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Veterinary Notes



OR Horse Owners



SIXTH EDITION



CAPTAIN M. H. HAYES



c^



s




TUFTS UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES





3 9090 013 414 079




VETERINARY NOTES



FOR HORSE OWNERS,



Webster Family Libratry of Veterinary Medicine
Cummings Sctiool of Veterinary IVleclicine at
Tufts University

200 Westboro Road ^

North Grafton, MA 01536



1st Edition, 1877) 1,250 copies.



2na ,,
3^^ 5.


1884; 2,500


4th „


i88p ; 3,000


Sth „


J^8p7; 4,500


6th


J'poj; 5,000




'C?/



Frontispiece.



CLEAN FORK LEGS.



VETERINARY NOTES

FOR HORSE OWNERS.



A MANUAL OF HORSE MEDICINE AND SURGERY,
WRITTEN IN POPULAR LANGUAGE.



BY

Mr HORACE HAYES, F.R.C.V.S.,

Late Captain '^ The Buffs,''

Author of " Points of the Horse," " Riding and Hunting,"'

" Stable Management and Exercise,"

'• Illustrated Horse-breaking," etc.



WITH 267 ILLUSTRATIONS, CHIEFLY REPRODUCTIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS.



SIXTH EDITION, REVISED, ENLARGED, AND J 23 PHOTOGRAPHIC
ILLUSTRATIONS ADDED.



XonOon :
HURST 'AND BLACKETT, LIMITED

13, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET
1903
ALL rk;hts reserved



ni



PRINTED BY KELLY'S DIRECTORIES LTD.
LONDON AND KINGSTON.



b









PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.



The experience I had as an owner, trainer and rider many
years ago in India, impressed on me so strongly the neces-
sity of acquiring veterinary knowledge, that when I obtained
a year's furlough in 1876, I returned to England and spent
my military holidays at the New Veterinary College, Edin-
burgh. At the end of this first year's veterinary course, I
found that I had made so many notes which would be
useful to horse-owners in general, as well as to myself, that
I collected them into book form, and had them published
under the title of " Veterinary Notes for Horse-owners."
Three years later, I was fortunate to get another year's fur-
lough, which I also spent among my former friends and
instructors. My studies were greatly facilitated by the
generous and valuable help of the late Professor Williams,
Professor A. Johnston and other teachers, whose patience
I sorely tried by continual questions as to the " why " and
" wherefore " of the veterinary treatment of horses.

As the first edition of the *' Notes " had sold out before
the end of my second year's veterinary course, I was able
to add a great deal of useful new matter to the second
edition, which received increased appreciation from the
public. I brought out the third edition after I had obtained
the diploma of the R.C.V.S. and had retired from the Army.
Since those ancient times, I have continued to treat this work
as a horse-owner's note-book, in which I have recorded all the
useful veterinary information I have been able to obtain
about horses, from personal experience, friends and books.



viii PEEFACE.

Hence it is invaluable to me as a work of reference, for if
I had not written it, I would have probably forgotten at
least half of what I had seen, heard and read. I trust
that it will be of equal benefit to my readers, whether they
are horsemen of ordinary education or veterinary surgeons.
The fact that I have spent a large portion of my life in
many foreign countries, ought to make this book of special
use to English horse-owners who live abroad.

I have employed type of different sizes, with the object
of maintaining the character of this book as a means of
ready reference for non-professional readers, without having
to exclude information which they might consider to be too
abstruse for their requirements ; but which might prove
useful to horse-owners possessing more scientific knowledge.
This edition is to a large extent a new book, because I
spent three years revising it, and have added much new
matter and 123 new illustrations from photographs I took.
In the building up of this literary structure, I have been
greatly aided by the valuable hints and kindly criticisms
which I obtained from Veterinary-Surgeon Desmond, Colonel
Nunn, Deputy-Director-General A.V.D., Mr. J. S. Barber,
M.R.C.V.S., Mr. Reginald Over, M.R.C.V.S., and other learned
friends. In making a collection of horses' heads of authentic
ages for the illustrations in Chapter XXXIII. , I am particu-
larly indebted to Mr. W. Shaw, F.R.C.V.S., Mr. Wharam,
M.R.C.V.S., Mr. E. H. Leach, F.R.C.V.S., Professor Hobday,
F.R.C.V.S., Mr. Hiles, M.R.C.V.S., and other confreres.
Thanks to the generous help of these gentlemen, I have
succeeded in a photographic task which, as far as I can
ascertain, has never before been accomplished. Mr. Barber
and Mr. Willis, M.R.C.V.S., were most kind in lending me
many interesting specimens to photograph.

