Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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apotheoses were already included : Met. xiv. 815; xv. 745.

videbatur . . . sententiam vincere: Blicheler (ed. min.)
brackets sententiam, unnecessarily, it seems, since it may be
explained, like causam in causam vincere, as an analogue of
the cognate accusative. In his edition of 1864 he suggests
the emendation, j^;^^ iam. B. Schmidt proposes sensi^n iam
(Jahrb. f. Class. Phil. 93, 551 seq.).

ferrum suum in igne esse : a close parallel to our " Strike
while the iron is hot."

manus manum lavat: The same proverb is in Petron. 45.
Of similar import, ibid. 44 : Serva 7ne, servabo te. Otto com-
pares Epicharmus, quoted in Plat. Axioch. 366C, and Apost,

c. lo.] - NOTES 205

i. 36: a^^ x^ip TOLv X"P^ vtit^t. Another Greek form of the
proverb was ^ctp X^p^ vltttu SaKTvAd? re SctKTvXov.

10. tunc divus Augustus : Recall Augustus's early opinions
of his grandnephew in the letters to Livia, already quoted,
Suet. CI. 4.

surrexit : instead of merely assenting to a previously ex-
pressed opinion, which could be done without rising. Cf.
an instance in Livy, xxvii. 34 : causa . . . gum . . . stantem
coegit in senatu sententiam dicer e.

sententiae suae loco dicendae : so the St. G. and Val. Mss.
The Wolfenbiittel text reads, suo loco. Sententiae dicendae
may be taken, as by Bucheler, for a dative of purpose, a
usage common with esse or after nouns, and seen frequently
in inscriptions. In this text, however, it can easily be re-
garded as a genitive. Cf. Ter. Heaut. Tim. 218 : cogno-
scendi et ignoscendi dabitur peccati locus. On this use of locOy
cf. Cic. de Leg. iii. 18, 40 : ut loco dicaty id est, rogatus.

summa facundia disseruit : Cf. Suet. Atig. 84 : Eloquentiam,
studiaque liber alia, ab aetate pri?na, et cupide et laboriosissime
exercuit, . . . neque in senatu neque apud populum neque
apud milites loctitus est umquam, nisi meditata et composita
oratione: quamvis non deficeretur ad subita extemporali
facultate. Cf. ibid. 86 ; also Tac. Ann. xiii. 3 : Augusto
prompta ac profluens quaequae deceret principem eloquentia

ex quo : Cf. c. i .

nullum me verbum fecisse : suggesting the natural modesty
of a new-made senator and the custom requiring him to defer
his maiden speech. Pedarius was the term applied in the
Roman senate to those who only voted without rising to
speak. On Augustus's extreme care in the use of language,
see Suet. Aug. 84 seq. His diplomatic reserve was notorious.

et non possum : This is the reading of the St. G. MS., and is
used by Fickert and Haase. Bucheler gives set (ed. 1864)
and sed (ed. min.), the latter being the reading of the first
edition and most of the others. Sed is the more apparently


appropriate conjunction, but if semper meum negotium ago be
taken as merely a logical subordinate of ex quo . . . nullum
me verbum fecisse, the passage becomes naturally, "I have
been silent so long and can remain so no longer."

dolorem quem graviorem pudor facit : The question in the
letters to Li via (Suet. CI. 4) appears to have been chiefly one
of family pride, and the desire to keep Claudius out of a
prominence in which he would be ridiculous.

in hoc . . . ornavi : the usual summary of Augustus's prin-
cipal achievements.

terra marique pacem peperi : Cf. Res Gestae Divi Augusti,
c. 13 (Mommsen, 1883); also in C.I.L. III. p. 788 seq.:
lanum , . . cum per totum imperium populi Ro7nani terra
marique esset parta victoriis pax . . . ter me principe sena-
tus claudendum esse censuit. In similar connection, cf. Suet.
Aug. 22, terra marique pace parta ; also Livy, i. 19, and
Sen. de Clemen, i. 9.

