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The visible unity of the Catholic Church maintained against opposite theories (Volume 1) online

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which our holy mother the Church hath held and doth
hold, to whom it belougeth to judge of the true sense and
interpretation of the Scriptures : neither will I ever take


and interpret tliem otlierwi.se tlian according to the unani-
mous consent of the Fathers.

*I also profess that there are truly and properly Seven
Sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our
Lord, and necessar}' for the salvation of mankind, though
not all for every one : to wit. Baptism, Confirmation, the
Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matri-
mony : and that they confer grace : and that of these.
Baptism, Confirmation, and Order cannot be repeated
without sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received
and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church, used in
the solemn administration of the aforesaid sacraments.

' I embrace and receive all and every one of the things
which have been defined and declared in the holy Council
of Trent concerning original sin and justification.

' I profess, likewise, that in the Mass there is offered to
Grod a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living
and the dead. And that in the most holy Sacrament of
the Eucharist there is truly, really, and substantially the
Body and Blood, together with the soul and divinity, of
our Lord Jesus Christ ; and that there is made a conversion
of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and of
the whole substance of the wine into the Blood ; which
conversion the Catholic Church calleth Transubstantiation.
I also confess that under either kind alone Christ is received
whole and entire, and a true Sacrament.

' I constantly hold that there is a Purgatory, and that the
souls therein detained are helped b}^ the suffrages of the

' Likewise, that the Saints reigning together with Christ
are to be honoin-ed and invocated, and that they otfer
prayers to God for us, and that tlieir relics are to be had
in veneration.

' I most firmly assort that the Images of Christ, of the
Mother of (iod ever ^'irgin, and also of other Saints, ought
to be had and retained, and that due honour and venera-
tion are to be given them.



' I also affirm that the power of Indulgences was left l)y
Christ in the Church, and that the use of them is most
wholesome to Christian people.

' I acknowledge the Holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Eoman
Church for the mother and mistress of all Churches; and I
promise true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor of
St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar of Jesus Christ.

' I likewise undoubtingly receive and profess all other
things delivered, defined, and declared by the sacred Canons
and Greneral Councils, and particularly by the holy Council
of Trent. And I condemn, reject, and anathematize all
things contrary thereto, and all heresies which the Church
hath condemned, rejected, and anathematized.

' I, N. N., do at this present freely profess and sincerely
hold to this true Catholic faith, out of which no one can be
saved : and I pi-omise most constantly to retain and confess
the same entire and inviolate, by Grod's assistance, to the
end of my life.'

Now, if England really bore witness to this faith,
and taught this doctrine to be the true sense of the
Creeds, there would be no need of further argument.
If her members will but accept it, and render the true
obedience here promised to the Vicar of Jesus Christ
in the person of the Eoman Pontiff, the separation
will be at end. If not, how can it be asserted that
such separation is merely outward ?

To pass on. Do Eorae and England ' bear sepa-
rate witness ' to one faith respecting the Sacraments ?

The grace of Baptism is now, practically, an open
question in the Church of England. Therefore, what-
ever may have been her witness formerly to that
article of the Creed, it is for the present at any rate

Supreme Pontiff.








Catech. Trident.
P. II. c. 3.

Acts vi.

Cont. litt. Tc-Iil.
Lib. ii. n. 239.

I know not how the Church of Eughmd bears
witness that Confomation is a Sacrament, ' instituted
by Jesus Clmst.' In any case she has grievously muti-
lated the manner of its administration. Though re-
taining an imposition of hands and a form of prayer,
she has wholly rejected the signing on the forehead
with chrism, which is commonly taught to be essential
to the matter of the Sacrament ; and she has altered
the form of words, which, with the Greeks, is — Signa-
culum doni Spiritus Sancti ; and with the Latins — /
sign thee icith the sign of the cross, and I conjirm
thee with the chrism of salvation : In the name of the
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

This is that Holy Chrism, which, it has been said,
was delivered to the Apostles by Christ Himself;
and which, in each diocese, Hjs representative, the
Bishop, blesses every year with mysterious and
impressive rites during the Mass of Maund}" Thurs-
day. It is composed of oil and balsam, and can be
blessed on no other day. The oil fur tlie sick is
previously blessed in the same Mass ; but the chrism
immediately after the Communion. Twelve priests
assist the Bi.s]iop, six on either liand, representing the
Apostles. Behind liim are seven deacons, in memory
of the seven they ordained ; and behind these, seven
sub-deacons, as ministers. This sacred chrism is
used in all solemn consecrations, and receives pe-
culiar reverence as a special emblem of God the
IL^ly Ghost. St. Augustine terms Confirmation, the
Sacrament of Chrism.


The above-cited Profession of Faith is exphcit Tiio

on the doctrnie of the Eucharist. God be praised,
there may be many Anghcans now who will not on
that account turn away, as did the unbelieving disci-
ples in the gospisl. But how does their Church as a
body, bear witness to this article of the faith ? As
a rule, is it not contradicted by her authorities, at
least in its fulness, though there may be happy excep-
tions? May it not, in general, be denied by her clergy
with greater impimity than it can be maintained ?

