Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

The satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; online

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bration of the Ludi Saeculares {Terentini) there, at a date
somewhat open to criticism.

c. 13.] NOTES 229

The apparent reading of the editio princeps, viam rectam,
followed by some of the editors, is, I think, an imperfect

compendiaria : Sc. via. See Lex. for similar instances ; e.g.
Varr. Menipp. Frag. 510 (ed. BUch.), hoc dico, cojnpendiaria
sine ulla sollicitudine ac molestia ducundi ad eandem volupta-
te7n posse perve7iiri. The nature of Narcissus's short cut is
indicated in Tac. A7171. xiii. i.

Narcissus libertus (Dessau, Prosop. N. 18): This was one
of the most powerful of Claudius's freedmen, and his secre-
tary ab epistulis (Suet. CI. 28 ; Dio, Ix. 34 ; cf. inscr. in
Bull. Com. 1886, p. 104, and 1887, p. 10, from ih^ /istulae
urbanae. Narcissus Aug. I. ab epistulis) . See note on c. 1 1 for
his conspiracy with Messalina against Appius Silanus. For
other indications of his wealth, character, and acts, cf. Pliny,
N.H. xxxiii. 134; Juv. xiv. 329-331 ; Dio, Ix. 15, 16, 31, 33,
34; Zon. xi. 10; Tac. xi. 29-38; Suet. Viiell. 2; id. Vesp.
4; id. Tit. 2; Sen. Nat. Quaest. iv. praef. 15; Sid. Apol. v.
7, 3. He has been commonly supposed to be the Narcissus
mentioned by St. Paul, Ep. to the Rom, xvi. 11. Being an
opponent of Agrippina (Tac. Ami. xii. i, 2, 57, 65 ; xiii. i),
he was out of the way at the time of Claudius's assassination,
having been forced by ill health to go to the watering-place
of Sinuessa in Campania (Tac. Ann. xii. 66), for Dio (Ix. 34)
says that if he had been present, Agrippina could not have
accomplished her design against her husband. After Claudius's
death, Narcissus was summarily disposed of (Dio, ibid., and
Tac. xiii. i), after having prudently destroyed the letters ex
epistulario Claudiano. As, however, he did not go by way
of Olympus, he appears to have got to Hades ahead of his
master. After libertus the edit. prin. has the words, dominus
domini, an evident gloss.

ad patronum excipiendum : Compare Silenus's gibe in
Julian's Caesares, c. 6 : " You shouldn't have brought Clau-
dius (to the banquet) without his freedmen, Narcissus and
Pallas, to take care of him."


ut erat a balineo : i-e. Sinuessa, compared to the ordinary
morning bath.

celerius : " Quick ! " for celeriter ; one of the comparatives
that in colloquial use have somewhat lost their comparative
force. Cf. Petron. 20; Vitruv. viii 7. The edi'l. prin. has
celerms p?'aecedito, 2.ndi so Rhenanus. Ruhkopf and others,
following a doubtful ms. indication, give celerius i. Analogy
with our idiom leads us to be satisfied with the adverb alone.
After nuntia^ occur in the edit. prin. and some of the later
Mss. (but not St. G. nor Val.) the words, Ille autem patrono
plura blandiri volebat. que7n Mercurius iterum festinare
iussit et virga moraiitem irnpidit.

dicto citius : a familiar expression. See Otto, Sprichw.
Cf e.g. Verg. Aen. i. 142 ; Petron. 74.

omnia proclivia sunt, facile descenditur: Cf. the familiar
facilis descensus Averno of Verg. Aen. vi. 126. Seneca
remarks in a serious work. Be Prov. vi. 7, nihil feci, inquit
deus, facilius qua7n mori. prono aniifiam loco posui. Cf.
Anthol Pal. x. 3 (auth. incert.), 4:

navToOev els 6 (fteptDv ets dtSryv avc/x,os.

quamvis podagricus esset : Hence, doubtless, his visit to the

ad ianuam Ditis : Cf Verg. Aen. vi. 127.
ut ait Horatius : Carm. ii. 13, 34 :

. . . ubi illis car minibus stupens
Detnittit atras belua centiceps
Aures^ etc.

