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nearly a fiend than he who habitually overhauls the
register of deeds in search of defects in titles, whereon
to stir up strife, and put money in his pocket? A
moral tone ought to be infused into the profession
which should drive such men out of it.

The matter of fees is important, far beyond the
mere question of bread and butter involved. Prop-
erly attended to, fuller justice is done to both lawyer
and client. An exorbitant fee should never be claimed.
As a general rule, never take your whole fee in ad-
vance, «ior any more than a small retainer. When
fully paid beforehand, you are more than a common

332 Appendix

mortal if you can feel the same interest in the case
as if something was still in prospect for you. as well
as for your client. And when you lack interest in the
case the job will very likely lack skill and diligence in
the performance. Settle the amount of fee and take
a note in advance. Then you will feel that you are
working for something, and you are sure to do your
work faithfully and well. Never sell a fee-note — at
least not before the consideration service is performed.
It leads to negligence and dishonesty — negligence by
losing interest in the case, and dishonesty in refusing
to refund when you have allowed the consideration
to fail.

There is a vague popular belief that lawyers are
necessarily dishonest. I say vague, because when we
consider to what extent confidence and honours are
reposed in and conferred u])on lawyers by the people,
it appears improbable that their impression of dis-
honesty is very distinct and vivid. Yet the impression
is common, almost universal. Let no young man
choosing the law for a calling for a moment yield to
the popular belief. Resolve to be honest at all events ;
and if in your own judgment you cannot be an honest
lawyer, resolve to be honest without being a lawyer.
Choose some other occupation, rather than one in the
choosing of which you do. in advance, consent to be
a knave.

A Fragment on Free and Slave Labor.
Written about July i, 1854

Three years after this fragment was written. Helper's book,
which was used as a campaign document by the Republicans
in the Presidential contest of i860, was published. It showed
that poor white labor in the South was greatly handicapped
by the existence of slave labor. In these few sentences. Lin-
coln distills the economic philosophy of a prosperous laboring
class for anj' age.

Equality in society alike beats inequality, whether
the latter be of the British aristocratic sort or of the
domestic slavery sort.

Miscellanies 333

We know Southern men declare that their slaves
are better off than hired labourers amongst us. How
little they know whereof they speak ! There is no per-
manent class of hired labourers amongst us. Twenty-
five years ago I was a hired labourer. The hired
labourer of yesterday labours on his own account to-
day, and will hire others to labour for him to-morrow.

Advancement — improvement in condition — is the
order of things in a society of equals. As labour is
the common burden of our race, so the effort of some
to shift their share of the burden on to the shoulders
of others is the great durable curse of the race. Origi-
nally a curse for transgression upon the whole race,
when, as by slavery, it is concentrated on a part only,
it becomes the double-refined curse of God upon his

Free labour has the inspiration of hope ; pure slavery
has no hope. The power of hope upon human exertion
and happiness is wonderful. The slave-master him-
self has a conception of it, and hence the system of
tasks among slaves. The slave whom you cannot drive
with the lash to break seventy-five pounds of hemp in
a day, if you will task him to break a hundred, and
promise him pay for all he does over, he will break
you a hundred and fifty. You have substituted hope
for the rod.

And yet perhaps it does not occur to you that, to
the extent of your gain in the case, you have given up
the slave system and adopted the free system of labour.


The literature on Abraham Lincohi is vohmiinous.
Only those books regarded as most important for the
purposes of this study of his contribution to English
prose can be mentioned. Foremost of all is ''Abraham
Lincoln : A History," by John G. Nicolay and John Hay,
the President's private secretaries, and "The Complete
Works of Abraham Lincoln," compiled by the same
authors and published by The Century Company, 1894.
Mention should be made also of the Gettysburg edition
of the "Complete Works," published by the Francis D.
Tandy Co., 1895. The "Works of Abraham Lincoln"
(in eight volumes) is published by G. P. Putnam's
Sons. The Lincoln- Douglas Debates are to be found
in a well edited edition by E. E. Sparks, published by
the Illinois State Historical Society, 1908; a valuable
edition of the Debates with an introduction by George
Haven Putnam is published by Putnam's (1912).