To facilitate reference, I have tried to make the index as
complete as possible.

As a chemist's shop is not always within easy reach,



PREFACE. ix

especially in foreign countries, I have frequently, when de-
scribing the treatment of a particular ailment, given several
recipes, so that the absence of one or more drugs might
not defeat success. In these lists, priority has been accorded
to merit, as far as practicable.

Underneath all the illustrations which are not original, I
have named the respective sources from which they were
obtained.



Yew Tree House, Crick, Rugby,
I St January, 1903.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER. I.

Detection of Lameness :

Definition — Conditions of examination for lameness — Pointing— Suit-
ability of the trot as a pace at which to detect lameness— Movements
of the head in lameness— Detection of lameness during movement —
Peculiarities of action— Method of finding out whether the seat of
lameness is or is not above the fetlock ...... i

CHAPTER H.

Blood :

Heart and blood-vessels— Circulation of blood— Blood— Coagulation
of blood — Nutrition and waste — Distribution of blood in the body —
Anaemia — Congestion — Inflammation — Repair after inflammation —
Counter-irritation — Bleeding . . . . . • • .10

CHAPTER HI.
Immunity and Heredity . ^°



CHAPTER IV.
Sprains :

General remarks on sprains— Sprain of the suspensory ligament-
Sprain of the back tendons and check ligament— Sprain of the
fetlock joint— Sprain of the inferior sesamoid ligaments— Treatment
of sprains below knee and hock— Filled legs— Curb— Sprung hock-
Sprain of the shoulder— Sprains of the elbow and hip— Sprained
back — Legal aspect of sprain . . . • • • • .22

CHAPTER V.
Theory of Wounds and Bruises :

Changes liable to take place in a wounded or bruised part— ^'arletles
of wounds— Methods of repair— Bacteria and disease germs— Anti-
septic treatment of wounds —Arrest of bleeding .... 62



xii CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI.

Wounds and Bruises :

Antiseptics — ■ Antiseptic surgery — General treatment of wounds —
Abscess — -Contusions and bruises — Over-reaches — Brushing— Speedy
cutting — Legal aspect of cutting — -Wounds on or near joints — Broken
knees — Wounds of the mouth — Punctures from thorns, etc. — Saddle
galls and sore backs — ^liarness galls — Poll evil — Burns and scalds-
Wounds of the abdomen — Wounds of the chest — Bleeding after
castration — -Peritonitis — Stroke of lightning — Frost-bite— Inflamma-
tion of veins — Inflammation of the testicles from injury ... 67

CHAPTER VII.

Malignant Tumours :

Botryomycosis— Scirrhous cord — Actinomycosis— Melanosis. . . 121

CHAPTER VIII.

Parasitic Skin Diseases :

General remarks on parasites— Flies — Leeches — Maggots — Lice — •
Ticks — - Poultry mites — Mange insects — Parasitic ringworm —
Bursatee 130

CHAPTER IX.

Non-Parasitic Skin Diseases :

Simple eczema — Itchy tail — Cracked heels and grease — Mud fever —
Surfeit — Scaly eczema — Warts and nsevi — Hidebound — Leucoderma. 150

CHAPTER X.

Diseases and Injuries of the P^eet :

Thrush — Contracted heels — Canker — Sandcrack— False-quarter — Split
hoof — Acute laminitis — Chronic laminitis — Seedy toe — -Pumiced feet
— Brittle feet— Inflammation of the coronet, or villitis — Navicular
disease — Horn tumour — Wounds and bruises of the coronet — Pricks
in shoeing — Wounds of the sole and frog —Corns — Quittor — Forging
or clicking . . . . . . . . • • .164

CHAPTER XL

Diseases of Bone, Joints, and Cartilage :

General remarks — Splints — Enlargement of the splint bones — Sore
shins — Ringbone — Bone spavin — Osteoporosis — Rickets — -Rheuma-
toid joint disease — Stift' joints and knuckling over — Sidebones . 230



CONTENTS. xiii

CHAPTER XII.
Hernle (Ruptures) :

General remarks — Acute inguinal hernia — Chronic inguinal hernia —
Hernia at the navel — Ventral hernia — Other forms of hernia . . 283

CHAPTER XIII.