civilia bella compescui : In the Res Gestae he is more ex-
plicit, lb. c I : Rem publicam dominatione factionis oppres-
sam in libertatem vindicavi.

legibus urbem fundavi : practically a quotation from Verg.
Aen. vi. 810, the prophecy in regard to Numa, primam qui
legibus urbem Fundabit. On Augustus's success in checking
lawlessness and strengthening the empire, cf. Res Gestae^
c. 25 seq. (Momms.), Tab. V. Also in Tab. VI. c. 34: In
consulatu sexto et septimo, bella ubi civilia exstinxerain per con-
sensum universorum potitus rerum omnium., rej?i publicam ex
mea potestate in senatus populique Romani arbitriutn trans-
tuli. Also in c. 35 : Senatus et equester or do popidusque
Romanics universus appellavit me patrem patriae. Cf. like-
wise Suet. Aug. 31, 32 seq. ; Tac. Ann, iii. 28 ; and Hor. Fp.
ii. I, 3.

operibus ornavi: Cf. Res Gestae, 19-24 (Tab. IV), for an
account of his building operations ; also Suet. Azig. 29, and
28, where occurs his famous boast : marmorea/n se relinquere
urbem quam lateritiam accepisset.

c. 10.] NOTES 207

ut : aposiopesis.

Messalae Corvini . . . sententiam, pudet imperii: This
appeal to M. Valerius Messala Corvinus (Dessau, Prosop.
V. 90) seems somewhat satirically pathetic. For though the
famous orator (Cf. Quintil. x. i, and Suet. Tib, 70) had
been a colleague of Augustus in the consulship (Tac. Ann,
xiii. 34), and had been the chosen representative of the
senate in haihng Augustus Pater Patriae (Suet. Atig. 58),
the words here quoted seem to belong to a reminiscence
that must have been far less pleasing to the emperor. In
25 B.C. Messala, having been appointed the first prefect of
the city, resigned, as Tacitus says {Ann. vi. 11), within a
few days, qtmsi nescitis exercendi. According to Suetonius,
quoted by St. Jerome in his Chronica (Suet., ed. Teub., p. 289),
Messala Corvinus pritmis praefectiis urbis facttis sexto die
magistratu se abdicavit^ incivilem potestatem esse contestans^
which, though privately said and indirectly reaching Augus-
tus's ears, must have been an irritating rebuff to his policy.
The words, pudet imperii^ however, are not exact as applied
to the authority of a praefectus urbis,, and are not elsewhere
quoted. Corvinus may possibly have used merely a word
analogous to imperii.

This is the reading of the St. G. MS. The others gen-
erally (Cod. Val., pcidet imperii) give praecidit ius imperii
(and so the editio princeps)^ which would have a quite differ-
ent connection, perhaps with Messala's disgust at Antony's
4allying in Egypt. Wehle suggests pertaedet imperii, a sort
of compromise for which there is no particular necessity.

The incident recalls Claudius's attempt to relinquish his
authority, from a motive quite different ; cf. Suet. CI. 36.

non posse videtur muscam excitare : The fly still serves as
the type of the small and unimportant ; cf. Petron. 42 :
mi7ioris quam muscae stmtus.

tam facile homines occidebat : Cf. Suet. CI. 29: ifi XXXV
senator es, etc. . . . tanta facilitate animadvertit ut, etc.

quam canis adsidit: so the St. G. ms. The commoner


reading, from the Cod. Val. and some of the later MSS., is quant
cams excidit^ which the editors generally accept as explained
by Fromond, canis to mean the " dog-throw " at dice, with
perhaps an allusion to Claudius's gambling propensities.
Bucheler multiplies his objections to this reading to the
extent of carefully stating that the lowest throw actually does
not fall out so frequently as the medium ones do, — which is
a quaint neglect of the gambler's psychology. The editio
princeps reads, quam canis frustru7n \sic'\ abscidit ; Grono-
vius, according to the suggestion of Rhenanus, quam cam's
exta edit.