This epithet, for the usually three-headed Cerberus (cf. Hor.
Car?n. ii. 19, 31) is explained according to the schohasts by
Hor. Carm. iii. 11, 17:

Cerberus^ quamvis furiale centum
Muniant angues caput eius^ etc.

c. 13.] NOTES 231

VergiPs account is the most familiar, Aen. vi. 417-423.
Hesiod, however, gives Cerberus fifty heads (Theog. 312).

After behia centiceps in the edit, prin, are the words, sese
movens villosque horrendos exctitiens, which do not appear in
any of the best mss. and seem to be a late effort to enhance
the picturesqueness of the description, villos being apparently
from the following villosum,

pusillum perturbatur . . . subalbam canem : so in the
St. G. MS. and in BUcheler. Most of the editors, following
the edit. prin. and some of the later mss., shift the sub^ pre-
fixing it to perturbatur rather than albam. Note the genders,
album canem . . . canem nigrum.

sane non quern veils tibi in tenebris occurrere : cf, Juv. v. 54 :

Ei cui per mediam nolis occurrere noctem.

There is apparently a play on the meaning of toiebris. Seneca
as well as Vergil knew how to deal with Cerberus. Cf. his
De Const, Sap. 14, tamquam [quisquam'] canefn acrem
obiecto cibo leniet.

Before cum plausu many of the editions, following the
edit, prin., which has venit, ecce extemplo, give venit et
ecce extejnplo, but the additional words are not in the best


cvp'^Ka^cv o-v-yxo-'P^H-^v : This is the MS. reading as re-
stored by Nic. Faber. BUcheler changed to avyxoitpofxevy in
the exact form of the ritualistic acclamation of Osiris in the
annual celebration of his return, the Egyptian phallus festival
which came in November. I have preferred to keep the
subjunctive of the codices., thinking this free adaptation of the
formula in itself quite as fitting and likely as the exact recita-
tion of it which BUcheler seems to assume was Seneca's
intention. If any such copyist's blunder is to be supposed as
he implies, the reverse one would have been easier to under-
stand, i.e. from an original subjunctive of the author's, back
to the common formula.


Athenagoras (^Legatio pro Christianis^ c. 19) says, describ-
ing the religion of the Egyptians, [They call] Tr]v [xkv tov
(TLTOV (TTropav "OcTLpLV' oOtv <f>a(Ti^ /xvcTTtKcas, CTTt Trj oLvevpecreL
TOJv fxeXiov ^ rCiv Kapiriov iTnXexOrjvaL Trj *I(rt8t tvprjKafxtv
o-vyxatpo/xev. Similarly lulius Firmicus.Maternus V.C. in his
De Err ore Profanarum Religionum (C. 2 aquae cultum
aptid Aegyptios reftitat) gives an account of the Osiris myth
and quotes tvp-qKafxev (Tvyxo-Lpofxevy with a Christian exhorta-
tion. Compare also allusions in Herod, iii. 27 ; Lactant.
lib i. de Falsa Relig, 21 ; Minuc. Fel. Octav. 22 ; Rutilius
Claudius Namatianus, De Reditu suo Itinerarium^ i. 375, 6.
It is to the same cry that Juvenal refers in (viii. 29) :

Exclamare libet, populus quod clamat Osiri

which is commonly understood to indicate the rejoicing when
a new Apis, as an incarnation of Osiris, was found to replace
an old one dead. Cf. Pliny, N,H. viii. 46, 184.

How far Seneca intended the implication to be carried,
from his borrowing a cry of joy over the discovery of a bull
for the welcome of Claudius in Hades, may be left to conjec-
ture. One must not try to make even an Apis metaphor go
on all fours. Recall the curious comment upon the Osiris
ritual quoted by St. Augustine {De Civ. Dei, vi. 10) from
Seneca^s lost book, de Superstitione (Introd. p. 44).

To this welcome by the injured souls in Hades has been
compared the passage in Shakespeare's Richard III., i. 4,
beginning " Clarence is come," etc.

