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SFDMIMiSQCOLLECT.




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



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«



THE



VISIBLE UNITY



CATHOLIC CHURCH.



VOL. I.



Ecclesia; autem iinitos in diiobus attenilitur: scilicet in connexione mem-
brontm Ecclesio} ad invicem, sen communicatione ; ct iterum in ordine
omninm membroram Ecclesiae ad iinum caput, Bccundum illud ad Coloss.
ii. 18, 19 : Jnflatus sensu carnis su(e, et non tenens Caput, ex quo Mum corpus, per
nexus el conjuncliones suhministratum et conslruclum, crescit in augmentum Dei,
Hoc aubcm capnt rst ipse Christns, cujus vicem in Ecclesia gerit SummiiB
Fontifcx. Et idei) schismatici dicuntur qui subcsse reuiiuut Summo Fonti&ci,
ct qui membris Ecclesia; ei Eubjectis communicare recosant.

S. TllOM. A<iuix. Siimm. Tlieol. '2da 2da'. Quasi, xxxix. ^1;/. i. n. 3.



LOttDOtI : I'UINtl.b IIT

■ rOTTKWOOOB AHI> CO., HKW-HTIIIiliT 8QUARB

AMD rAULUUHilT ilUUIlT



VISIBLE UNITY T



OF THE



CATHOLIC CHUECH



MAINTAINED AGAINST OPPOSITE THEORIES:

WITH AN

EXPLANATION OF CERTAIN PASSAGES IN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY
ERRONEOUSLY APPEALED TO IN THEIR SUPPORT.



BY

M. J. EHODES, M.A.

IN TWO VOLUMES.
Vol. I.



LONDON :
LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO.

1870.



A /I rights reserved.



Nihil obstat.

Gulielmus A. Johnson.

Imprimatur.

t^i Henricus Eduardus,

A rchiepiscopus Westmon.



occ-tM






DEDICATOEY LETTEK, &c.



To the Right Reverend WM. DELANY, D.D.,
Lord Bishop of Cork.

My Dear Loed,

In addition to the daily spiritual benefits conferred
upon your own numerous flock by your Lordship's un-
wearied pastoral exertions, many a stranger's heart is
cheered and gladdened by the hospitable welcome which
your truly Christian kindness so largely extends to all.

Englishmen especially may thereby be reminded of
the generous and cordial greeting with which Ireland in
ancient days received her many visitants from the Anglo-
Saxon and the British nations, who thronged as students
to her far-famed halls of learning, or sought the way to
heaven, as disciples of Christ, in her equally celebrated
schools of piety and high religion.

The motives which led to my long sojourn in your
Lordship's diocese were more ordinary in their nature, and
did not entitle me to any such reception. Yet during
the seven or eight years through which it has been my
privilege to love and venerate you as my Bishop, the
repeated marks of favour which your unceasing goodness



1492.<80



vi DEDICATORY LETTER, ETC.

has heaped upon me, and which will ever be remembered
by me with sincerest gratitude, would furnish proof, if
such were needed, that the hearts of Irish Churchmen are
still animated by the princely spirit of the olden time.

Now that I am returning to my nativ^e shores, your
Lordship has crowned these many acts of kindness by
graciously permitting me to connect your name with the
present volumes.

The work was begun with your Lordship's blessing ; it
has progi-essed under your encouragement ; and on its
completion I thankfully avail myself of your most kind
consent to allow me to dedicate it to you, as a small but
earnest token of my grateful affection and my unfeigned
respect.

Once more begging 3'our episcopal benediction on the
produce of my labours and on myself,
I have the honour to remain.
My dear I^ord,
Your Lordship's most faitbful and ol )liged servant,

M. J. KHODES.

Glengaiuff, Bantry, Co. Cork :

Feast of ,St. Edward the Confessor,
Oct. 13tli, 18G9.



DEDICATORY LliTTiOR, ETC. Vll

To M. J. RHODES, Esq.
My dear Mr. Ehodes,

A treatise of such graceful and scholarlike execu-
tion, on a subject so important as that which is dealt with
in your work, ought to have been ushered into the world
under the auspices of some more distinguished name than
the obscure one you have selected. Such you might
readily have .found, but the extremely kind manner in
which you expressed your desire to inscribe my own at the
head of your book, precluded me from pressing this upon
you.

In the spirit of that generous friendship which I have
had the happiness of enjoying for several years, you dis-
carded prudential considerations, and I acquiesced, under
the conviction that a production of such rare and intrinsic
merits must ensure its own success without any consider-
able delay.