God again be praised, that so many hearts in the Penance.
Church of England are awakened and awakening to
the unspeakable blessings of auricular confession, and
the importance of priestly absolution ! But wliere is
her authoritative testimony to the divine institution of
the blessed Sacrament of Penance ; and to the absolute
necessity for the fallen to have recourse to it in order
to obtain the remission of their mortal sins ? Is this
maintained or taught, even by any of those who are
laudably foremost in the advocacy of its use ? If so,
it must be from their own conviction ; it cannot in any
sense be said that the ' Church of England ' bears wit-
ness to this essential portion of the faith, or is at one
with Eome in her behef respecting it. The Council
of Trent enunciated, as follows, the formal doctrine
of the Eoman Cathohc Church on tliis subject, which
is of supreme importance to man's salvation : —

' This sacrament of Penance is, for those who have fiillen Session xiv. cli. 2.

„ , . , 1 ,• 1 i- -i. ir AVatorworth's

after baptism, necessary unto salvation ; as baptism itselt TianslMtion,
is for those who have not as yet been regenerated.' p- 9*-

M 2



Session xiv.

Canon I.
Ibid. p. 107.

Session xiv.
Canon VI.
Ibid. p. 108.

' If any one saith, that in the Catholic Church Penance is
not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ our
Lord for reconciling the faithful unto God, as often as they
fall into sin after baptism ; let him be anathema.'

' If any one denieth, either that sacramental confession
was instituted, or is necessary to salvation, of divine right ;
or saith, that the manner of confessing secretly to a priest
alone, which the Church hath ever observed from the be-
ginning, and doth observe, is alien from the institution and
command of Christ, and is a human invention ; let him be

If this be the faitli of tlie Church of England, liow
awful is the o-uilt of her silence !

Extreme Unction.

Session xiv.
pp. 104-107.

It manifestly cannot be asserted that the Church of
England bears any kind of witness to the same faith
with Eome respectmg the blessed Sacrament of Ex-
treme Unction : which was instituted by our merciful
Lord to convey help and spiritual support to the
sick in the hours of their decisive trial ; to heal and
strengthen their souls ; to fortify them against the
assaults of Satan in their last agony ; or to restore
them to bodily health if God should see it expedient.

The holy Council of Trent, after treating of the
Sacrament of Penance, proceeds to instruct the
faitliful respecting that of Extreme Unction, upon
wliich sul)ject I extract tlie decrees in full : —


' It hath also seemed good to the holy Synod, to subjoin,
to the preceding doctrine on Penance, the following on the
sacrament of Extreme Unction, which by the Fathers was
regarded as l)eing the completion (consummativum), not
only of penance, but also of the whole Christian life, which


ought to be a perpetual penance. First, therefore, as re-
gards its institution. It (U^clares and teaches, that our most
gracious Redeemer, — who would have His servants at all
times provided with salutary remedies against all the wea-
pons of all their enemies, — as, in the other sacraments, He
prepared the greatest aids, whereby, during life. Christians
may preserve themselves whole from every more grievous
spiritual evil, so did He guard the close of life, by the
sacrament of Extreme Unction, as with a most firm defence.
For though oar adversary seeks and seizes opportunities,
all our life long, to be able in any way to devour our souls ;
yet is there no time wherein he strains more vehemently all
the powers of his craft to ruin us utterly, and, if he can pos-
sibly, to make us fall even from trust in the mercy of God,
than when he perceives the end of our life to be at hand.'



'Now, this sacred unction of the sick was instituted by
Christ our Lord, as truly and properly a sacrament of the
new law, insinuated indeed in Mark, but recommended and
promulgated to the faithful by James the Apostle, and
brother of the Lord. Is any man, he saith, sick among St. James v. 1 1, lo.
you'? Let J dm bring in the priests of the Church, and let
them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name
of the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save the sick
man ; and the Lord shall raise him up ; and if he be in
sins, they shall be forgiven him. In which words, as the
Church has learned from apostolic tradition, received froni
hand to hand, he teaches the matter, the form, the proper
minister, and the effect of this salutary sacrament. For
the Church has understood the matter thereof to be oil
blessed by a Bishop. For the unction very aptly repre-
sents the grace of the Hf)ly Grhost, with which the soul of
the sick person is invisibly anointed ; and furtheruioi'c, that
those words, " By this miction," &c. Sic, are the form.'




' Moreover, the thing signified {res) and the effect of this
sacrament are explained in those words ; And the prayer
of faith shcill save the sick man, and the Lord shall raise
him iq?, and if he he in sins they shall he forgiven him.
For the thing here signified is the grace of the Holy Ghost;
whose anointing cleanses away sins, if there be any still to
be expiated, as also the remains of sins ; and raises up and
strengthens the soul of the sick person, by exciting in him
a great confidence in the Divine mercy ; whereby the sick
being supported, bears more easily the inconveniences and
pains of his sickness ; and more readily resists the tempta-
Geii. iii. 1'). tions of the devil, who lies in wait for his heel; and at
times obtains bodily health, when expedient for the welfare
of the soul.'