C. Silius: (Dessau, Pros op. S. 505) luventutis Romanae
pulcherrimus (Tac. Ann. xi. 12). As consul designatus 47
A.D. he had taken the lead in the senatorial request for the
enforcement of the Lex Cincia, which Claudius saw fit to abro-
gate (Tac. Ann. xi. 5-6). But he is chiefly noted as the
paramour of Messalina, for whom he put away his own wife,
lunia Silana, and by whose favor he was made consul desig-
natus. For the account of Messalina's bigamous marriage

c. 13.] NOTES 233

with him, 48 a.d., see Tac. Ann. xi. 26-35 7 ^iii* ^9 \ Suet.
CL 26, 29, 36; Dio, Ix. 31; Zon. xi. 10. Cf. the evident
allusion in Juv. x. 330 :

elige^ quidnam

Suadendum esse potes, cut nubere Caesaris uxor


The name of C. Silius is omitted in the edit, firin.

luncus praetorius : corrected by Sonntag from the tradi-
tional reading, Junius Praetorius {edit, prin., etc.)» by com-
parison with Tac. Ann. xi. 35, where he is named luncus
Vergiliamis senator.

Sex. Traulus : Traulus Montanus, eques Romanus, ruined
by Messalina (Tac. Ann. xi. 36).

M. Helvius : otherwise unknown.

Trogus: Saufeius Trogus (Tac. Ann. xi. 35).

Cotta : otherwise unknown.

Vettius Valens: {Prosop. V. 343) He was a physician as
well as eques ; cf. Scrib. Larg. 94 ; Pliny, A^.//. xxix. 8 :
novam instituit sectam. He was among the lovers of Messa-
lina (Tac. Ann. xi. 30; Pliny, JV.//. xxix. i (8), 20), and
it was he who at the nuptials of Silius climbed the tree and
saw the tempestatem ab Ostia atroce?n (Tac. Ann. xi. 31, 35).

Fabius : otherwise unknown.

Mnester pantomimus : {Prosop. M. 462) From C.I.L. VI.
20,139, which is probably his sepulchral inscription, we infer
that he was a freedman of Tiberius : Ti, lulio \ Aug. I. \
Mnesteri. He was a favorite with Caligula (Suet. Cal. 36,
55, 57; Dio, Ix. 22). Messalina obtained his compliance
by getting Claudius to command him to do whatever she
required of him (Dio, ibid. ; Zon. xi. 9; cf. Dio, Ix. 28).
On his death, cf. Tac. Ann. xi. 36, and Dio, Ix. 31.

decoris causa: Cf. Tac. Ann. xi. 36: pronum ad miseri-
cordiajn Caesarem perpidere liberti, ne tot inlustribtis viris
interfectis histrioni co7isideretur.

minorem fecerat : i.e. in Procrustean fashion.


Biicheler says {edit. min.)^post ^feceraf* nonnulla videntur
intercidisse. Considering the rapid style of the enumeration
this hardly seems necessary to suppose ; many of the edi-
tions, however, have inserted nee non. The edit. prin. has :
fecerat. Nee non Messalinam, without ad. The present
arrangement is better than that in BUcheler's earlier edition,
which connected ad Messalinain with minorefn fecerat^ or
than the common way of making ad Messalinam depend on
percrebruity which forces an unusual meaning from this
latter word.

ad Messalinam: She was the natural centre for the fore-
going group. As to the liberti^ we do not know so well. Cf.
Zon. xi. 10 (as Dio, Ix. 31) : ecos ykv yap ol Katcrapctot


ovv iwel Be tov HoXv/Slov, KacroL KaKCLvta TrXrjcna^ovcra, SU-
fiaXe Kol GLTreKTeLvevy ovkIt avrrj eTrto-rcuov, koI lprjfX(siOei(Ta
TTj^ Trap avrCjv evvotas i<l>Odprj. The occasion of the deaths of
the four other liberti here mentioned is not known. Biicheler
suggests possibly the conspiracy of Asinius Gallus, 46 a.d.
(Suet. CI. 13; Dio, Ix. 27).

Polybius: Claudii libertus {Prosop. P. 427). Cf. Zonaras
and Dio, above. It was he to whom Seneca had addressed
the doubtless regretted Consolatio ad Polybium, from Corsica.
Cf. Suet. CI. 28 : ac super hos [libertos suspexit'] Polybiuin a
studiis, qui saepe inter duos consides ambulabat ; cf. Aurel.
Vict. Epit. iv. 8 : Polybium inter consules mediutn ificedere
fecit. He was apparently also a libellis. (Cf. Consol. ad
Polyb. vi. 5 : audienda sunt \tibi'\ tot hominum milia, tot dispo-
nendi libelli.) On his power and witty impudence, cf. Dio,
Ix. 29.