Of the numerous biographial studies of Lincoln, the
"Short Life of Abraham Lincoln," by John G. Nicolay
is among the best ( The Century Company). The latest
edition of the two-volume Life by Ida jNI. Tarbell (The
Macmillan Company, 1917), contains new material com-
piled by the author for the first edition and a prefatory
study of new Lincoln material which has come to light
since that edition was published in 1900. Other good
lives of Lincoln are by Noah Brooks (Putnam's, 1894) ;
by Francis F. Browne (Putnam's, 1913). and the very
brief life by Brand Whitlock (Small, Maynard & Co.,
1908). There are many others. The best considered
study of Lincoln by a foreigner is "Abraham Lincoln."
by Lord Charnwood, in the "Makers of the Nineteenth


336 Appendix

Century" series (Henry Holt & Co., 1916). The Life
by Herndon and Weik (D. Appleton & Co., 1888) is
still useful; also the Life by Isaac N. Arnold (A. C.
McClurg&Co., 1885).

Special studies of importance, among many others,
are : "Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln by Distin-
guished Men of His Time," edited by Allan Thorndyke
Rice (New York, 1886) ; "Six Months at the White
House with Abraham Lincoln," by Francis B. Car-
penter — an indispensable source book (New York,
1866) ; "Life on the Circuit with Lincoln," by Henry
C. Whitney (Boston, 1892) ; "Lincoln, the Lawyer,"
by Frederick T. Hill (The Century Co., 1906) ; "Abra-
ham Lincoln, the Lawyer-Statesman." by John T. Rich-
ards (Houghton Mifflin Co., 1916) ; "Personal Recol-
lections of Abraham Lincoln," by Henry B. Rankin
(Putnam's. 1916). Other references are to be found
in the text of the present volume.

Many valuable essays have been written on Lincoln
and his style of expression. Special mention should be
made of "Lincoln, the Leader," by Richard Watson
Gilder (Houghton Mifflin Co.) and the notable esti-
mates by Emerson, Lowell, Schurz, and Choate.

For the history of the period in which Lincoln's life
fell, no more illuminating and authoritative account can
be found than that given in James Ford Rhodes's "His-
tory of the United States," 1850- 1877 (The Macmillan
Co.), and in the same author's "History of the Civil
war" (1917).



The four pictures in this vokime, as far as the author
is aware, receive here their initial pubhcation in a
vokime on Lincohi.

The frontispiece is reproduced from an etching by
Joseph Pierre Nuyttens, the Belgian-American painter
and etcher. Mr. Nuyttens has portrayed with remark-
able fidelity the spiritual appearance of Lincoln as he
matured under the weight of his great responsibility.

The photograph of the O'Connor statue ( facing page
64) was furnished for this volume by the Illinois Cen-
tennial Commission. This statue, which stands in front
of the Capitol at Springfield, Illinois, was unveiled
October 6, 191 8. Lord Charnwood of England made
the dedicatory address.

The Bartlett picture (facing page 192) is from a
])hotograph of a bronze statuette of the President, made
by Truman A. Bartlett and exhibited by him in Paris
in 1877.

The "Masters Portrait" (facing page 128) is believed
to be one of the best of Lincoln taken before the debates
with Douglas. This portrait has an interesting history,
which is told in the following words by The Masters
Studio of Princeton, Illinois :

"On July Fourth, 1856, Princeton celebrated Inde-
pendence Day in spread eagle style. Mr. Lincoln, of
Springfield, Mr. Knox, of Rock Island, Owen Lovejoy
and George W. Stipp, of Princeton, were the speakers
of the day.

"Mr. Lincoln was entertained by Dr. S. A. Paddock.
After dinner Mrs. Paddock asked Mr. Lincoln to sit
for a picture for her. To this he consented, and they
visited the studio of \\'. H. Masters, where this char-


338 Note on Illustrations

actcristic portrait was made. Mr. Lincoln inquired
if his hair was all right and sat for the picture with-
out further preparation, except to run his fingers
through his hair, with the result shown in the portrait.

"About 1872 Mrs. Paddock loaned the original pic-
ture to C. H. Masters, who had a large portrait made
from. it. Before her death Mrs. Paddock gave the
original picture to Robert Lincoln.

"Mr. S. G. Paddock, a brother of Dr. Paddock, who
is now living in Princeton and was on the Committee
on Grounds at the time, says this statement is correct,
according to his recollection."



(References are to pages)

"Adam and Eve's Wedding Song."

