Northern Railway, now threading its way over the
Rocky Mountains from far-away Minnesota. It has
also steamship lines to Japan, to Alaska, to British Col-
umbia, and to San Francisco, besides several lines of
steamers employed in the Coast trade ; and sailing-ves-
sels load here for China, South America, New York,
and the United Kingdom. By reason of her favorable
position at the head uf deep-sea navigation, and the
A^IiYG'S HANDBOOK' OF THE T^KITED STATES.
wonderful resources of the country of which Portland
is the metropolis, her influence and importance must
continue to increase. One of the chief agents in the re-
cent development of Portland's interests is the Oregon
Vast quantities of Oregon and Washington white
wheat are handled at Portland, by the Pacific-Coast
Elevator, of which F. II. Peavey is President. This
structure has a capacity of 1,000,000 bushels, and the
40 country houses belonging tu the company hold
Astoria's busy wharv^es front on the broad Columbia
estuary for a league, and preserve the memories of the
old fur-trading days, while sheltering a considerable commerce. The business district is
built on piles, like Amsterdam ; the residence quarter rises along higher terraces of the
heights behind ; and the great forest sweeps around all its landward environs. The most
important towns in Eastern Oregon are Baker City, Pendleton and the Dalles ; the most
important in Southern Oregon are Ashland, Jacksonville and Medford, in the Rogue-River
Valley, and Roseburg, in the Umpqua Valley.
Oregon is now receiving very large accessions to her population. Capital is flowing
into the State, developing her great natural resources, and destiny points to her as one of
the great States of the American Union.
The Rail^way system includes the Oregon Railway & Navigation Line (Union Pacific)
SANTIAM RIVER : ON THE CASCADE-MOUN-
TAIN AND WILLAMETTE-VALLEY
Idaho and Wyom-
1 a n d southward
Portland: union passenger depot.
from Portland east to Huntington (404 miles), connecting there for
ing; the Oregon and California line (Southern Pacific) from Port-
into the Golden State ; and the Northern Pa-
cific line, crossing the Columbia River by ferry
at Kalama, and running down to Portland. Also
three distinct lines of the Southern Pacific,
besides the Union line, running up the entire
length of the Willamette Valley. The Union
Pacific system ramifies throughout the entire
Upper-Columbia and Snake-River region, reaching Spokane Falls and the Coeur-d'Alene
mines in Idaho.
One of the wonders of the Pacific Coast is the new Hotel Portland, opened April 7,
1890, at the metropolis of Oregon. This beautiful specimen of French-chateau architect-
ure is built in the shape of the letter H, with north and south wings 50 by 200 feet in area,
and a central wing of 50 by 100 feet, each being eight- stories high, and built of gray basaltic
rock and brick. This immense and luxurious home for travelers, with its elegant furnishing
and equipment, cost three quarters of a million dollars, and contains every possible device for
comfort and content. Its 350 rooms are heated by steam and lighted
by electricity, andprovided with the most ingenious protection against
fire. Amid the Wilton carpets and rose-silk-plush upholstery, the
carved oak buffets and silverplate, the shining mir-
rors and mahogany furniture of this modern hostelry,
one must realize that the old Northwest, with its perils
and hardships, has passed away forever. The man-
ager of the Portland is Charles E. Leland, for many
years proprietor of the Delavan, at Albany, the Clar-
endon, at Saratoga, and the Rossmore, at New Vork,
— one of the Teland family whose name is indelibly
associated with the hostelries of this generation.
- . j^r - — - -
Settled at Tinicum.
Settled in i6j3
Kounded by Swedes.
One of the Original 13 States.