Myron : otherwise unknown.

Harpocras : Cf. Suet. CI. 28 : libertorum praecipue suspeocit
, . . et Harpocran^ cui lectica per urbem veheftdi spectacii-
laque public e edendi ius tribuit. He was probably the same
as mentioned in C.I.L. VI. 9016: Arpocras Aug. lib. procu-
rator, etc.

c. 13.] NOTES 235

Amphaeus, Pheronactus : persons unidentified. The sec-
ond name is Bucheler's reading for various forms in the
MSS. : pheronaotus (St. G.), pheronatlus^ pheronatius.

In the edit. prin. three more are mentioned, and the pas-
sage reads: liberti Myron, A7npyronas, A?npaeuSj Phero-
nas, Posides hasta pura insignis, Felix aim Pallaftte fratre,
Harpocras, Poly bins qtios omnes Claudius quaestoriis praeto-
riisque muneribus ubi impertitus esset, praemiserat. The
addition, Posides . . . fratre, not only lacks ms. authority,
but Pallas at least was still living (Tac. Ann. xiii. 2 ; xiv.
65), and in favor with Agrippina. The three names are all
found in Suet. CI. 28, and the interpolator evidently was un-
willing that such well-known types should be left out of the
satire. Cf. Pliny, Ep. viii. 6, on Pallas.

necubi imparatus esset: Cf. c. 3,yf«.

lustus Catonius : He had been primi ordinis centurio in the
Pannonian army under Tiberius, 14 a.d. (Tac. Ann. i. 29),
and praefectiis praetor io in 43. Cf. Dio, Ix. 18 : Karoivtov
'lovcrrov, tov tc Sopv<t}opLKov ap^ovra. koI STj\Ct)(raL tl avT(a
[i.e. to Claudius] Trept tovtidv [i.e. her vices] iOeXiijaavTa,
7rpoSu<l>0eLp€ [Messalina] . He knew too much.

Rufrius Pollio : In the St. G. MS. this is rqfii/s (corrected
to rtifiiis) pomfiliiis, and it is given by many editors, Rufus
Pojnpeii f{ilius) . Cf . Dio, Ix. 23 : *Fov<t>pLQ) 8c Stj II(dXlo)vl
TO) lirapxiD uKOva kcll eSpav iv to) ISovXcvtlkw, ocraKt? av €s to
avviSpLov auTo) crweaLrj. This was 44 A.D. It was Reimar's
conjecture (Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgesch, p. 220) to Dio, that
this is the same man mentioned in the Apocolocyntosis . He
had been made a prefect by Claudius in the year 41. Dessau
{Prosop. R. 123) cites also Joseph. Antiq. lud. xix. 4, 5 :
. . . KttT* CTTwrroXas ncoA.6a)vo5 ov fxiKpS irporepov KAavSto?
(TTpaTtjyov rjprjTO Toiv (ToyfxaTOfjyvXoLKijJV.

amici : These personal associates of the emperor, taken
from among the senators, the comites peregrinationum ex-
peditionumqney who came in time to have a definite official
station, still occupied a relation to the emperor's office some-


what ill-defined. Under Augustus it was entirely so. See
Suet. Aug. 56, 66 (and in ed. Ernest. Excursus xv). Cf.
Tac. Ann. iii. 13 ; Suet. Ner. 5 ; id. Galba^ 7, where
Galba is mentioned as receptus in cohortem amicorum
[Claudit] . See also Friedlander, Sittengesch. Roms, I- ^33 •^^^•
(6th ed.).

Saturninus Lusius: Tac, Ann. xiii. 43, mentions Lusius
Saturninus among the alleged victims of P. Suillius under the
Claudian regime. Cf. C.I.L. III. 2028 (an inscription found
at Salonae), vv. 8 and 9 : Q- EVTETIO | LVslO- SATVrNlNO.
M. SEIO. VERANO. COS. Their precise date is unknown.