The reading of the text may refer to the simple facility
with which a dog sits down ; or perhaps, as Bucheler and
Otto suggest, to another frequent canine occasion, which may
easily have become proverbial. Among other proverbs for
things easy to do, like our " as easy as falling off a log," cf.
Plaut. Most. 559: Tarn facile vinces quam pirum volpes
comest; Petron. 57 : ingenuum nasci tajn facile est quam
'accede istoc.''

de tot ac talibus viris : Ed, prin., de tot actibus iuris ; so

deflere : Ed. prin., deplorare.

etiamsi soror mea Graece nescit, etc. : This passage has
been, as Ruhkopf calls it, crux criticorum. The reading of
the St. G. MS. is, etia^n si sormea Graece nescit ego scio
ENTYCON TONYKNHAIHC iste quem, etc. The Cod.
Val. reads, etiam si forme a grece nescit ego scio ENTYCO-
NIKNNAIHC iste que^n, etc. The other MSS. show slight
variations, but no gain in intelligibility. Most of them have,
instead of sormea, formea or phorjnea, which may easily be
accounted for by a misunderstanding of a long s. In Paris
8717, the "word graece is lacking.

Many of the editions simply give the traditional reading of
the codices (with Phor/nea) without attempt to explain.
Among the conjectural emendations have been those of:
Rhenanus, Nafn t^s 6pyrj% aegre senescit ij vdo-os. IIv/oyoTro-

c. lo.] NOTES 209

XtviKry? iste quern videtis^ etc. ; Fromond, a modification of
that of Junius, Natn etiamsi <l>opfiL^€Lv 7iescit^ ego scio, ivTvviav
TO KaAAtVtK€ *iipaK\rjS' Iste quern, etc. ; Cortius, Etiamsi
Phor?Hio (sc. Terentii) neces nescit, ego scio: Ivtolkov KaKov
nee diis senescit. Iste, etc. ; Bouillet, Eiia^fisi forte ea nescitj
ego scio tv Tv^ovTiav : hie in Diis se nescit. Iste, etc. (so in
Develay's translation ; cf. Suet. CI. 39, on Claudiuses absent-
mindedness) ; Schenkl, etiamsi 6 pnapo^ ea [^Graece"] 7iescit,
ego scio, ivOvfjLLov to kclvov Xltjv, the last words being a remi-
niscence of the Homeric verse {Od. xiii. 421) ^^ h-q tol
Kctvos yc XCrjv ivOvpno^ Icttu). But BUcheler's interpretation
of the string of Greek letters easily supersedes all these
other efforts. The proverb Tow Kvrjfxrj'; lyyiov, which appears
several times in the Paroerniographi Graeci, in the collections
of Zenobius, Diogenianus, Arsenius, Apostolius, and Gre-
gorius Cyprius, is quoted by Aristotle (^Eth, Nic, ix. 8, 2),
Athenaeus (ix. 30, 383b), Cicero, in a letter to Tiro {Ep.
ad Fam. xvi. 23), where however it is only yow KV7Jfxr]<;,
with lyyiov understood, and others. In Theocritus, xvi. 18,
is found the converse of it, airunipdi rj yow Kvdfm, while the
Fl^Miine tunica propior pa/liost (Trin. 11 54) is an obvious
parallel. The sense of the quotation is plain, after Augustus's
allusion to his domestica mala just before. The word Graece,
bracketed by Biicheler, seems best disposed of by the theory
that it was a marginal comment of some transcriber upon the
Greek quotation, which he did not understand and perhaps
omitted ; Fromond thought, upon the word <^op/xtifciv of his
reading, transliterated into Latin. The point of the state-
ment, soror tnea nescit, i.e. not Greek, but that one's knee
is nearer than one's shin, very likely depends upon some fact
unknown to us. Possibly Octavia, who was Claudius's grand-
mother on the mother's side, had been less pessimistic as to
the boy's capabilities than Augustus and Livia.