A more appropriate votive tribute could not have been
devised on your part, in gratitude to the blessed Spirit of
light and love Who in days gone by conducted you into
the communion of the Church, opening your heart to her
voice and teachings, which are as ancient as Christianity
and as unchanging as its truth. Your familiarity with the
difficulties and misapprehensions that affect the minds of
English churchmen, and the clearness with which you
explain the Church's doctrine, will render your work of
invaluable service in their regard ; and I cannot refrain
from expressing my unfeigned delight at the charitable
spirit you have displayed, in your mode of treating the
points of controversy which unhappily keep them apart
from us.



Viii DEDICATORY LETTER, ETC.

On the other hand, Catholics, especially of these isles,
must derive peculiar pleasure and no small addition to
their information, from the perusal of your learned pro-
duction. The Celtic tribes of these regions are only
beginning to be introduced to the general acquaintance
of the scholars of our day, and the pursuit of your sub-
ject has led you to the consideration of events in their
history, wliich are of peculiar interest to ourselves, and
but little kno'vvn or understood. I cannot conceive how
anyone can rise from the perusal of your interesting and
masterly examination into the evidence which still sur-
vives upon the subject, without a thorough conviction
that, notwithstanding their divergence in certain points of
discipline, the ancient Christian inhabitants of these coun-
tries were bound in an indissoluble bond of union with
the Mother and ]\Ii stress of Churches.

Praying a blessing on yourself and all that are dear to
you, and on this work, the fruit of pious zeal,

I am.
My dear Mr. Rhodes,

Yours very sincerely,

»^ WILLIAM DELANY.

Cork: October 22, 1869.



PREFACE.



rpHIS work was originally commenced as a letter
-*- to a valued friend of early years, who took a
leading part in the general meeting of the ' English
Church Union,' held in July 1866 ; by which
meeting a formal resolution was adopted, welcoming
the publication of Dr. Pusey's 'Eirenicon,' and
expressing the earnest desire of the Association for
the restoration of unity to Christendom.

The proportions which the writing assumed as it
progressed were larger than had been contemplated
at its conimencement ; and when half of it was com-
pleted, my friend himself having become convinced
of the divine authority of the Roman Catholic
Church, sought and received admission into her
communion.

A great part of the book was consequently,
to some extent, recast, though not substantially
altered. If there still aj^pear in it any traces of
the epistolary style, it is owing to the above-
mentioned circumstance.



X PREFACE.

There may be critics, otherwise favourable, who at
iirst siglit will object to the fact of a layman having
ventured to treat publicly of the matters of theo-
logy discussed in this work, particularly in the first
and second sections. This difficulty presented
itself to my own mind, but it was removed by the
ai)probation with which my proposed design was
received, when I submitted it to high ecclesiastical
authority ; and particularly by the blessing wliich
was accorded to it from its very commencement,
and the kind encouragement which throughout
accompanied its prosecution, on the part of the
Bishop of the diocese in which I was residing at
the time. The same Right Reverend Prelate has
graciously permitted me to place my volumes, now
completed, under his patronage, as may be seen
from the foregoing letters.

Moreover, since its completion, the whole of the
work has undergone the careful examination of
an ecclesiastical censor, appointed for the purpose
by the Archbishop in whose diocese it is now about
to be jmblished, and whose Imprimatur is affixed
to it. The first two sections, which form the
portion of the book most directly theological, have
been in type for more than two years, with the
exception of changes not affecting the substance of
tlic matter. Tiicy liavc l)ceii carefully perused and
examined b\- jnurc tlian one distlnLTiiishcd thoolo'nan



TREFACE. XI

of our own isles; and, in the summer of 1867, on
the occasion of the centenary of St. Peter and
St. Paul, I took the opportunity of personally sub-
mitting them to the judgment of two professors
of theology, belonging respectively to two of the
highest ecclesiastical colleges in Rome. One of
these was the Reverend Father Cardella, then of
the Roman College, now Rector of the Civilta
Cattolica ; and he has kindly permitted me to
make this use of his name.

I am desirous to call particular attention to
these authorities in reference to the explanation
of the Church's doctrine on the Sacrament of
Extreme Unction, which is contained in the
second section of this work. It is a point on
which Dr. Pusey has more than once asked for
information, and the statements which I have
made respecting it have undergone the strictest
scrutiny.

In order to examine and to test the truth of the
theory against which these volumes are principally
directed, it was necessary, in the first place, to
state it with faiiniess and precision. This alone
was the motive which induced me to adopt as my
text upon the subject the extracts which I have
given from the pages of Dr. Forbes. The state-
ment which they contain oi' the theory in (juestion



Xll PREFACE.

appears to me more clear, concise, and definite,
and, I may add, at the same time more plausible,
than any which I have met with elsewhere.