Population in i860, . . . 2,006,215
1" 1870 3,^2I,95I
In 1880, 4.282,8qi
White, ..... 4,197,016
American-born, . . . 3,695,062
In 1890 (U. S. Census), . . 5,258,014
Population to the square mile, 95,2
Voting Population, . . . 1,094,284
Vote for Harrison (1888), 526,091
Vote for Cleveland (1888), 446,633
Net State I^ebt, . . . §1,788,026
Real Property, . . . S', 697,000,000
Personal Property, . $'.-164,000,000
The claim of the Dutch
to the soil of Pennsylvania
rested on the discovery of
Delaware Bay by Henry
Hudson, in 1609. Seven
years later, Cornelis Hen-
dricksen explored the Dela-
ware River as far as the
Schuylkill ; and ephemeral
colonies soon arose along the lower shores. Swedish ships
entered the Delaware in 1638, and their people founded
the first towns in Pennsylvania. The Puritan immigrants
from Connecticut, settling on the Schuylkill in 1641, were
ousted and sent home by the Swedes and Dutch. The first
permanent European settlement was made at Tinicum,
near Chester, where Lieut. -Col. Printz, of the Swedish
cavalry, and the learned Pastor Campanius founded New
Gottenburg "the metropolis of New Sweden." In his
handsome mansion of Printz Hall, Gov. Printz's daughter
Armegard was married the next year (the first wedding in
Pennsylvania). The growth of New Sweden, and its pur-
chases of land from the Indians, alarmed the Dutch of
New Netherland, and in 1655 a fleet of seven vessels, led
by Stuyvesant, swooped down on the little Scandinavian
fortresses, and made captives of all the Swedes and Finns.
A few years later, a similar operation was conducted by Sir
Robert Carr's fleet, and the Dutch colonies on the Dela-
ware surrendered to the power of England.
When the brave Admiral Sir William Penn died, the
British Government owed him ;^i6,000. In 1680, his son,
William Penn, petitioned King Charles II. to discharge
this debt by granting him a tract of land in America, north
of Maryland and west of the Delaware River ; and so, the
next year, Penn was made absolute proprietary of the new
province. In 1682 he came to his principality, and entered into friendly relations with the
chiefs of the Delawares, Mingoes and Shawnees, and before their council-fire established
the fraternal relations which preserved an unbroken peace in the Province for more than 50
Area (square miles), .
v. S. Representati\'cs
Post-ofTiccs, . .
Railroads (miles), . .
Manufactures (jearly), $704,748,045
Yearly Wages, . . $134,055,304
Farm Land (in acres), . 20,060,455
Farm-Land Values, $97^,689,410
Farm Products (yearly) $129, 760,476
Public Schools, Average
Daily Attendance, . . . 687,355
Latitude, . . . 39°43' to 42°I5' N.
Longitude, . . 74"'42' to 8o''34' W.
Temperature, . . . — 16" to 103"
Mean Temperature (Harrisburg), 54"
TEN CHIEF CITIES AND THEIR POPU-
LATIONS (CENSUS OF 1890).
Allegheny City, .... 105,287
Wilkes-Barrc, . . . 37,718
Altoona, . . ... 30,337
W'illiamspoit, . ... 27,132
A'ING'S HANDBOOK OF THE UNITED STATES.
years. The State's domain was secured from the Indians by six great purchases, begin-
ning in 1682 and ending in 1784. During the 40 years after 1683 more than 50,000 Ger-
man and Swiss settlers migrated to Pennsylvania, giving it almost the character of a
Teutonic province. vVfter the death of the wise Quaker founder, in
1 7 18, the government lay in the hands of his kinsmen, John, Rich-
ard and Thomas Penn and their heirs until 1776. The first serious
danger from without came from the French, who in 1 753-4 erected
a line of forts along the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers. In 1755 Gen.
Braddock advanced from Alexandria, Virginia, against Fort Du- ,
quesne (now Pittsburgh), with Halkett's and Dunbar's regiments xuiS^:!s2^ZI^33===i'Jjj;r
of regulars and 1,200 Virginians. After marching across the path- "^^wS^^i
less AUeghenies, and when approaching the fort, the expeditionary Philadelphia :
force was ambuscaded by 600 Frenchmen and Indians, and after PEfJN treaty monument.
three hours of carnage, in which Braddock and 62 officers and 714 soldiers were slain, the
remnant of the British army gave way. After this victory, the French and Indians ad-
vanced across the Susquehanna, and into Lancaster and Berks Counties ; and the alarmed
Pennsylvanians erected and garrisoned a chain of forts along the Kittatinny Hills, from the
Delaware to the Maryland border. The Assembly pursued a Quaker policy of non-resist-
ance ; but in 1756 Col. Armstrong destroyed Kittanning, on the AUeghenies, and Gov.