* And now as to prescribing who ought to receive, and
who to administer, this sacrament, — this also was not ob-
scurely delivered in the words above cited. For it is there
also shown, that the proper ministers of this sacrament are
the Presbyters of the Church ; by which name are to be
understood, in that place, not the elders by age, or the fore-
most in dignity amongst the people, but, either bishops,
1 Tim. iv. 11. or priests by bishops rightly ordained hythe imposition of
the hands of the priesthood. It is also declared, that this
imction is to be applied to the sick, but to those especially
who lie in such danger as to seem to be about to depart
this life ; whence also it is called the sacrament of the
(k'[)arting. And if the sick should, after having received
this unction, recover, they may again be aided by the suc-
cour of this sacrament, when they fall into another like
danger of death. Wherefore, they are on no account to be
hearkened to, who, against so manifest and clear a sentence


[sententiam) of tlie Apostle James, teach, either tliat tliis
unction is a human figment or is a rite received from the
Fathers, which neither has a command from Grod, nor a
promise of grace : nor those who assert that it has already
ceased, as though it were only to be referred to the grace
of healing in the primitive church ; nor those who say that
the rite and usage which the holy Eoman Church observes
in the administration of this sacrament is repugnant to the
sentiment of the Apostle James, and that it is therefore to
be changed into some other : nor, finally, those who affirm
that this Extreme Unction may without sin be contemned
by the faithful : for all these things are most manifestly at
variance with the perspicuous words of so great an apostle.
Neither, assuredly, does the Eoman Church, the mother and
mistress of all other churches, observe aught in adminis-
tering this unction, — as regards those things which con-
stitute the substance of this sacrament, — but what blessed
James has prescribed. Nor indeed can there be contempt
of so great a sacrament without a heinous sin, and an
injury to the Holy Ghost Himself. These are the things
which this holy CEcumenical Synod professes and teaches
and proposes to all the faithful of Christ, to be believed and
held, touching the saci-aments of Penance and Extreme
Unction. And it delivers the following canons to be in-
violably preserved ; and condemns and anathematizes those
who assert what is contrary thereto.'

Two of the canons here referred to, respecting
Penance, have already been given. I subjoin the
three first of those which regard Extreme Unction : —

' Canon I.^ — If any one saith, that Extreme Unction is Ibid. pp. no. in.
not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ
ovir Lord, and promulgated by the blessed Apostle James ;
but is only a rite received from the Fathers, or a human
figment ; let him be anathema.'

* Canon IL — If any one saith, that the sacred unctiuu


of the sick does not confer grace, nor remit sins, nor com-
fort {alleviare, raise up) the sick; but that it has already
ceased, as though it were of ohi only the grace of working
cures ; let him be anathema.'

* Canon III. — If any one saith, that the right and usage
of Extreme Unction, which the holy Roman Church ob-
serves, is repugnant to the sentiment of the blessed apostle
James, and that it is therefore to be changed, and ma}^, with-
out sin, be contemned by Christians ; let him be anathema.'

Eireiiioon, Dr. PiisGy appcars to think that there is no ground,

pp. — , - , L c, ^ g^^pQpt tl^Q custom of the Church, why Extreme

Unction should not be used in England.' It is
perfectly certain, as has been before observed, that
there is no single point on which the Roman doc-
trine on any subject, need create a difficulty amongst
earnest-minded and rchgious men, if only it were
rightly understood. But as things are and have been
for the last three centuries, it certainly cannot be
maintained that the Church of England has borne
any sort of witness to the same faith as that of Rome
respecting this holj* sacrament ; and, if she beheves
in it at all, it is inconceivable how she can have so
systematically withheld it from her members.
ExpiiinatioiiK. This leads to a digression, which I hope will

n(jt be thought unseasonable. An opportunity for
exi)lanation should never be allowed to escape ; and
the remarks upon this subject in the ' Eirenicon,'
expressly invite an explanation.
Object First, I ask permission to correct the error into

Kxtmno Unction, wliicli tlic Icumed autlior of that work has fallen
Kirciiicou, p. 223. wlien lie says, that ' the Roman Church j^ractically


looks upon Extreme Unction as a mere preparation
for death.'

The practice of the Roman Cliurcli is at one witli
lier doctrine. The teaching of the Council of Trent
has been already stated. Pope Eugenius IV. also
instructed the Armenians, at the Council of Florence,
that the effects of Extreme Unction were — ' the ifaniouin,
healing of the mind ; and, so far as it is expedient, of Tom. ix. coi. 440.
the body itself also. — Effectus vera est mentis sanatio ;
et, in quantum auteni expedite ipsius etiam corporis.

The first provincial council of Cologne (a.d, 1536), