dicer e
nefas putari, Haase's text has non licere inserted after


dicer e. Biicheler (ed. 1864) adopted the same addition, but
put the words after morantibus. In his editio 7ninor he added
senatoribiis, making senatoribus non licere sententiam dicere
nee disputare. I have preferred the reading of Haase. Sena-
toribus is quite unnecessary, and the supposable loss of the
non licere from the manuscript in copying would be much
more easily accounted for after dicere^ a word of similar

interrogare: probably to interview Hercules informally in
regard to the newcomer.

mera mapalia : mere stuff and nonsense. The glosses on
the word mapalia give KoXv^t) ac^pwv, casae pastormn, etc.
According to Festus, mapalia casae Punicae appellantur in
quibus quia nihil est secretin solet solute viventibus obici id
vocabidum, Cf. the "bug-house" of modern thieves' slang,
perhaps a partial parallel. The slangy application of the
word, to which Festus refers, seems to have extended to
anything trivial. Cf. Petron. 58, aut numera mapalia^ or
autem mera mapalia, or according to a reading of Heraeus,
at nunc mera mapalia : nemo dtipundii evadit. Ruhkopf,
referring to the rude character of these huts of the nomad
Africans, compares the proverb, ex civitate rus fecistis ; i.e.
you have thrown the senate into disorder.

Lipsius parodies the passage thus {Somnium, 17) : Serve-
mus disciplinam curiae, . . . vos mera ovilia fecistis, ita
balatis. On servetis disciplinam, cf. also Lucian, 'EkkXt^o-wi
Bt^^^v, itiit. See Introd. p. ^6.

hie, qualiscumque est : Jove is impartial, as befits the pre-
siding officer.

quid de nobis existimabit ? He is also sensitive to the repu-
tation of the gods. From one point of view, this question is
the key to half the satire.

illo dimisso : Claudius seems to be kept within reach, how-
ever, for at the end of the next chapter Augustus addresses
him directly. Schusler understands these words as simply re-
ferring to a dismissal from the conversation.

c. 9.] NOTES 197

primus interrogatur sententiam lanus pater : partly perhaps
in view of his character as god of openings, but convention-
ally because he was a consul designatus. Note also the re-
tained object, sententiam^ particularly common in this formal
idiom, as in, e.g.^ Sallust, Cat. 50, Silamis primus sententia?n
rogatus quod eo tempore consul designatus erat, and elsewhere.

designatus ... in kal. lulias postmeridianus consul ; This
date, July i, was a customary one for the entering of coftsules
suffecti upon their office. We may understand ^^j/w^r/^/df-
nus of the second half-year, as we say " the afternoon of life,"
or Seneca, of his old age, postmeridianas horas {Nat. Quaest.
iii. praef. 3). There may be some allusion, as Turnebus sug-
gested, to the business going on at that time of day ad lanum
in the Forum. Or the writer may be simply making fun of the
ludicrously short appointments to honorary consulships, that
were becoming common. Asbach thinks that certain creatures
of Claudius are satirized, whose occupations are vaguely hinted
in those of Janus and Diespiter ; but there seems insufficient
reason for supposing that any particular individuals are aimed
at. We know from Suet. CI. 46, that Claudius had designated
no consuls beyond the month of his death. As Mommsen
suggests (Staatsr. II. p. 84, n. 5, ed. 3), the author presum-
ably would have forborne to represent in any comic way the
consuls of Jan. i, 55, of whom Nero himself was one and may
have already been designated before Seneca^s writing. Apart
from such prudent avoidance, the satire seems more general,
with Janus as an amusing old fellow, living familiarly in the
Forum and facing both ways.

homo quantumvis vafer : This is a correction by Rhenanus,
sanctioned by all the editors. It is evidently apt, though the
reading of the mss. and of the editio princeps^ homo quanttan
via suafert, is by no means hopeless. The demonstrative to
correspond with quantum is implied in the following clause,
so that it could be interpreted thus : " a person who so far as
his own way goes, always sees both forward and backward,''
but who has no provision for outsiders.