Fr.\ctures :

Fractures in general — Anterior iliac spine — Back — Buttock, point of
the — Cannon bone — Femur — Hip, point of the^Jaw — Leg — Navi-
cular bone — Pastern bones — -Pedal bone — Pelvis — Ribs — First-rib —
Shoulder blade — Tail — -Thigh — Tibia — Trapezium .... 296

CHAPTER XIV.
Dislocations :

Dislocation of the patella — Dislocation of the shoulder joint — Other
dislocations . . . . . . . . . . .316

CHAPTER XV.

Synovial Enlargements :

General remarks — Windgalls of the fetlock — Bog spavin — -Windgall
below the hock — Thoroughpin — Windgall of the knee — Capped knee
— Capped withers — Synovial capped hock ..... 322

CHAPTER XVI.

Serous Cysts :

General remarks — Capped hock — Capped elbow — Serous cyst near the
withers 333

CHAPTER XVII.

Diseases of the Eyes :

Sketch of the anatomy of the eye — Simple ophthalmia — -Periodic
ophthalmia, or moon blindness^Cataract — Turning in of the eye-
lashes — Worm in the eye — Worms under the eyelids — Amaurosis, or
glass eye 339

CHAPTER XVIIl.
Disease»s of the Organs of Breathing :

Sketch of the anatomy of the organs of breathing — General remarks on
pneumonia, pleurisy, and bronchitis — Pneumonia — Pleurisy — Bron-
chitis — Contagious pleuro-pneumonia — General treatment of pneu-
monia, pleurisy, and bronchitis — Board-ship septic pneumonia —
Congestion of the lungs — Sore throat — Acute nasal catarrh — Cough
— Bleeding from the nose — Nasal gleet — Broken wind — Asthma — ■
Roaring — Thick wind — Highblowing ...... 350



kW contents.

chapter xix.

Internal Parasites :

General remarks — Sketch of the anatomy of the organs of digestion —
Leeches — Bots — Tape worms— Worms . . ' . . . 393

CHAPTER XX.

Non-parasitic Diseases of the Digestive Canal :

Inflammation of the mouth and tongue — Colic — Spasmodic colic
— Flatulent colic — Flatulent distension of the stomach — Worm
colic — Inflammation of the intestines — Rupture of the stomach,
rupture of the intestines and vomiting — Twists and folds of
the intestines — Inflammation from eating sand — Impaction of the
stomach — Grass staggers — Superpurgation — Diarrhoea — Specific
diarrhoea of foals — Chronic indigestion — Constipation — Lampas —
Choking — Prolapse of the rectum — Calculi and concretions . . 409

CHAPTER XXI.

Diseases of the Urinary Organs :

General remarks — Retention of urine — Bloody urine — Inflammation of
the bladder — -Albuminous urine — Inflammation of the kidneys —
Stone in the bladder ......... 441

CHAPTER XXII.

General Diseases :

General remarks — Simple fever — Stable fever — Malarial fever — Surra
— Tsetse fly disease — Influenza — Contagious pleuro - pneumonia —
Strangles — Anthrax — South African horse sickness — Port Pirie horse
disease — Cerebro-spinal fever — Glanders and farcy — Epizootic
lymphangitis — Ulcerative lymphangitis — Weed — Tuberculosis —
Dourine — Horse-pox — Diabetes mellitus — Diabetes insipidus —
Purpura hemorrhagica — Hemoglobinuria — Rheumatism — Rabies-
Tetanus — Blood-poisoning — Navel-string infection .... 448

CHAPTER XXIII.
Diseases of the Liver :

Congestion and acute inflammation of the liver — Chronic inflammation
of the liver 537

CHAPTER XXIV.