In addition to the extracts from Dr. Forbes,
Dr. Pusey's ' Eirenicon ' necessarily occupies a
prominent position in my pages. But it has by
no means been my intention to confine my obser-
vations solely to these authors. I have referred
to them simply as fair and competent exponents
of the theory of invisible unity.

Xo doubt there may be details respecting which
others who maintain the same theory \xi\\ be found
to vary in opinion from the authors above referred
to; and there may be Anglicans who would not
consent to extend its application so widely as, in
some respects, appears to be done by Dr. Forbes.
But the theory in itself forms a largely accepted
basis for common action, and a widely received
rule for indi\ddual guidance; and it is to the theory
itself, rather than to questions arising out of it,
that I have directed my attention in these volumes.
Thus, though a recent publication by Mr. Cobb,^
was issued too late for any special notice in my
pages — excepting the few remarks which will be
found in a foot-note at page 329, vol. ii. — yet the

' ' Separation ' not * Schism.' A plea for the position of
Anglican lieunionists. By Gerard Francis Cobb, M.A., Fellow
of Trinity College, Cambridge, London : Palmer, 18G9.



PREFACE. Xlll

whole of the present work is expressly devoted to
the examination of the principle upon which his
opinions are based. The same remark will apply
to the opinions of all writers, whether of earlier
or more recent date, who adopt the same theory
of the present suspension of the Church's outward
unity.

It was not until after the completion of the
account of the British Church, which is comprised
in my second volume, that I became aware of the
collection of documents lately edited by Mr.
Haddan.^ I should otherwise have derived from
them considerable assistance. Althouo-h the learned
editor does not hesitate to speak of the ' Schism
between the British and the Roman Chm'ches,'
and to designate it as 'formal,' (p. 152), yet the
facts which he has produced in his work cor-
roborate my own statements. The very few pas-
sages amongst his quotations which may at first
sight assume a different aspect, are not of sufficient
weight to withstand the existing amount of counter
testimony. They will bear, and they require, the
same interpretation, which, as I have shown, must

' Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great
Britain and Ireland : Edited after Spelraan and Wilkins. By
Arthur West Haddan, B.D., and William Stubbs, M.A. Vol. I.
Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1869.



XIV PREFACE.

be api^lied to certain strong expressions occasion-
ally met with in the pages of St. Bede.

It has been my anxious desire, throughout the
whole of this work, to avoid any term or mode of
expression which might give offence. But since
terms involve principles, and principles do not
admit of compromise, I have at times felt some
difficulty in the selection of my language. It
appeared to me, however, that the simplest course
was to adopt the expressions now most in use,
intending them in their commonly received sense.

I have endeavoured to render the book as gene-
rally interesting and as little controversial as
possible; and I have not hesitated to speak more
fully than was absolutely necessary for the sake of
argument, on such incidental points as appeared
particularly to invite notice.



M. J. RHODES.



18 Green Street, Grosvenor Square,
London, W.

Chri^tmm Day, 18C9.



CONTENTS

OF

THE FIRST VOLUME,



INTRODUCTORY.

Statement of the subject of tlie work .

Division of the subject .......

SECTION I.
The one true Church of Christ.

The Divine nature and origin of the Unity of Christ's Church
The Unity of the Church is permanently visible
Permanent and visible Unity is pledged to her by Christ .
There can be no union with Christ excepting through the

Church ......

Invincible ignorance ....

Individual responsibility ....

No corporate body of Christians can belong to the Church

who are not visibly in her connniinion
There is only one Church ....
The one true Church is visible to all men .
Christ's commission to His Church .
It is acted upon by the Roman Catholic Church alone.
The four Notes of the Church .
The Church's Unity .....
Rome and England not one Clun-ch .
Differences amongst Roman Catholics
Inconsistent charges against them
Universality of the Church's Unity .
The Church's Sanctity ....
The Church's Catholicity ....



I'AGE
1



7
8
9

15
17
18

20
21
22
25
26
28
28
29
30
32
34
35
38



X\T



CONTENTS OF



PiGE

Rome is the centre of her Catholicity . . . .39

Title of Catholic 40

The Church's Apostolicity 41

Mission and jurisdiction ....... 42

The Roman Primacy ....... 43

Necessity of rightful jurisdiction . . . . .43

Necessity of Apostolic doctrine . . . . . .44

St. Peter's chair and office ...... 45

Distinction between the Episcopate, Apostolate, and Primacy 45
Christ foimded the Church on St. Peter and his successors,

associating St. Peter with Himself . . . .48

Christ rvdes the Chiurch through St. Peter and his successors 50
St. Peter's See is the strength of the Episcopate . . .53

It is Christ Who acts in all 55

St. Peter's office continues in his successors . . .56
The Primacy is a great grace ...... 58

Visible and present testimony to the Apostolicity of Rome . fiO
Rome is the centre of the Church's Unity . . . .03

The Church bears the image of her Lord . . . .64



SECTION II.