Denny raised 25 companies of volunteers and garrisoned the frontier. In 1758 Gen. Forbes
and 9,000 troops marched against Fort Duquesne, which was blown up and abandoned by
f' the French. Thenceforward for many decades the western slopes of
le AUeghenies witnessed the slow and heroic advance of the Scotch-
Irish people and other frontiersmen, pressing back the Indian
tribes farther and farther into the unknown wilderness, and receiv-
ing and inflicting terrible blows. Col. Bouquet's expedition and
victory at Bushy Run, in 1763, and other martial events at last
cleared the frontier. Mason and Dixon's line was run and
marked in 1767, by two English surveyors, to settle long-standing
border-disputes between Pennsylvania and Maryland, and consisted
of a cutting through the forest eight yards wide and 245 miles long,
with each of the first 132 miles ending at an erected stone, each
fifth stone bearing the carved arms of Lord Baltimore and the Penn
family. These learned mathematicians would have gone farther
west, but the Indians sought for their scalps, and they returned to London.
The original elements of the population included the Swedes and Dutch of the first mi-
grations, the English and Welsh Quakers who came with Penn, the Germans, the New-
Englanders who colonized the Valley of Wyoming, and the Scotch-Irish settling along the
perilous frontiers. The great streams of humanity that flowed into Pennsylvania in the early
days still remain more distinct than the white races of any other State so long settled. The
simple manners and plain speech of the English Friends, the positive and energetic traits
of the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and the thrift and industry of the Germans still appear
in evidence in the regions they originally settled. The Valley of Wyoming was occupied
in 1762 by immigrants from Connecticut, whose Royal Charter covered northern Pennsyl-
vania. The valiant Iroquois Indians fell upon these pioneers,
and slew thirty of them, whereupon the survivors fled.
But the New-Englanders finally prevailed, and the great
valley, dotted with Congregational hamlets, became a part
of Litchfield County, vvith representatives in the Connecti-
cut Legislature. During the Revolution, 400 Tory Rangers
and Royal Greens and 700 Seneca Indians defeated and
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN'S GRAVE.
massacred Col. Zebulon Butler's 400 valley militia ; and
OLDEST MILL IN PENNSYLVANIA.
THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
the region was swept with the fire and steel of destruction for
years. After the war, the Connecticut settlements were re-
built, and again and again sacked and depopulated by the Pen-
namite troops, until 1799, when the seventeen valley town-
ships were allotted to the New-Englanders, whose descendants
now hold them, as a part of Pennsylvania.
Fayette, Greene and Washington Counties, in southwestern
Pennsylvania, were claimed as a part of Virginia, included in the
District of West Augusta. Gov. Dunmore opened Virginian
courts at Pittsburgh (then re-named Fort Dunmore), in 1774 ;
and the region was divided into the counties of Yohogania,
iNtonongalia and Ohio. Virginian land-officers gave titles at ten
shillings the hundred acres, and Washington acquired property
here. Finally, however. Gov. John Penn swooped down on the
Southern officials, and put their chief men in prison.
Pennsylvania took up arms promptly in the cause of Ameri-
can independence, and the flower of her frontiersmen marched to Boston, in July, 1775,
and joined the New-Englanders in rescuing their metropolis from the British garrison.
This celebrated Rifle Regiment was the first command from
beyond the Hudson to reach the American camps near Bos-
ton. After the fall of New York the scene of war was trans-
ferred to the peaceful plains of the Keystone State. In 1777
Gen. Howe's British and German army passed by sea to the
head of Chesapeake Bay, and defeated Washington on the
Brandywine, after an all-day's battle, in which England lost
600 men, and America twice as many. Then the invading
host occupied Philadelphia, whence Congress had fled to
Lancaster. The State navy consisted of 27 gunboats, fire-
rafts, floating batteries and guard-boats. After Philadelphia
fell into hostile hands, this fleet bravely fought the British
squadron ascending the Delaware, and destroyed the Au-
gtista, 74, and the Alcrlin, 44. When Fort Mifflin surren-
dered, the larger part of the State fleet crept up by Philadel-
phia in the shadow of night, to Burlington. Hence their sail-
ors sent swarms of infernal machines floating down stream, against the British war-vessels,
whose roaring broadsides, directed against them, gave rise to the poem of " The Battle of
the Kegs." A marble monument was erected in 1 81 7 over the grave of Wayne's Conti-
nentals, slain in the midnight massacre at Paoli ; and Germanto\ra has many memorials of
its terrible battle in the October fogs, when Washington hurled his brave little army
against the British defenses, and lost 1,200 men in
vain. All that long winter Washington lay in miser-
able cantonments at Valley Forge, watching the com-
fortable and luxurious Britons in Philadelphia. Early
in the summer, the Royal army evacuated the city,
and retreated across New Jersey to New York, fol-
lowed by Washington. The troops of the Pennsyl-
vania Line revolted in 1781, and marched to Prince-
ton, where they compelled Congress to remedy their
undoubted grievances. In 1 783 they boldly menaced
Congress again, in Philadelphia, and constrained that
body to adjourn to Princeton. The Whiskey Insur-
rection of 1794 arose from the determination of Con- Philadelphia : independence hall.