Nervous Diseases :

Kumree — Paralysis of the loins from spinal congestion — Stringhalt —
Australian stringhalt — -Crib-biting and wind-sucking — Shivering —
Immobilite — Paralysis of the face — Megrims, staggers, and epilepsy
— Sunstroke ........... 543



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XXV.
Poisoning in Horses 576

CHAPTER XXVI.

Nursing :

The sick box — Clothing — Feeding sick horses — Laxative food —
Nourishing food — Water — Salt — Grooming — Exercise . . . 590

CHAPTER XXVH.
Veterinary Medicines 594

CHAPTER XXVHI.
Administration of Medicines :

Different methods and respective proportions of medicines— By the
mouth — By the rectum— By subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection — ■
By the windpipe — By puncture into the large intestine — By a vein —
By the skin — By the mucous membrane and cornea .... 627

CHAPTER XXIX.
Operations :

Backraking — Bandaging — Bleeding — Blistering — Casting a horse^
Castration — Catheter, Passing the — Chloroform, Giving — Control,
horse — Docking horses — Firing — Fomenting — Hand-rubbing and
massage — Killing a horse — Neurotomy — Periosteotomy — Pulse,
Feeling the — Puncture of the intestine — Setons — Slinging — Steam-
ing the nostrils — Sutures^Thermometer, Clinical — Tourniquet and
Esmarch bandage — Tracheotomy — Trephining — Twitching . . 638

CHAPTER XXX.

Soundness :

Differences of opinion as to soundness — Definition of unsoundness —
Practical soundness — Modifying circumstances — Duties of veterinary
surgeons when examining horses — Certificates — Price — Special war-
ranty — Vices and blemishes — Absolute unsoundnesses — Defects which
are not necessarily unsoundness — -Hereditary unsoundness . . 694

CHAPTER XXXI.
Examining for Soundness 710

CHAPTER XXXII.

Shoeing :

Necessity for shoeing — Growth of the hoof — Mechanism of the horse's
foot — Weight-bearing surfaces of the foot — Form of the healthy foot
— Preparation of the foot— The shoe — Nail holes — Fitting the shoe
— Putting on the shoe . . . . . . . . .718



xvi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Examination of the Mouth for Age :

Duration of life of horses — Means of ascertaining a horse's age — Parts
of a tooth — Different kinds of teeth — Form of the teeth— Structure
of the teeth — Changes undergone by the teeth with age — Dates of
teething — Causes which may hasten or retard the appearance of the
permanent teeth — Dates from which horses are aged — Teeth which
retain' the mark and central enamel beyond the ordinary time —
Irregularity in the respective size of the upper and lower jaw —
Irregularities in the teeth — Bishoping — Illustrations of different ages 737



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Clean fore legs Frontispiece

FIG. PAGE

1. Wear of toe of hind foot from spavin .... 6

2. Holding up hind leg to test for spavin . . . . 7

3. Diagram of the circulation of blood . . . .11

4. High-heeled shoe . . . . . . -27

5. Diagram of bones, tendons and ligaments of near fore leg 29

6. Photograph of bones, tendons and ligaments of off fore

leg (side view) . . . . . . . • 3*

7. Photograph of bones, tendons and ligaments of off fore

leg (front view). ....... 33

8. Bones of lower part of fore leg . . . . -35

9. Rear view of bones of fetlock and pastern . . -37
10, II, 12 and 13. The canter ...... 39

14. Heavy draught ........ 40

15. Sound leg . . . . . . . . . 41

16. Sprained check ligament . . . . . -41

17. Sound leg ....'.... 41

18. Sprained perforans tendon . . . . . -41

19. Site of windgall caused by sprain of fetlock ... 43

20. Cotton wadding placed loosely round a fore leg . . 45

21. ,, „ applied tightly to a fore leg by means of

bandages ...... 45

22. Shoe with cross-bar for giving support to fetlock . . 47

23. Commencing to apply bandage to leg . . . . 50

24. Securing loose end of bandage . . . . . 50

25. Bandage completed, and with end secured . . • 5^

B



XVlll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FIG.