Pedo Pompeius : Cf. c. 14. Otherwise unknown, unless
the Pompeius Urbicus mentioned in Tac. Ann. xi. 35, is the

Lupus: Cornelius Lupus {Prosop. C. 1145), also mentioned
in Tac. Ann. xiii. 43, as one of those ruined by the intrigues
of Suillius. Under Tiberius he was proconsul of Crete, as
shown on Cretan coins, k-m. 'Kop^vrjXtov) Av(Trov). Cf.
Eckhel, Doct. Vet. Num. I. ii. p. 302. He was consul
suffectus 42 A. D. Cf. Gaius, iii. 63 : Lupo et Largo con-

Celer Asinius: Sex. Asinius Celer {Prosop. A. 1012) is
mentioned by Frontinus (de Aquis, ii. 102) as consul a.d. 38 ;
he was cons, suffectus. He is mentioned by Pliny, N.H. ix.
17, 67, for the extravagant price he paid for a mullet. (Cf.
Macrob. Sat. iii. 16, 9.) As brother of Asinius Callus, he may
have been ruined by some participation in his conspiracy.

fratris filia: Julia, daughter of Germanicus; cf. c. 10.

sororis filia: Julia, the daughter of Livia by Drusus; cf.
c. 10.

generi: L. Silanus and Pompeius Magnus ; cf. cc. 8, 10, 11.

soceri : Appius Silanus and Crassus Frugi, who was strictly
consocer oi Cl^MdSMS, '., cf. c. 11.

socrus : This similarly refers both to Claudius's real mother-
in-law, Domitia Lepida, Messalina's mother, who was removed
by the jealousy of Agrippina (Tac. Ann. xii. 64; cf. id. xi.

c. 14.] NOTES 237

37), and his consocrus, Scribonia, mother of his son-in-law
Magnus ; cf. c. 11.

agmine facto ; a phrase with somewhat the aspect of our
"lining up." Seneca uses the same in Ep. 104, 19, but in a
more similar ironic manner is iam ebriae mulieres longum
agmen plaudentes fecerant (Petron. 26).

irdvTa <)>CX,a)v TrX-fipT] : Claudius does not recall that anything
has come between them. Some of the editors have seen in
these words a reminiscence of the saying of Heraclitus, Travra
^caiv irXrjpr). Cf. Diogenes Laertius, ix. i, 6, where Heraclitus
is quoted thus : koL Travra ij/vx^v etvai kol SaL/xoviDv TrXrjpyj.
But in Seneca's time the source of the quotation was perhaps
not so far to seek.

quomodo hue venistis vos ? On Claudius's oblivio, see note
on ties do ^ inqnis^ c. 11.

in ius : as we say, " to justice."

sellas : curule chairs of the magistrates, especially the prae-
tors ; here referring particularly to the judgment-seats, as we
speak of " the bench."

14. ad tribunal Aeaci: Quam paene uidicantem vidimus
Aeacum! (Hor. Carm. ii. 13, 22). Guasco recalls how Plato
{Gorgias^ 5 24 A) specifies that Aeacus was judge of the Euro-
peans who came to Hades, while Rhadamanthus attended to
the Asiatics. Seneca at least conforms to tradition in bringing
Claudius before the former. The third judge was Minos; cf.
Verg. Aen, vi. 432, quaesitor Minos, Cf. Propert. Eleg.
iv. II:

Aut si quis posita index sedet Aeacus urna

In mea sortita iudicet ossa pila,
Assideant fraires, e.q.s.

The comic interest of the situation is evidently the close parody
in Hades upon the usual Roman legal procedure before a prae-
tor, and the citing of a well-known Roman enactment as the
basis of proceedings in the world below.

lege Cornelia . . . de sic-»ri's : a law of the Dictator Sulla,


enacted A.u.c. 671, de sicariis et veneficis . Cf. Inst. iv. 18, 5 :
Lex Cornelia de sicariis^ quae homicidas ultore ferro persequi-
tur^ vel eos qui hominis occidendi causa cum telo ambulant.
. . . eadetn lege et veiiefici capiti da77tnantur qui artibus
odiosis tarn venenis, vel susurris 7nagicis homines occiderunt^
etc. Cf. Cic. Cluent. 54, 55, 57; Dig. xlviii. %^ passim.