A'LVG'S HANDBOOK OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE VALLEY OF WYOMING.
gress to impose a tax on stills and distilled liquors,
which were among the most highly prized posses-
sions of the Scotch-Irish mountaineers of the AUe-
ghenies. The four western counties of Pennsyl-
vania flew to arms, and United-States officials suf-
fered gross indignities, houses were burned, and
people were driven from the country by "Tom
Tinker's men." President Washington called out
13,000 Pennsylvania, New- Jersey, Maryland and
Virginia troops, under Gov. Henry Lee of Vir-
ginia, and journeyed by Carlisle and Chambersburg
to Cumberland and Bedford, the army advancing to Uniontown. The insurgents gave way
instantly before the Federal authority, and then for the first time it was seen that the
United States was a Nation, and not a rope of sand, to be broken whenever any section
disliked a law. In 1795-6 Carlisle, Reading and Lancaster contended for the seat of the
State government, which passed from Philadelphia to Lancaster in 1799, and to Harris-
burg in 1812. In 1804 stages began to run from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, in seven days,
by Lancaster, Harrisburg, Carlisle, Bedford, Somerset and Greensburg. In the war of
181 2, Pennsylvania had a larger force engaged than any other State, at the defence of
Baltimore and in the invasion of Canada and on
Perry's victorious fleet, although her own soil re-
mained inviolate from hostile arms.
For many years after the peace of 1783 there
was nothing but a horse-path over the AUeghenies,
and salt, iron, powder, lead and other necessities
came from the coast on pack-horses. The farmers
of fertile Western Pennsylvania, thus shut out
from a market, turned their faces down the long
river-valleys, where the Spaniards held sway.
Building unwieldy arks of plank, and loading them
with produce, they floated down the Ohio and
Mississippi, exposed to the Indian rifles, until they reached New Orleans, where the pro-
ducts of the Pennsylvanian hills were changed into coin. Sometimes these bold Argonauts
took ship to New York, and returned home over the AUeghenies ; but usually they walked
home, through the Louisiana and Mississippi cane-brakes, and across the silent mountains
of Tennessee and Virginia. The National Road was built in 1806-17, by the United States,
in discharge of an agreement with Ohio to unite her domain with the navigable waters of
the Atlantic. The eastern division of the road ran from Cumberland to Redstone Old Fort
(now Brownsville, Penn.), where the weary emigrants could get on flat-boats and float
down to the Ohio. The western division ran from Redstone Old Fort to Wheeling (W.
Va. ). The road was 66 feet wide, paved for 20 feet
with broken rock, on a pavement of close-set stones.
In 1832-35 the Government put this great highway in
complete repair, and surrendered it to the States
whose territory it traversed.
Although contiguous to on? of the most conserva-
tive Slave States, Pennsylvania was always strongly
opposed to human servitude, and its Quaker popula-
tion took strong ground against the Southern insti-
The first Northern troops to arrive at Washington
6TARUC0A VIADUCT. when the Rebellion imperilled that city were 530
THE STATE OE PENNSYLVAXIA.
this State, and 25
responded ; and out
of the surplus Gov.
Cur tin organized
the famous Penn-
The records of the Pennsylvania regiments are preserved in five imperial octavo volumes of
1,000 pages each, issued by the State. Her contribution to the National armies numbered
362,284 men, besides 25,000 militia in 1S62. Again and again her lower counties were
invaded by daring Southern raiders. Chambcrsburg was captured by 2,000 Confederate
cavalry, October 10, 1S62, and vast Government stores destroyed. In June, 1863, Jenkins
and i,Soo Southern riders pillaged the town, and were followed by Lee's great army.