Examination of the theory of the existence of invisible unity between
outwardly divided bodies of Christians.

The Church's notes are inseparable, and each one of them is

indispensable ........ 64

None of them can become invisible . . . . .05

The theory of the suspension of visible imity tested . . 66
Statement of the above-mentioned theory, as contained in a
work entitled * A short explanation of the Nicene Creed '
by Dr. Forbes, the Anglican Bi.shop of Brechin . . 69
The Church is only one, though comprising hierarchies in

many nations ........ 75

Exclusivcnc'ss of the one Church . . . . .70

God's universal mercies . . . . . . .77

The Catholic doctrine on grace outside the Church, as

stated by Dr. Newman . . . . . .78

Cases of goodness in individuals . . . . .81

Personal responsibility ....... 83



THE FIRST VOLUME.



XVll



Goodness amongst the unbaptized
The lustre of the Church's Saints
Greek Missions ....
Fecundity of the Ancient Heresies .

Nestorians ....

Jacobites ....

Arianism, and the Arian Goths

Bishop Ulphilas .

Other heresies
State of the early ages

Dr. Newman's account of the fourth century
Dr. Newman's account of the fifth and sixth centuries
Present trials of the Church
The Church's golden age
Ancient appellation of ' Roman '
The tenth century of the Church
Kome and the Popes of that age
The Church's holiness is always visible .
It was so in the tenth century — Instances .
St. Eomuald and Camaldoli
The Plospice of St. Bernard and its fovmder
Other instances .....
Cluny and its Abbots ....
Saints unknown to us .
St. Peter Damian .....
Christ's presence in His Church is never lessened
Her visible unity never is suspended
Distinction between individual Christians and the Church
AH the children of the Church are taught by God
All are not obedient .....
The Church exists for the salvation of mankind
God's promises to His Church are absolute and unconditional
Distinction between ordinary and extraordinary gifts
Christ's presence never varies as regards all that is needful
for His Church

The peculiar force of the words of His promise to be
always ' with her ' .

The prophecies of the Old Testament concerning the Church



of Christ
VOL. I.



83

85

85

86

86

88

90

91

92

92

93

96

98

99

100

101

101

104

105

109

109

111

113

114

116

116

119

121

122

124

124

126

128

129

131

134



a



XVlll CONTENTS OF

PAGE

Til e prophecies of Isaias . ...... 135

The prophecies of Holy David . . . . .137

The Chui-ch is not exempted from affliction . . .139

The Church as described in the Book of Canticles . .140

Prophecies of Ezecliiel ....... 141

Prophecies of Jeremias . . . . . . . 1 43

The theory tested by the Gospel . . . . .147

It is sho^vn to be inconsistent ■with the doctrine of the

Gospel . . . . . . . . .148

Also "with the Gospel precepts . ..... 150

Differences between Eome and England respecting points

of faith ..."..... 155

Difference respecting the ground of faith . . . .156

Are they agreed respecting the articles of the faith ? . .158
The Roman profession of faith . ..... 159

Obedience to the Bishop of Rome, the Vicar of Jesns Christ IGl
Difference respecting the Sacraments . . . .161

Baptism . . . . . . . .161

Confirmation . . . . . . .162

The Holy Eucharist 163

Penance . . . . . . . .163

Extreme Unction . . . . . .164

Teaching of the Council of Trent on Extreme Unction . 164
Its object . . . . . . . . .168

Its matter . . . . . . . . .171

Its form . . . . . . . . .172

Postponement of the last Sacraments . . . .176

Popular errors as to the time of receiving Extreme Unction 177
The Church's doctrine respecting its repetition . . .179

Explanation respecting its remission of sins . . .181

Explanation of the term ' remains of sin.' . . .184

The effects of Extreme Unction, as explained in the Roman

Catechism . . . . . . . .187

The teaching of St. Charles Borromeo respecting it . . 189
The teaching of Suarez on the Sacrament of Extreme Unction 191
It is a sacrament of special mercy . . . . .193

Difference in faith respecting it . . . . . 1 95

Rome's maternal care for the dying . . . . .197

The Sacrament of Holy Orders . . . . .198



THE FIRST YOLIME. XIX

PAGE

The Sacrament of Matrimony . . . . • . 1 98
Indulgences, Purgatory, Invocation of Saints . . .199
The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary . 200
The difference between Rome and England on tlie above-
mentioned points, proves that they are not one in the

faith 203

Which of the two is right ? 205

Sacraments, but not salvation, may be found outside the

Catholic Church 20G

As Christ acts through His ministers in baptizing, and
absolving, and the rest, so through the successors of
St. Peter He constantly rules His Church . . . 208

Definition of the Unity of the Church by St. Thomas

Aquinas ......... 209

The Church requires a visible head to remove occasion of

schism ......... 210

SECTION III.