postulat, nomen eius recipiat : This is the reading of the St.
G. and Val. MSS. Many of the editions have recipi', the edit,
prin., recipit., aedit^ etc. It is the request by the accuser that
the magistrate take up the case, [///] nomen recipiat. See
Bouch^-Leclerc, Institutions Ro^naijtes, s.v. subscriptor.

subscriptionem : the formal written accusation, to which the
accuser was required to place his signature, subscription accord-
ing to Dig. xlviii. 2, 7 : Si cui crimen obiciatur praecedere
debet in crimen subscription quae res ad id invent a est, ne facile
quis prosiliat ad accusationeT^t, cum sciat inultam sibi non
futurajn. Here the stibscriptio stands for the whole docu-
ment. Cf. Sen. de Belief, iii. 26, 2 : qumn . . . subscrip-
tionem co7nponeret. Pedo Pompeius is here the one cui . . .
accusatio subscriptiove in reu7n per77iittatur (Cell. ii. 4, i).

occisos senatores XXXV, equites R. CCXXI, ceteros 6<ra, etc. :
The reading of the St. G. <:^^(?:r (according to Biicheler ; for a
different account, see Schenkl and others) is senatores XXX
equites r. V. caeteros CCXXI ocra, etc. That of the cod. Val.
is similar. The edit. prin. reads : Seftatores XXX Eq. Ro.
CCCXV. at que plures : caeteros CCXXI, the Greek being
omitted. Similarly Ruhkopf and Schusler : seftatores XXX
Equites Ro7n. CCCXV at que plures: ceteros cives ocra,
etc., cives being a conjecture of Sonntag for the apparently
redundant CCXXI. Haase's text, apparently from a misread-
ing of the St. G. MS., has senatores XXX equites R. CC.
ceteros CCXXI "^ ocra, etc., and Fickert's the same without
the asterisk. Suet. CI. 29, says : In qui7ique et trigi7ita se7ta-
tores trecentosque a77iplius equites Ro77ianos ta7ita facilitate
ani7nadvertity ut^ etc. Bucheler's reading is based upon the
assumption — which in part, at least, is a conjecture of Rhe-

c. 14.] NOTES 239

nanus — that, in copying, the numbers in the manuscript be-
came displaced, so that V is to be pushed back with XXX^
and CCXXI with eqidtes R.j leaving very reasonably the su-
perlative oo-a, etc., with ceteros.

Besides the ten out of the thirty-five senators who are men-
tioned in the Apocolocyntosis, L. Silanus, Crassus, Magnus,
Appius Silanus, Silius, luncus, Saturninus Lusius, Pedo Pom-
peius. Lupus, and Celer Asinius, Biicheler gathered the following
names : Camillus Scribonianus (Tac. Hist. ii. 75), Annius Vini-
cianus (Dio, Ix. 15), Q. Pomponius (Tac. Ann. xiii. 43), Cae-
cina Paetus (Pliny, Ep. iii. 16), Statilius Corvinus (Suet. CI.
13), Valerius Asiaticus (Tac. A7in. xi. 3 ; cf. ibid. xiii. 43),
Statilius Taurus (Tac. Ann. xii. 59), M. Vinicius (Dio, Ix.
27), and Scribonianus, the son of Camillus (Tac. Ann. xii.


Tac, Ann. xiii. 43, speaks of the equitum Rofnanorum

agmina damnata under Claudius.

So-a \|/d}ia66s t€ K6vts tc : These words form the end of //. ix.
385. In the edit, prin.^ before advocatum come the words,
Exterritus Claudius oculos undecutnque circumfert, vestigat
aliquem patronum qui se defenderet, which are lacking in the
Mss., and apparently were interpolated to effect a natural
change of subject to Claudius before invenit. Ruhkopf and
Schusler retain them, and Fickert and Haase within brackets.
Gertz, however, suggests ille before advocatum^ as more easily
dropped after kov 1% tc.

P. Petronius: (Dessau, Prosop. P. 198) Consul Suffectus
A.D. 19, and later proconsul of Asia. The fact that he had
flourished twenty and thirty years before (cf. Tac. Ann. iii.
49 and iv. 45) explains the vetus,

vetus convictor : In the glosses, (Tvvea-TuiTwpy etc. Cf. c 3,
/lis . . . convict or ibus.