In most of the editions, after the Greek letters, comes the
word senescit before iste quern, etc. It is not found in the MSS.
and seems to be a mere survival, in a senseless dittography,


from Rhe nanus's conjectural reading, formed of -ce (in Graece)
and 7iescit.

sub meo nomine latens : as all the emperors took the name
of Augustus ; but Claudius, in particular, in the oath, per Au-
gustum (Suet. CI. ii), made to him his favorite adjuration.
Augustus's lack of cordiality to his kinsman recalls oddly the
wish expressed for Claudius in the Consol. ad Polyb. (xii. 5),
sera . . . dies . . , sit . , . qua ilhim gens sua caelo adserat.

duas lulias : The death of both is recorded in Suet. CI. 29,
and both were victims of Messalina. lulia Li villa (Dessau,
Prosop. I. 444) was the daughter of Germanicus, the adopted
son of Tiberius, and having excited Messalina's jealousy
was banished, a.d. 41, on a charge of adultery with Seneca
himself. Hence he was banished to Corsica, while she not
long after was killed {fame ocdsa) in exile (Dio, Ix. 8).
The other Julia {Prosop. I. 422) was the daughter of Dmsus,
Tiberius's son. According to Dio, Ix. 18, Messalina, ^t^Ao-
rvn-qdCLda, as in the case of the other one, caused her death
{ferro), apparently through the agency of P. Suillius (Tac.
Ann. xiii. 43). Cf. Tac. xiii. 32, speaking of Pomponia
Graecina's mourning, . . . post luliam Drusi filiam dolo
Messalinae inter feet am.

abnepotem L. Silanum: Cf. c. 8 and c. 11. L. lunius
Silanus Torquatus (Dessau, Prosop. I. 559) was the son of
M. lunius Silanus M. f. Torquatus who was consul A.D. 19
(not the same as the M. lunius Silanus who was Caius's
father-in-law), and of Aemilia Lepida, proneptis Augusti
through her mother lulia, the daughter of M. Agrippa and
of Julia, daughter of Augustus and Scribonia. (Biicheler,
following Borghesi, Oeuvres, V. 161-233, makes L. Silanus
the son of Appius Silanus; cf. c 11, note.) L. Silanus was
born about a.d. 24 and Octavia was engaged to him a.d. 41.
He was in high favor with Claudius, and in 44 a.d., while
still a youth, was granted the ornament a triiimphalia at the
time of the latter's Britannic triumph. When Agrippina
wished to secure the marriage of Nero and Octavia, Silanus


was accused of incest by Vitellius, a.d. 48, and he com-
mitted suicide on the day of the marriage of Claudius and
Agrippina at the beginning of the year 49, ruined, as Dio
says, by the charge of conspiracy. Cf. Tac. Ann. xii. 3,
4, 8; xiii. i; Dio, Ix. 5, 23, 31; Suet. CI. 24,27,2^. See
also Mommsen, in Eph. Epig. I. p. 62, and inscriptions there
cited, C.I.L. XIV. 2500 and C.I. A. III. 612 (2).

videris luppiter ... in causa . . . certe . . . tua: This
evidently recalls the idea brought out in c. 8, love^ quetn
quantum quidem in illo fuit, daninavit incesti. It seems
almost like an effort, by returning to lay stress upon Jupiter's
concern in the matter, to divert attention from the indiscretion
of alluding to Silanus's death at all, considering Agrippina's
share in it. Seneca could not resist the temptation to mention
it, but undertook to conceal the hit as much as possible.

videris ... an ... si aecus futurus es : This, the reading
of the St. G. text, is evidently bad grammar, but the repetition
of the particle is colloquially explained by the insertion of
the parenthetical certe in tua^ after which the speaker begins
again with his inquiry. Both this and the use of the indica-
tive es in the indirect question are characteristic of the vulgar
syntax. Cf. die mihi . . . qjiare . . . damnasti following.