26. Sound hock ....

27. Hock with curb ....

28. Outside view of near hock .

29. ,, „ ,, bones of near hind leg

30. Flat foot (curb) of man

3 1 . Muscles of the fore leg

32. Reef knot .....
;^^. Blackwells' india-rubber guard

34. Over-reaching boots on horse

35. Outside view of over-reaching boots

^6. Removal of horn near coronet, after over

of hoof .....
37 and 38. Cloth boot to prevent brushing

39. Splint devised by Mr. Pugh .

40. Cradle .....

41. Raising saddle cloth off withers .

42. Smoothing out wrinkles under girths

43. Jugular vein ....

44. Torsion forceps ....

45. Nodule of actinomycosis

46. Horse suffering from ringworm

47. Leucoderma round the near eye .

48. Foot with contracted heels and thrush

49. Healthy foot ....

50. Searcher .....

5 1 . Bar shoe, designed to give pressure on

52. Heart-shaped bar shoe .

53. Ordinary bar shoe

54. Operation for sandcrack

55. Iron for burning grooves in hoof .

56. Instruments for clasping a sandcrack

57. Clasping a sandcrack with a nail .

58. Foot which has suffered from laminitis

59. Foot suffering from " dropped sole "

60. Section through foot shown in Fig. 59

61. „ „ healthy foot of horse



-reach on quarter



frog



PAGE
53

53

54
55
57
59
73
82

83
84

85
89

93

95

105
107

119

124

127

143
163

165
167

167

175
177

179

180

181

181

183
187
187
191
191



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



XIX



FIG.
62.

63.
64.

65.

66.

67.
68.

69.

70.

71-

72.

73-

74.

75-
76.

77-
78.

79-

80.

81.
82.

83.
84.

85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.

93-
94-
95-



Foot of leg which had suffered from rupture of perforans

tendon .....
Section of foot shown in Fig. 62 .
Healthy ring of horn .
Securing the clinches of nails
Inflammation of the perioplic ring
Caries of navicular bone
Lower surface of pedal bone, showing attachment of per

forans tendon .

,5 „ „ „ ,, , with tendon turned back

Section of horse's foot .
Shoe with toe turned up
Horizontal section through hoof
Ground surface of horse's foot
Three-quarter shoe

Bar-shoe for foot with corns on both sides
Moment at which clicking takes place .
Splint on outside of off fore .

„ „ „ „ „ hind

5) )) J3 5j J5 lore .
Off fore free from splint
Splint on inside of near fore leg
Splints ....
Cannon bone without splints
Jarde

jj • • • • •

Enlarged end of splint bone
Ringbone on off fore .
Bony deposit on long pastern bone
Long pastern bone free from bony deposit
Bony deposit on short pastern bone
Short pastern bone free from bony deposit
Bony deposit uniting both pastern bones
Spavin ......

No spavin . . .

Clean hock .,,,.,



PAGE

^95

195
201

203

•205

207

207
207
209
213
217
221
224
225
227
231

233

233

233

235

237

237

245

245
247

249

251
251
251
251

253
253
255



XX



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FIG.






PAGE


96.


Slight spavin . . . . . . .


.255


97-


Well-marked spavin . . . . . . >


255


.98.


Inner side of off hock . . . .


. 257


99.


Pear-shaped firing iron


. 261


.100.


Horse's head suffering from osteo-porosis


. 263


lOI.


Rheumatoid arthritis of stifle ....


. 271


102.


)> }>)))> ....


• 273


103.


Extreme direct flexion of fetlock joint .


• 275


104.


Long-toed shoe


• 275


105.


Pedal bone with lateral cartilages removed .


. 277


106.


J) >» )) J) )) mtacc


• 277


107.


Transverse section of horse's foot . . . .


• 277


108.


Pedal bones with ossified lateral cartilages


• 279


109.


„ bone with outer lateral cartilage ossified


• 279


no.


Sidebone on outside quarter of near fore


. 281


III.


Feeling for sidebone . . . . . .


. 281


112.


Strangulated inguinal hernia .




. 285


113-


Ecraseur ....




. 289


114.


Truss for umbilical hernia .




• 295


TI5-


Skeleton of horse .




299


116.