Explanation of certain passages in ecclesiastical historj/, appealed
to in support of the theory of invisible iinity.

Anglican appeal to past ecclesiastical dissensions . .211

The -want of analogy between the instances produced, and

the present divisions of Christendom .
The dissensions at Corinth .....
liome appealed to, though St. John the Evangelist was

still alive .......

St. Victor and the Asiatic Churches.
The grounds of the difference ....

The Synods held upon the subject ....
Letter fi-om Polycrates and the other Asiatic bishojis, to the
Pope St. Victor and the Roman Church .

The conduct of St. Victor

His authority not disputed

The result ........

Ancient testimony that there was no breach of unity
Decision of the Nicene Council as to the time of Easter

The Cyprianic contest.
Reasons for doubting whethsr there was any formal or
complete breach of unity between St. Cyprian and
the Pope St. Stephen



212
213

213

215
21G

218
219
220
221
223
223



225



XX CONTEXTS OF



PAGE

226



Testimony of St. Augustine .....

If intercommunion was suspended, it could Lave been only

for a passing moment ...... 228

The special honour sliown to St. Cyprian by Rome . . 229

The letter of Firmilian 229

It testifies to the then existing claims of the Koman See . 230

Its excited language ....... 231

The respect due to Firmilian ...... 234

Evidence of the office of the Roman See .... 235

St. Vincent of Lerins extols the conduct of St. Stej)lien . 237

The Councils of Aries and of Nice on the controverted point 239
Question of the authenticity of the letters of St. Cyprian

and Firmilian . . . . . . . . 240

St. Cyprian's actual sentiments respecting the primacy of

the Roman See 240

The case of St. Meletius and the divisions in Antioch.

The statements of Dr. Pusey and Dr. Forbes . . . 243

Observations on the ecclesiastical position of Meletius . 244

Position of both the Catholic parties in Antioch . . 24G
Contrast between their position and that of the Church of

England 247

Both these parties in Antioch agreed as to the faith . . 248

The sermon of St. Gregory Nazianzen .... 249

The origin of the schism in Antioch . . . .251

The election of Meletius to the bishopric of Antioch . 252

His early lif(i and connection with the Ariana . . . 253
Ilis election to the see of Antioch was the work of the Arian

faction ........ 255

Certain Catholics concurred in his election . . . 25G

Theodoret's account of the transaction .... 257

The more consistent Catholics of Antioch, viz., the ' Eusta-

thians,' would not recognise his election . . . 259
Laxity of the other Catholics of Antioch in mixing with

the Arian congregations ...... 259

PaulinuH was the leader of the Eustathians in Antioch . 2G0

St. Athana.sius supported the said Eustathians . . . 2()1
lieoj)ective motives of the Catholics who joined in the elec-
tion of Meletius, and of the Arians, in choosing him

for the Bee of Aulioch 202



THE FIRST VOLUME. XXI



The glowing contemporary descriptions of ' the Great
Meletius'



The epistle of the Council of Alexandria respecting the
affairs of Antioch ......



Remarks upon the aforesaid epistle ....

The consecration of Pciulinus by Lucifer .

The consequent displeasure of St. Eusebius of Vei-cclli, when

he afterwards arrived in Antioch . . . .291

The question of Lucifer's sanctity . . . Note to p. 295

The position of Paulinus . . . . . . 29G

The position of Meletius ...... 298

Eusebius proceeds on his mission through the East, and

then gladdens Italy by his return . . . .300

The three exiles of St. Meletius 301

He holds a Council in Antioch ..... 302

Its profession of failh gave rise to rumours against his

orthodoxy, and against that of St. Eusebius of Samosata 303



2G3
2G5
267
268
269



269
270
271



The entrance of Meletius into Antioch

His public profession of the Nicene Faith

His consequent banishment .....

The accusations against him .....

The observations of St. Epiphanius on his sermon, and on
the steadfastness of his Hock in the true faith

The rumours against St. Meletius ....



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