&^a irp6a-o'(i> Kal 6irC<r<r<i) : from the Iliad^ iii. 109, where the
words apply to Priam's long life, through which he could look
to both past and future ; here of course referring to the com-
mon two-faced representations of Janus.

quod in foro vivat : This is the reading of the St. G. ms.
In Biicheler's vivebat^ the change of tense is not an improve-
ment, and the change of mood is not necessary. The sub-
junctive is explainable as in a statement made on the authority
of the notarius, or perhaps a reason generally understood.
The allusion is to the Arcus lanus, or the row, perhaps, of
arches on the north side of the Forum, where the money-
changers' business was centred.

notarius : The early editors seem to have been especially in-
terested in allusions to the ancient shorthand, ftotae Tironi-
anae, as a lost art not yet replaced. Thus observes Fromond :
ars iam ignota, et inter eas quas barbaries posterioris aevi no-
bis abstulit ; and he quotes Ausonius's epigram, ad notarium
suum :

Tu sensa nostri pectoris

Vix dicta iam ceris tenes,

Tu me loquentem praevenis ;

Quis, quaesOy quis me prodidit f

The stenographer of Olympus was perhaps less skilful. Cf.
Pliny, Ep. iii. 5, 15, on the elder Pliny's habit of keeping his
notarius always by his side in travelling. Seneca himself is
said to have devoted considerable attention to these fiotae^
which have sometimes even been called by his name. Cf. his
Ep. 90, 25, verborum notas, quibus qtiamvis citata excipitur
oratio et celeritatem linguae manus sequitur. Vilissijnorujn
mancipiorum ista co7nme7ita sunt. The business of the nota-
rius appears to have been well-defined, and the term occurs in
sepulchral inscriptions. See e.g. C/.Z. II. 3119; III. 1938;
VI. 9704, 9705. Cf. Pauly, Realencyclopddie^ V. s.v. notae and
notarius I Schmitz, Commentarii Not arum Tironianarum
(Lips. 1893).

c. 9.] NOTES 199

ne aliis verbis ponam : Recall the writer^s assurance of accu-
racy, in c. I.

olim, inquit, magna res erat deum fieri: Cf. Petron. 17:
Nostra regio tarn pr-aesentibus plena est nufninibus^ ut facilius
possis deum qtiam hominem invenire.

iam famam mimum fecisti: the reading of the St. G. ms.
BUcheler, with several other editors, gives fecistis : the ed,
prin . , fama minimimi fecit . R henanus proposed reading 7ni-
mum^ and Orelli, Schusler, and Haase have/^w^ (or Fama)
mi7mim fecisti, I suggest, as another possibility, famam
i7na?n fecisti. As the text stands, the sense seems clear, re-
calling Ter. Eiin. 300, Ludian iocufnque dicet ftiisse ilium
alterum, Cf. the biblical, " a byword and a hissing." The
two words, /a:;//^ and mimus^ occur together in Hor. 6". i. 2,

Verum est cum. mimis^ est cum meretricibus^ unde
Fama malum gravius qua?n res trahit,

Qi. Suet. Cal. 45, where the sham triumph of Caligula is al-
luded to as a 7nime.

Were there any MS. authority for it, a plausible reading
would ht fabam ?nimum, for which BUcheler and Otto cite
Cic. ad Att. i. 16: Videsne consulatum ilium nostrum^ que?n
Curio antea airoOioimv vocabat, si hie f actus erit^fabam mi-
mu7?i futurum f Here the '' Bean mime" would seem to be a
title. Cf. Petron. 35, de Laserpiciario mimo. Note in this
connection the proverb quoted by Festus s.v. ta77t (p. 363,
ed. M.) : ta77i peril qua77i extre77ia faba, in. pr over bio est,
quod ea pleru7nque aut proteritur aut decerpitur a praetere-
7mtibus. Being a god, then, according to this allusion would
apparently be a kind of last resort ; no longer tnagna res.
Cf. Plant. Aul. 810, Pueri cla7nitant in f aba se reperisse;
also, perhaps, Petron. 67, tit tibi emerem fabam vitream.
Such a reading for the present passage, however, remains a
mere conjecture.

The singular, fecisti, indicates that Janus for the moment is


addressing an individual, perhaps Hercules. Ne videar in
personam^ etc., implies that he has been dealing in some

The ed. prin, gives after fecit the added clause, et iam
pestiferum (^pessirnmn^ Erasmi I.) quemque ilium adfectare^
which is of doubtful syntax, and absent from the manuscripts.

censeo : as in the Roman senate it was customary to end a
speech with the proposal of a formal resolution. Similarly the
speeches of Diespiter {infr.) and of Augustus (c. 11).

dpovpT]s Kapirov €8ovo-iv : from the Iliad, vi. 142; restored
by Rhenanus from MS.

aut ex his quos alit ^cCSupos apovpa : ^etSwpos is the stock
epithet oi apovpa in Homer. Cf. e.^. II. viii. 486; Od. vii.
332. Also Hes. Works and Days, 237 [235]. This clause
has been repeatedly condemned as a gloss (by Heinsius,
SchefTer, Wachsmuth), and Bucheler brackets it, as a mere
dupUcation of the preceding. But the ponderous repetition
appears to be part of the fun. Ruhkopf more rightly judges
the words : Tautologi [versus"] quidem sunt, sed ob id ipsum
causidico dignissimi, quippe quern repetitiones et ambages
amare constat.

qui contra hoc senatus consultum, etc. : another conven-
tional feature of the proposed bill, the sanctio.

f actus, dictus, pictusve : Cf. Pers. vi. 62-63 * Veniodeus hue
ego ut ille Pingitur ; Plaut. Asin. 174: neque fictum . . .
neque pictufn neque scriptum.