See Lincoln's Verse, 3Z2 ff.
Agassiz, Lincoln's conversation

with, 73
Allen, Colonel Robert, Lincoln's

letter to, 19, 176
text of letter, 29U f.
Alton, Lincoln's speech at, 61
Army and Navy, Lincoln on, 179,

Ashmun, George, Lincoln's letter

to, US f.
Autobiography, Franklin's, 38
Joseph Jefferson's, 40

Ballots versus bullets, 153 f.
Bancroft, George, on Lincoln. 211
Bateman, Newton, 35, 118. 194
Bates, Edward, on Lincoln, 207
Bible, Lincoln and the, 195
Biography, Lincoln's reading and

estimate of, 38 f.
Bixby, Mrs., Lincoln's letter to,
text of letter, 321
Black Hawk War, 219
Bozarth, William H. See Lin-
coln's \'erse, 322 t'f.
Brainard, Cephas. See Nott.
Brockman, J. M., Lincoln's letter
to, 41 (note)
text of letter, 303
Brooks, Noah, 73. 161 f.

on Lincoln's reading, 205
Brown, John, raid, Lincoln's ex-
planation of, 101 f., 247 fi.
Browning, Mrs. O. H., Lincoln's
letter to, 24
text of letter, 291 fif.
Browning, Robert, Lincoln's

knowledge of, 2()6
Bryant, William Cullen, 97, 98
Lincoln.'s letter to, 117
on Cooper Institute address, 104
Buchanan, James, 91, 95, 120
Bullitt, Cuthbert, Lincoln's letter
to, 196
text of letter, 307 f.
Bunn, John W., 192
Burke, Edmund, 38, 43
compared with Lincoln, 8
John Morley on, 7

Capital and labor, Lincoln's views
on, 80, 274, .U2 f.

Carpenter, F. B., 109, 198 ft.

Century Magazine, quoted, 326

Chambrun, Marquis de, on Lin-
coln, 21 )V

Chancellorsville, Hooker's defeat
at and effect on Lincoln, 162

Charnwood, Lord, on Lincoln's
oratorical method, 70

Chase, S. P., 93 f., 121, 141

Chicago Religious Committee,
Lincoln's reply to, 157

Choate, Joseph H., on Lincoln, 98

Cincinnati, Lincoln's campaign
speech at, 80 ff., 93 (note)
Lincoln's speech as President-
elect at, 131

Civil War, effects on literature, 95
Lincoln on, 197

Clay, Henry, 141

Lincoln's eulogy on, 32

Cleveland, Lincoln's speech at,

Lincoln's speech
Lincoln's election


77 f.

32 1.

Lincoln's speeches in, 32
Conkling, J. C, Lincoln's letters

to, 166, 313-318
Constitution, Lincoln on framers
of, 66, 99, 234
and slavery, 250
and the I'nion, 142
Cooper Institute Address, 97 ff.
effect of, 104
text of address, 233-255
Criticism, Lincoln's talent for,

28 ff., 198
Crittendon Compromise, Lincoln's
attitude toward, 121

Davis, Jefferson, 91

Debates, the Lincoln-Douglas,

59 ff.
the earliest, 26
the real issue of, 67
epilogue to, 72
Declaration of Independence, Lin-
coln on, 46, 56 1., 66
Democracy, Lincoln's views of,
45 f., 67 f., 89, 152 ff., 180




Dickey, Judge, on Lincoln, 50
Discoveries and Inventions, Lin-
coln's lecture on, 12 ff.
Douglas, Stephen A., compared
with Lincoln, 58 f.
his view of slavery, 65, 94
Dred Scott decision, 63

Lincoln on, 56, 76, 101, 224 ff.

Earle, John, on Lincoln's letter to

Conkling, 167
Education, Lincoln's. See Abra-
ham Lincoln.
Ellsworth, Colonel E. E., 148
Lincoln's letter to parents of,

303 f.
Emeuicipation, Lincoln's attitude

toward, 155 ff., 315 f.
Emancipation Proclamation, 158,

167, 308 (note)
text of proclamation, 275 ff.
Emerton, E., quoted on Erasmus'

method of education, 41
England and America, Lincoln

on, 308 ff.
English Prayer Book, 151
Everett, Edward, oration at

Gettysburg, 171 f.

Farewell Address, Springfield, 129

text of address, 256
Fast Day Proclamation, Lincoln's,

First Inaugural Address, 141

text of address, 258-269
"Fooling the people," Lincoln on,

177 (note)

Galloway, Samuel, Lincoln's let-
ter to, 114
Gettysburg Address, 173, 176 f.,
209 f.
text of address, 278 f.
Gilder, Richard Watson, on Lin-
coln's style, 173
on Lincoln's letter to Mrs. Bix-
by, 184
Government, Lincoln's theory of,

51, 138, 142, 143
Grant, General U. S., 163
Lincoln's letter to, 312 f.
Greeley, Horace, on Cooper Insti-
tute address, 104
Lincoln's letter to, 155
text of letter, 304 ff.
Green, General Duff, 125
Gulliver, Rev. J. P., account of
conversation with Lincoln,
109 ff.