Thigh bone ...




301


117.


Fracture of short pastern bone




• 303


118..


View of pelvis from near side




• 305


119.


„ „ „ „ below .




305


120.


Fracture of point of hip




307


121.


,j „ tuberosity of ischium ,




309


122.


Tuberosity of ischium intact




309


123.


Recent fracture of first rib .




311


124.


Sound first rib and fractured first rib .


311


125.


Pair of first ribs ; one sound, the other united aftei






fracture . . . . .


311


126.


„ ,, „ „ ; both united after fracture


311


127.


Clove hitch . . . . . . .


319


128.


Position of bog spavin . . . . . .


324


129.


Front view of near hock .....


325


ISO-


Rear ,, „ „ „ . .


« , .


325



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.



zzi



FIG.

131-
132.

134-

135-
136.

137-

138.

139-

140.

141.
142.

143-

144.

145-
146.

147-

148.

149.
150.

151-

152.

153-

154-

155-
156.

157-
158.

159-
160.

161.

162.

163.

164.

165.

166.



Clean hock .

Bog spavin .....

Front view of windgall below hock

oiae ,, ,, ,j ,, ,,

Side view of thoroughpin

Front „ „ „ . .

Capped hock . . ...
,, elbow ....

Rowelling scissors

Section of eye ....

Internal organs of horse

Horse dying from septic pleuro-pneumonia

Phosphatic calculus

Dust ball

Urinary calculus ....

Ulcerative lymphangitis

Side view of teeth of crib-biter

Front view of teeth of crib-biter .

View of tables of teeth of crib-biter

Front view of teeth of crib-biter .

Paralysis of lips on both sides

Giving a horse a ball

Balling iron
„ pistol

Read's enema pump

Hypodermic syringe

Improvised casting rope

Horse ready to be thrown

Special hobbles for casting

Mr. Over's spring hobble
„ „ method of casting (off side view)
,, „ „ „ „ (near side view)

Drawing a hind leg forward ....

Horse ready to be made lie down

Horse on ground with both fore legs secured

Lifting up horse's head when on ground



PAGE

327
327
327
327
329
331

335
337
338
341
351
357
437
439
447
507
557
559
561
563

569
629

631

631

633
635

643

643

645

645
647

647

649

651
653
655



XXll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FIG.

167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.

173-

174.

175-
176.

177.

178.

179.

180.

181.

182.

183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.

193-
194.

195-
196.

197.

198.

199.

200.

201.

202.



Wedge-shaped firing iron
Double firing iron
Shooting a horse .

Horse in a convenient position to be shot
Greener's humane cattle killer
Probe-pointed curved scissors
Curved seton needle .•
Arnold's Reliance Tourniquet
Improvised tourniquet .
An Esmarch bandage on fore leg of horse
Jones' tracheotomy tube
Position of tracheotomy tube
Applying the twitch
Mechanism of the horse's foot
Slope of 50°
Slope of 55°

Measuring slope of hoof
Lowering hoof all round
Lowering toe

Vertical and transverse section of a hoof
Section through a concave shoe
»j J) }) seated ,,

„ » hoof
Foot surface of properly made shoe

„ „ ,, concave bar .
Excavation at toe of pedal bone
Sidebones ....
Teeth of the horse
A milk central incisor .
A permanent lower central incisor
Transverse sections of right incisors
Longitudinal section of permanent central ii
Transverse section of central incisor
Back teeth of lower jaw

n » upper „
Side view of parrot-mouth .



mcisor



PAGE

663
663

669

671

672

673
679

683

685

685

687
689

693

720

721

72 r

723

724
724

725

727
727
728
729

730

731

733

739

743

743

744

745
746

747
747
754



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



XXlll



FIG.










PAGE


203.


Front view of parrot-mouth 754


204.


Tables „ „ „




755


205.


Side view of mouth with ten incisors in upper jaw .




756


206.


rroni ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,




756


207.


iaoles ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, .




757


208.


Mouth with seven incisors in upper jaw




758


209.


Stumps of corner milk incisors






759


210.


Jaw with three premolars and four molars on


near


side .


760


211.


Bishoped mouth






761


212.


j> )}••••



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