Laruis : evil spirits, half ghosts, half furies, supposed to be
the souls of wicked dead not allowed to rest in the other world,
and returning to torment evil-doers in this. Cf. Aug. Civ. Deiy
ix. II. In popular speech they served as do our " hobgob-
lins" and "the bogie-man." Possibly to the point also here
is the special fact that they were supposed to cause insanity,
which might be considered a logical part of Claudius's destiny.
Cf. Festus (Pauli Exc, p. 119, ed. M.), Larvati, furiosi et
mente moti quasi larvis exterriti. Biicheler compares Julian's
Caesar es, 5, where : avrov [Caligulam] StSoxriv ly AcKiy rats

c. 9.] NOTES 201

Ilotvats, at §€ eppuf/av els Tdprapov. Mahly, however, suggests
the reading lanistis for larvis^ in view of the following.

auctoratos: as defined by Aero, ad Hor. S. ii. 7, 59: qui se
vendunt ludo [sc. gladiatorio] atictorati vocantur ; audoratio
enim dicitur veiiditio gladiatorum. Similarly in the Gloss.
Lat. Graec, avOatptTos, cts SovAov iavrov ^oAAojv kol pLovofJud-
■)(0S' Cf. Petron. 117: sacramenUim iuravimiis . . . tan-
quafn legititni gladiatores,

vapulare : in the sermo vulgaris^ to " get a licking " ; one of
the features of the training of gladiators for the ring, especially
the raw recruits, novos auctoratos. Claudius was noted for the
feciHty with which he condemned men to this life (cf. Dio, Ix.
13 ; Suet. CI. 21, 34), although heat first restricted the gladia-
torial games (Dio, Ix. 5).

Diespiter, Vicae Potae filius : Clearly this is not the Jupiter
who has just figured as the presiding officer, the cosmopolitan
Zeus to whom poets gave the name Diespiter as god of the sky.
He must be recognized rather as the old Italian Jupiter, god of
the daylight (see Preller, Rom. Mythol., pp. 218 and 609;
Wissowa, Relig. u. Kultus der Rojner^ p. 100, Muller's Ha7idb.
V. 4), traces of whose worship appear in the rites of the Feti-
ales. These the antiquarian Claudius had just revived (Suet.
CI. 25), which may have helped Diespiter to think so well of
him. Schenkl cites Lactantius, Inst. Div. i. {de Falsa Re-
ligione), 14, where Pluton Latine est Dispiter^ and Cicero,
N. D.\\. 26, 66, where Dis or II Aovrwv is apparently identified
with the wealth -god Plutus, qtiia et recidunt omnia [i.e. divi-
tiae'] in terras et oriu7itur e terris. Cf. Varro, ZZ, v. 66.
Plutus, according to Phaedrus, iv. 12, 5, was son of Fortuna,
which would not be difficult to reconcile with the statement
here, Vicae Potae filius. The whole matter is involved in
confusion. Perhaps it was so even to Seneca, who may have
held a reminiscence of some of these associations in view of
Diespiter's financial dealings. Several of the early editions
read Nicae Potae; the ed. prin.y Diespiter in nepote filius,
Vica Pota had a temple infra Veliam (Liv. ii. 7), and her


name is a derivative of vincendi atque potiundi (Cic. de Leg.
ii. II, 28), so that she was a sort of Victory goddess. The
latter part of the name may possibly here be a hit upon money-
getting. But it is safest to leave the reference to the primitive
Italian divinity, one of those whose quaintness of aspect to the
Romans of Seneca's time specially suggested them for such
presentation as this. There is an added oddity in the thought
of the strict old Deus Fidius, by whom men took oath,
here sharing in such a log-rolling bit of politics with Her-

nummulariolus : Nummularius is a word of a common
vulgar formation, frequent in inscriptions. Cf. e.g. its use
in Petron. 56. The diminutive formed from it is doubly a