Hackett, the actor, Lincoln's let-
ter to, 204
Harlan, Hon. James, on Lincoln,

Hay, John, 183, 207

Helper's The Impending Crisis. 85

(note), 250, 332
Henry, A. E., Lincoln's letter to,

Herndon, William H., 35, 141
Lincoln's law partnership with,

35, 39
Lincoln's letters to, 27 f., 34

text of letters, 294 ff.
on Lincoln as lecturer, 73
on Lincoln's literary tastes, 22

(note), 38
on Lincoln's religion, 191
Hodges, Albert G., Lincoln's let-
ter to, 196
text of letter, 318 ff.
Hooker, General Joseph, 160 flf.,
Lincoln's letter to, 160
text of letter, 311 f.
speech, 61 f.
text of speech, 223-233

Inaugurcd, First, Address, 141

text of address, 258-269
Inaugural, Second, Address, 188

text of address, 280-282
Independence Hall speech, 138

text of speech, 257 f.
Indianapolis, Lincoln's speech at,

Jackson, Andrew, 120, 141
Jefferson, Joseph, on Lincoln, 40
Jefferson, Thomas, Lincoln on,

88 f., 101
on slavery, 80, 249
Johnson, Lincoln sends verses to,

Johnston, John D., Lincoln's let-
ters to, on thrift, 28, 176
text of letters, 296 flf.
Judd, Norman B., 96

Kansas, Lincoln's speeches in, 94
Kansas-Nebraska act, Lincoln on,

59, 63, 222 ff.
Kant, Immanuel, quoted, 47

Labor: slave and free

Lincoln-Douglas controversy

over, 85
Lincoln's theory of, 86 f., 332 f.
Last Public Speech, Lincoln's, 209

text of speech, 282-288
Law, Lincoln's notes for lecture

on, 28, 330 flf.
enforcement, Lincoln's views

on, 23 f.
students, Lincoln's advice to.

See letter to J. M. Brockman,





Lincoln, Abraham

address to voters of Sangamon
covjnty, 16

text of address, 219-222
as a man of letters, 16, 212
as lecturer, 72 ff.
candidacy for the legislature, 18

text of platform, 289 f.
candidacy for the presidency,

92 f., 114 f.
character of, 128
education, early views on, 220 f.
education of, 16, 18 fif., 22, 39, 49,

his analytical and reasoning

powers, 27, 83, 167
his talent for expression, 83
his pioneerism, 17 f., 211, 279
his preparation for the presi-
dency, 119, 120, 138, 146, 154,
labor and capital, views on, 86,

274, .332 f.
literary allusiveness of his

speeches, 25, 48 f., 54 f., 76
literary style of, 17, 24 f., 60, 78,
90, 111, 128, 139, 151, 167 f., 172 f.,
177 f., 182, 188, 209
litigation, views on, 331
oratorical inethod of, 48, 69
race with Douglas for senator-
ship, 58
reading, his fondness for, 22
religion of, 150, 190-196
significance of his career, 15,

211 flf.
speeches en route to Washing-
ton as President-elect, 130-138
the lawyer, 35, 39
vocabulary of, 20. 105, 176
woman suffrage, views on, 18,
Logan, Judge Stephen T., Lin-
coln's law partnership with,
35, 39
"Lost Speech," Lincoln's, 53, 55
Lowell, James Russell, quoted, 98.

Man of letters, Lincoln as, 7. 212
Manchester workingmen, Lin-
coln's letter to. .i08 ff.
Markens, Isaac, (luoted. 172 (note)
McClellan, General G. B., Lin-
coln's letter to, 162
text of letter, .W6
Lincoln's estimate of. 208
McCullough, Fanny, Lincoln's
letter to. 149
text of letter-. .W8
Meade, General George, 170
Meditation, Lincoln's, on the will
of God, 150

Messages, Lincoln's, to Congress,

152. 179, 27-. ff.
Missouri Compromise, 43, 53
Morley, John, 7

Negro soldiers, Lincoln's view of,

196, 318 ff.
Negro suffrage, Lincoln's attitude

toward, 77, 282 ff.
New England, Lincoln's speeches

in, 107
New Salem, Lincoln's residence

in, 19 f.
Newspapers, Lincoln a reader of,

Nicolay, John G., 171 (note), 326,

quoted on Lincoln's congres-
sional experience, ii
Nicolay and Hay, 160, 217
Xi'ith Aincricaii Review, riuoted,

17K 181, 185
Nott, Charles C, and Cephas

Brainard, on Cooper Institute

address, 104

Oberholtzer's Abraham Lincoln,

quoted, 104
Ohio, Lincoln's speeches in, 77
Ohio, 166th Volunteers, Lincoln's

speech to, 180
Oratory, Lincoln's method of, 48,

in court, Lincoln's advice on,

Lord Charnwood on, 70
Ordinances of 1784 and 1787, 79, 100
Ottawa, Lincoln -Douglas debate

at 77 f.