Thirteen months later. Gen. McCausland captured the town and burnt it to the ground,
inflicting a loss of $3,000,000. June 16, 1863, Ewell's Confederate corps occupied Car-
lisle and burned the bridge and barracks, shelling the town through a long summer
afternoon. After the defeat of the National army
at Chancellorsville, Gen. Lee invaded Pennsyl-
vania with a powerful army of Southern veterans,
and over-ran the Cumberland and lower Susque-
hanna Valleys. The Army of the Potomac kept
to the eastward, to cover Washington, Baltimore
and Philadelphia. The two hosts came into con-
flict around Gettysburg, and made immortal the
name of the peaceful little Pennsylvania village.
The battle lasted through July I, 2, and 3, 1863.
The Confederates had 73,000 engaged ; the Federal
forces numbered 82,000. In the first day's battle the First (Reynolds's) and Eleventh (How-
ard's) Federal Corps were defeated and driven through Gettysburg, the First being almost
annihilated. The second day passed in bitter fighting around Little Round Top (defended
by Sickles's Third Corps against the flower of the Southern army), and in Ewell's unavail-
ing assaults on Cemetery Hill. A little after noon on the third day, Lee opened against
the National center an appalling cannonade from 115 guns, which shook the valley for two
hours, at the end of which, Pickett and his magnificent division of Virginians swept across
the plain and up the heights, and broke through the Federal lines. But their losses during
the charge had been appalling; the supporting brigades gave way; and the Federal batteries
and brigades hurried forward from right and left, and enwalled Pickett with fire. Most of
his heroes were made prisoners, or slain on the
field. The next day, Lee retreated with his broken
army through the mountains. Gen. Doubleday,
the historian of the battle, endorses the Count de
Paris's estimates of fhe losses in the Gettysburg;
campaign : Federal, 2, 834 killed, 13,709 wounded,
and 6,643 missing (total, 23,186); Confederate,
2,665 I'illed, 12,599 wounded, and 7,464 missing
The Soldiers' National Cemetery covers 17
acres of the Federal lines in the great battle, with
the graves of 3,575 soldiers.
ALLEGHENY MOUNTAINS ; THE HORSE-SHOE CURVE.
Eighteen States are
THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER.
714 KING'S HANDBOOK OF THE UNITED STATES.
represented: New York with 867 graves, Pennsylvania with 555, Michigan with 175, and
Massachusetts with 158, being the chief. The States bore the cost of thus caring for their
dead children ; and in 1872 the Nation took charge of the cemetery. Near the semi-circle
of graves rises the National monument, of gray Westerly granite, crowned by a colossal mar-
ble statue of the Genius of Liberty, and surrounded by marble statues of War, History,
Peace and Plenty. Here, also, stands J. Q. A. Ward's bronze statue of Gen. John F. Rey-
nolds, one of the slain in the first day's fight. The cemetery was dedicated a year or so
after the battle, and on this field President Lincoln delivered his immortal address : "Fel-
low Citizens : Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent
a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are
created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or
any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-
field of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting-place of those
who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper
that we should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate,
we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have
consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long
remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the
living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus so far nobly
carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us —
that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which they here
gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that the dead shall not
have died in vain ; that the nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom ; and that
the government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from
Since the dawn of peace, Pennsylvania has pursued the even tenor of her way, develop-
ing her famous mines and manufactures, under the fostering care of National tariffs. This
noble and historic State abounds in memorials of its ancient days, like the famous old
taverns of Chester, the White Horse, Red Lion, Unicorn, Hammer and Trowel, Compass,
Turk's Head, The Bull, and others ; the century-old houses of Chester, still scarred with
the British bombardment; the headquarters of Washington and Lafayette, on the Brandy-
wine (Andrew Braindwine's Creek, of the ancient records) ; the home of Washington dur-
ing the weary winter of 1777-8, at Valley Forge; the Chew mansion, whose solid stone
walls enabled the British troops to check the victorious Americans, at Germantown ; vener-
able churches like St. David's at Radnor (built in 171 5), the Old Swedes and Christ Church,
in Philadelphia, and the gray old shrines of Bristol ; the colonial houses of Bedford and the
valley towns ; and scores of historic mansions about Philadelphia. Independence Hall was
built at Philadelphia in 1732-35, as the seat of the Provincial Government, and is sacredly
preserved. Within its venerable walls the Second Continental Congress convened, in 1776,
and adopted the Declaration of Independence, which was read to the assembled citizens in
the State- House yard. The hall contains portraits of the signers of the Declaration, and