vendere civitatulas solebat : Here, again, the diminutive is
evidently for comic effect. This is a plain gibe at the venality
of public preferments in Claudius's day ; and the preceding
statement, hoc quaestu (i.e. fiMmtnularii) se sustinebat^ sounds
indeed more as if the writer had some particular person in
mind. Cf. Dio, Ix. 17: ^ 8'ow Mco-o-oAtVa ol re aTreXev^epot
avTov ovTws ov TTjv TToXiT^iav fjiovov, ovSl TOLs (TTpaTetas Kol TOIS
iTTLTpOTreui^s Tas re i^yc/iovta?, dAAa kol raXXa iravra d</)ctS(os


auriculam illi tetigit: as we should say, "gave him the
wink." But this is somewhat more. Touching the ear was
the common sign for engaging a witness to appear in a trial,
on the theory, as Pliny says {N.H. xi. 45, 103, 251), that
est in aure ima memoriae sedes, quatn tangeiites^ antesta^nur.
Cf. Hor. S. i. 9, ^^ ; Plant. Pers. 748. Here the act has the
more general sense of admonition, as in Verg. Ed. vi. 3-4,
Cynthius aurem, Vellit et admonuit. Diespiter was asked to
be not witness, but advocate, of Claudius, who was a fellow-
tradesman in citizenships. The diminutive, auriculam^ is quite
classical, but the series of three, nu7n?nulariolus, civitatulas,
and this, in quick succession, has a somewhat noticeable effect
upon the characterization.

c. 9] NOTES 203

cum divus Claudius : There is little significance in the ap-
parent flattery of divus, for Augustus uses it, though with pos-
sible irony, in the two following chapters. Divus Claudius
was the legal name of him now, since the Senate had de-
creed it.

Augustum sanguine contingat nee minus divam Augustam :
the latter even more, in fact. Claudius's father, Nero Claudius
Drusus, was the own son of diva Augusta (Livia) by her first
marriage, and therefore only the stepson of Augustus (but cf.
Suet. CL i). Claudius was related by blood to Augustus
through his mother, Antonia Minor, who was the daughter
of Octavia, Augustus's sister.

quam ipse deam esse iussit : Cf. Suet. CI. 11: aviae Liviae
divinos honor es, etc. Cf. also Dio, Ix. 5. The nature of
Livia's regard for her grandson is indicated by Suet. CI. 3.

longe omnes mortales sapientia antecellat : This pleasantly
recalls the funeral oration delivered by Nero (Tac. Ann.
xiii. 3) ; cf. also cordatus ho?no, in the dirge, c. 12. On
Claudius's learning, see Introd. pp. 10, 13.

e re publica : The senatorial formality of this phrase (for the
customary use of which in senatus consulta cf. e.g. Liv. xxiii.
24) and of ex hac die, in the next sentence, is obviously con-
trasted with the sufficiently novel introduction of boiling-hot
turnips and the Metamorphoses of Ovid.

cum Romulo . . . fervent ia rapa vorare : not, as Turnebus
observes {Adv. ii. 112, i), ambrosia and nectar. According
to tradition, Romulus lived in heaven in the rustic manner of
his time on earth; Ennius's familiar line (Anna!. 119, ed.
Vahlen) is —

Rofmdus in caelo cum dis genitalibus aevom

Cf. Mart. xiii. 16:

Haec tibi brumali gaiidentia frigore rapa
Quae damtis^ in caelo Romulus esse solet.


It is a broad hint, too, at Claudius's voracity. Cf. Suet.
32-33. The source of the quotation, which is the ending of
a hexameter verse, is unknown.

ita uti ante eum quis Optimo lure factus sit : Quis is the ms.
reading. Blicheler, in his later edition, changes it to qui^ as
the relative is used in this kind of clause in Cic. Philipp. ix.
7; xi. 12; C.I.L. I. 200; and (probably) Festus, p. 187. It
is not essential, however, to suppose that Seneca in the satire
always used such expressions with formulaic uniformity. (Cf.
€vpiJKa/xev, (TvyxoLLptDfiev, c 13.) The an^e eum suggests the
fitness of the indefinite, and the conditional implication justi-
fies the use of quis in this sense. Blicheler calls attention to
the change of structure after censeo, fi*om uti with the subjunc-
tive to the accusative and infinitive in rem . . . adiciendamj
and cites a parallel from the early Latin of the SC de Baccha-
nalibusi . , . eeis rem caputalem faciendam censuere . . .
atque utei hoce in tabolam ahenam inceideretis ita senatus
aiquom censuit, etc. (C.I.L. I. 196, 11. 25-27; also X. 104).
Cf. a similar change after sitter e in Plant. Most. 11-12 :

Sine modo adveniat senex:
Sine modo venire salvom,

ad Metamorphosis Ovidi: where Romulus's and Caesar's

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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 13 of 18)