The editio princeps reads, videris luppiter an in tua certe
mala venit : si hie inter nos futuriis est. Other editions,

. dive Claudi: Cf. c. 9. The irony is comic enough to
relieve somewhat the unbroken solemnity of Augustus's

antequam de causa cognosceres, etc. : Cf c. 12, una tantum
parte audita^ etc., and c. 14, similarly. A propos of Claudius's
capricious unfairness in hearing cases, cf. Suet. CI. 15 : Alius
gr alias agenSy quod reu?n defendi pateretur, adiecit, ' et tamen
fieri solet ' ; ibid. 29, on Claudius's hasty condemnations ; also
Dio, ix. 14-16.

hoc ubi fieri solet ? : like an allusion to the advocate's re-
mark just quoted.


11. pi»|/€ iroSos TCTa-ywv diro Pt^Xov Oeo-irco-Coio : Tliad^ i. 591,
where Vulcan himself gives the familiar description of how
he fell all day and landed on Lemnos. The editio princeps
gives instead of the Greek after cms fregit the words et in
Lemnon caelo deturbavit, non extinxit, which in many suc-
ceeding editions are inserted after the Greek.

iratus fuit uxori et suspendit illam: Iliad, xv. 18, where
Zeus recalls the incident unpleasantly to Hera''s memory.
In the same connection (1. 23), he refers to the casting
down of Hephaestos in nearly the same terms as are used

Messalinam, cuius aeque avunculus maior eram quam tuus :
Valeria Messalina (Dessau, Prosop. V. 161), both on her
father's and her mother's side, was the great-granddaughter
of Octavia, the sister of Augustus, who was thus her avuncu-
lus maior. Claudius, however, was the grandson of Octavia,
so that Augustus was properly his avunculus magnus. He
is, however, called avuncidus maior of Claudius in Suet. CI,
3, and referred to as his avunculus by Seneca in the Consol.
ad. Polyb. 15. See Lexicon for instances of similar confusion
of terms.

Messalinam . . . occidisti: Cf. Tac. A7in. xi. 37-38.
Though Agrippina received the benefit of her death, she
"had no hand in her dying," and there is nothing invidious
to Seneca's patroness in the allusion ; it even tends to justify
her for putting Claudius out of the way before he served her
in the same manner.

" nescio " inquis : This notorious instance of Claudius's
/zcTcwpta (Suet. CI. 39, where is recorded his question at
dinner, cur domina non veniret) is thus described in Tac.
Ann. xi. 38 : nee ille quaesivit, poposcitque poculum et solita
convivia celebravit. ne secutis quidem diebus odii gaudily
irae tristitiae, ullius denique humani adfectus signa dedit.
Similar was the time when after the death of Poppaea (Tac.
Ann. xi. 2), epulante^n apud se 77iaritu7n eius Scipione7n
percontareiur, cur sine uxore discubuisset, atque ille functaTn

c. II.] NOTES 213

fato responderet. The same thing happened often, according
to Suet. CI. 39. Cf. ibid. 29 : . . . supplicia largitus est, et
quidem insciens plerumque et ignarus.

turpius est : See Introd. pp. 9 and 13.

C. Caesarem non desiit mortuum persequi: apparently a
play upon two meanings of the verb, to persecute and to />;//-
tate. Dio, Ix. 3-4, tells how Claudius promptly proceeded
to undo the acts of Caligula, so far as possible, and to oblit-
erate his memory. See also Suet. CI. 11., fin. Gaii . . . acta
omnia rescidit. Here belongs, too, hie nomen illi reddidit;
after the other sense of perseqiii is caput tidit. And the
emphasis is decidedly upon Claudius's imitations of his mad
predecessor ; whom, by way of precedent, the Romans had
more than refrained from deifying.