Parshall, N. P., Lincoln's letter

to. 123 f.
Peoria, Lincoln's speech at, in
reply to Douglas, 42 f.
extract from si)eech. 222 f.
Perry, James Raymond, quoted,

173. 181. 1S5
Pierce, H. L., Lincoln's letter to,

Pittsburgh, Lincoln's speech at,

Poetry, Lincoln a reader of. 36,

}7. 198-206
Presidency, Lincoln's preparation
for. .See .Abraham Lincoln.
;in(l the Civil War, 140
Lincoln's first nomination for,

115 f.
Lincoln's second nomination for,

183 f., 279 f.
policy of Lincoln foreshadowed,
127, 147



Public opinion, Lincoln's view of,
51 f.

Rankin, Henry B., on Lincoln's
literary tastes, 36 f.
on Lincoln's religion, 193
Reconstruction, Lincoln's view

of, 187, 282 ff., 307
Religion, Lincoln's attitude to-
ward, ISO, 190-196
Republican party, formation of, 52
Lincoln's adherence to, 52
platform eiuoted by Lincoln, 126
Rhodes, James Ford, 336
Robertson, George, Lincoln's let-
ter to, 50
text of letter, 298-300
Rutledge, Anne, 21

Secessif>n, Lincoln's attitude to-

waru, 124, 126, 143, 147, 262 ft".
Second Inaugural Address, 188

tt ^ of address, 280-282
Serenaders, Lincoln's address to,

Seward, W. H., 92, 115, 122, 141,

his "Thoughts for the Presi-
dent," 269 fif.
Lincoln's reply to, 271 f.
Shakespeare, Lincoln's love for,

Siam, King of, Lincoln's letter to,

158 ff.
Slavery, Lincoln on, 56, 62, 77, 79,

84 f., 138, 222 ff., 233 ff., 250 ff.
Douglas' attitude toward, 65
Smith, Truman, Lincoln's letter

to, 123
"Song of Creation," by William H.

Bozarth, 322 ff.
Spectator (I^ondon'), estimate of

Lincoln's work, 9
Speed, Joshua, Lincoln's letter to,

te.xt of letter, 300-303
Squatter sovereignty, doctrine of,

76, 78, 225 ff.
Stedman, E. C, poem addressed

to Lincoln, 164 ff.

Stephens, Alexander H., 91, 121,
126 (note)
address against secession, 133 f.
estimate of Lincoln, ii
Lincoln's first impression of, 34
Lincoln's letters to, 55, 124 f.
Stuart, John T., Lincoln's law

IKirtnership with. 21, 39
Style, Lincoln's literary. See

Abraham Lincoln.
Suffrage, Lincoln's views on, 18,

Sumner, Charles, 121
Supreme Court, 101, 143

Tarbell, Ida, 53, 133, 217

Tariff, Lincoln on, 136

Temperance, Lincoln's address
on, 30 (t.

Tracy, Gilbert A., 217

Trumbull, Lyman, Lincoln's let-
ter to, 125

Union and slavery, 304 ff.

■Verse, Lincoln's, 29, 322-329
Viele, General F. L., on Lincoln's

knowledge of poetry, 206
Vocabulary, Lincoln's, 105, 176

War, art of, Lincoln's study of,

Washburne, E. B., Lincoln's let-
ter to, 124
Washington, George, quoted, 154

Lincoln's tribute to, i2
Webster, Daniel, Reply to Havne,

Weed, Thurlow, Lincoln's letters

to, 124, 190
Whig party, 52
Whitman, Walt, Leaves of Grass,

Lincoln's estimate of, 36 f.
Whitney, H. C, 73

notes on Lincoln's "Lost

Speech," 53
Wisconsin Agricultural Society,

Lincoln's address before, 86 tl.

Young Men's Lyceum, Lincoln's
speech before, 23 f.

C15 80



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