Claudiana lingua disertus : Cf. c. 5, non intellegere se linguam
eius, etc. See Introd. p. 6.

postulat advocationem : P. Petronius demands perhaps the
advocacy of Claudius's case ; but probably advocatio here is


to be taken in the special sense of the postponement or stay
of proceedings often asked for in order that the accused might
consult his advocatus, and prepare his case for the court. Cf.
Cicero's jocose remark {Ep. ad. Fam. vii. 11. i), ego omni-
bi^s, unde petitur, hoc consilii dederim, ut a singulis interre-
gibus binas advocationes postulent. Satisne tibi videor abs te
ius civile didicisse? Seneca frequently uses the word in
nearly the general sense of dilatio. Cf. De Ira^ i. 18. i ; iii.
12. 4; Ad Marciarn de Console x. 4; Nat. Quaesf. wii. 10. i.

incipit . . . velle respondere : See Introd. p. 69. Cf. Petron.
9: coepit mihi velle pudorem extorquere; ibid. 70, coeperat
Fortunata velle saltare ; ibid. 98, incipe velle servare.

altera tantum parte audita : Cf.c. 12, una . . . audita, 2ind
c. 10, fin.

atK€ irdOoi rd t' epejc, SCkt] k* I0€ta *y^voito : an expression of
rudimentary justice ascribed to various sources. Leutsch
{Paroemiographi Graeci, Gottingen, 1839) gives it in his
Appendix Proverbiorum, 112, p. 396, thus: et /ce iroBoi^ to.
y Ipe^e, hiK-q 8* lOeia yei/oiTo, and an account of its sources.
Aristotle {Eth. Nic. v. 5. 3) quotes it as to 'PaSa/xai/^vos
SiKatov, beginning, ctKc iraOoi. Michael Ephesius, in a note to
Aristotle, ascribes it to Hesiod. Julian gives it, beginning
aiK€ iraSri, {Caesares, c. 12, fin., p. 314, ed. Spanh.), and as-
cribes it to the Delphic oracle.

Cf. Dio, Ix. 16: KXavStos Se ovro) irov irpos rrjv TLfxoipiav
rrjv T€ iKeiviDv kol tyjv t(x)v olAAcdv ccr^ev, ware kol crvvOrjiJa
TOts (TTpaTLOiTais TO CTTOS TovTO (rwe;j(a)s StSoi/at, ort )(prj

^A]/8p' dirafJivvao-OaL ot€ rts irpoTepos xaXcTTT^vjy,

the verse being from the Iliad, xxiv. 369. Leutsch, Par. Gr.,
compares sententiam notissimam Aeschyl. apud Strobaeum,
Eclogg. Phys. I. 4, 24: Spd(TavTL yap tol kol iraBdv oc^et'Aerat.
Claudio magis iniquum . . . quam novum : referring not, of
course, to the proverb, the application of which could not
be called iniquum, but to the altera tantum parte audita

c. 14.] NOTES 241

de genere poenae diu disputatum : The Cornelian law is evi-
dently forgotten, the penalty which it provides, deportatio et
honor um ademptio {Digest, xlviii. 8. 5), being naturally ill-
adapted to execution under present circumstances.

erant qui dicerent, si nimium diu laturam fecissent, Tanta-
lum siti periturum, nisi illi succurreretur : The St. G. ms.
reads, sium diu laturam fecissent^ etc. Cod. Val. : si uni
dii laturairi fecissefit. Bucheler's reading is, era7it qui dice-
refit^ Sisyphum satis diu latura?n fecisse, Ta7ittilurn siti, etc.,
which he explains in Rh. Mus. 13, p. ^%oseq. The edit, prin.
gives : si mimes dii latura fecissent Tantalum . . . siiccurre-
retur. Non unquam Sisyphum onere relevari, Aliquando
IxioniSy etc.

The clause, non unquam Sisyphiun onere relevari^ though
repeated by the editors generally, and even thought genuine
by Orelli, who noted its absence from the St. G. ms., is not

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Online LibraryLucius Annaeus SenecaThe satire of Seneca on the Apotheosis of Claudius commonly called the Apocolocyntosis; → online text (page 16 of 18)