occiderat ille socenim : M. lunius Silanus C. f. (Dessau,
Prosop. I. 551), constd siiffecttis a.d. 15, was the father of
lunia Claudilla (or Claudia), who was married to Caligula
A.D. 33. Cf. Tac. A7m. vi. 20; Suet. Cal. 12. She died
before Caligula came to power; Tac. Ann. vi. 45. On M.
Silanus's importance under Tiberius, cf. Tac. Ann. ii. 59, and
iii. 24, and Dio, lix. 8. On his fall, a.d. 38, cf. Dio, ibid.\
Suet. Cal. 23 ; Tac. Agr. 4.

hie et generum : i.e. socerum (Appius Silanus, vid. infra) et
generum insuper ; in fact, duos generosy as Augustus presently

Gains Crassi filium vetuit Magnum vocari : Cf. Suet. Cal. 35 :
Vetera familiarum insignia noblissinw cuique ademit, Tor-
quato torquem, Cincinnato crinem, Cn. Pompeio stirpis an-
tiquae Magni cognomen. Cf. also Dio, Ix. 5, where Gains
himself is said to have been on the point of killing the young
Magnus because of the name. Mommsen (Ephem. Epig. I.
66) thinks that the above statement of Suetonius, Torquato
torquem [ademif] refers to the femily of the L. Silanus Tor-
quatus here mentioned, so that oddly enough two sons-in-law
of Claudius had fared alike in the loss of their familiarum
insignia as well as in the other respect.


hie nomen illi reddidit : Cf. Dio, Ix. ^^fin. o yc /utiyv KXavStos
mi iKCLVo avTo to Trpoaprjixa aTreStoKe, kol tyjv Ovyarepa 7rpo(T(Tvv-
wKL(r€. Here is perhaps a side thrust at Claudius's excessive
good nature in the bestowal of titles and dignities generally.
Cf. Suet, a, 24.

caput tulit : for the more natural abstuUt.

in una domo Crassum, Magnum, Scriboniam, etc. : Augustus
is repetitious in his charges, even apart from the formal indict-
ment at the end. M. Licinius Crassus Frugi (Dessau, Pro-
sop. L. 130) was consul ordinarius a.d. 27. What is thought
to be his sepulchral inscription has been discovered near the
Via Salaria. Cf. Bull. delV Inst. 1885, p. 9; Dessau, Inscr,
Lat. Sel. No. 954. M. Licinius \ M. f. Men. \ Crassus Frugi \
pontif. pr.urb. \ cos. leg. \ Ti. Claudi Caesar is \ Aug. Ge{r)7na'
nici \ in . . . \. Unfortunately the last line is nearly all gone.
On other inscriptions his name appears in the consular date.
It is uncertain whether he was a descendant of Crassus the
Triumvir, though by an allusion in Tac. Hist. i. 15, this is
implied. (Cf. Momms. in Fpk. Eptg. 1. 145.) Plutarch {Vit.
Galbae, 23) alludes to him as killed by Nero, an error doubt-
less originating with a confusion of him and his son of the
same name whom Nero did kill (Tac. Hist. i. 48).

Cn. Pompeius Magnus (Dessau, Prosop. P. 477), son of
the foregoing and of Scribonia, is referred to simply as Magnus
also in Tac. Hist. i. 48, Dio, Ix. 21, and Zonaras, xi. 9. The
marble cippus bearing his epitaph was found in the excavations
on the Via Salaria with those of his father and his brother, L.
Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, the unfortunate young man
adopted by Galba (Tac. Hist. i. 14, Plut. Galb. 23) ; cf. Btdl.
deW Inst. 1885, p. 9, Dessau, Inscr. Lat. Sel. No. 955 : Cn.
Po7np{eius) \ Crassi f. Men. \ Magnus \ pontif, quaest. \ Ti.
Claudi Caesaris Aug. \ Germanici \ soceri sui I . Caligula's
treatment of his name has already been referred to. He was
betrothed to Claudius's elder daughter, Antonia, a.d. 41 (Dio,
Ix. 5 and 21 ; Suet. CI. 27), but was put to death in the year
47 on account of Messalina's jealousy ; Suet. CI. 29 : ite7n Cn,

c. II.] NOTES 215

Pompeium maiorisfiliae viru7n, et L. Silanum minoris sponsum
\occidit\ . Ex qtdbus Fompems in concubitti dilecti adulescentuli
confossiis est. Cf. Zonaras, xi. 9, and Tac. Hist. i. 48.

Scribonia (Dessau, Prosop. S. 221) was wife and mother of
the two preceding. Since the name of Cn. Pompeius Magnus
was given to one of the sons of her and Crassus Frugi, it
has been inferred that she was a descendant of the original
Pompeius Magnus, and a sister of M. Scribonius Libo Drusus.

Tristionias, Assarionem: so the St. G. ms. The Val. text
reads, Tristioniam, Bassionia?n, Assariotiem, The editio
princeps gives Bassioniam instead of Tristionias. They are
persons unknown. Biicheler suggests the possibility of tris
homines assartos, on the analogy of Petron. 45, sestei'tiaritis
homo ; ibid. 58, domimis dupunduariiis ; ibid. 74, homo dipiin-
diariiis. This would comport well with the following : nobiles
tamen, etc. On this latter expression, cf. Tac. Hist. i. 14,
where Crassus Frugi and Scribonia are expressly mentioned
as of noble birth.

Crassus . . . tarn fatuum, ut etiam regnare posset : Of his
character we have no other knowledge. He had, at least,
been consul. Compare the proverb in c. i, aut regem aut
fatuum., etc.

Between posset and the following htaic nunc deum occurs
in the editio princeps the following passage : cogitate P. C.
quale portentum in mmierum deorum se recipi cupiat. Prin-
cipes pietate et iustitia dii fimit. Scilicet hie plus et iusttis^
quoniam Dryudarum [sic'^ perfidae gentis Gallicae immanem
relligionem^ a qua cives submoveram : prorsus exterpavit : ut
Romae 7i7iptiaru?n sacra essent, quibus ipse : cum sibi Agrip-
pina nuberet. XXX Senatoribus : innumeris Eq. Ro. mactatis :
principium dedit. All but the first sentence of this is obvi-
ously an interpolation lacking manuscript authority, and crude
of its kind. The allusion to the Druids is from Suet. CI. 25 :
Dryidarum religionem apud Gallos dirae ifmnanitatiSy et tan-
ttwi civibus sub Augusto interdictam, penitus abolevit. The
XXX senatoribus, etc., is probably from c. 14 of the Apocolo-


cyntosis itself, and the reference to Agrippina is plainly im-
possible. The first sentence, however, quale portentum, etc.,
while also lacking in the best manuscripts (St. G., Val., Wolf.),
and perhaps, as Schenkl concluded, a gloss from the same hand
as the other, is much better in connection with the following,
corpus eius dis iratis ^latu^n^ and is included without brackets
in the texts of Ruhkopf, Fickert, Schusler, Haase, and other
of the critical editors. Its origin presumably is in Claudius's
mother's remark of him, portentmn eutn hominis^ Suet. CI. 3.

corpus eius dis iratis natum : See Otto, Sprichworter . Cf.
Phaedr. iv. 20, 15 : dis est iratis natus qui est similis tibi.
Similarly, Plant. Most. 563 : natus dis inimicis omnibus. Cf.
also id. Mil. Glor. 314; Hor. S. ii. 3, 7 ; Pers. iv. 27 ; Juv. x.

ad summam : " in short." The phrase in this sense is com-
mon in parts of Petronius's dialogue, e.g. 2, 37, 38, 57, 58, 76-
78. Cf. Hor. Ep. i. I, 106; Cic. Ep. ad Attic, vii. 7, 7;
X. 4, II. In Suet. Aug. 71, Augustus himself uses the word
in the more precise sense of the final total.

tria verba cito dicat : a challenge to Claudius's stammering

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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 14 of 18)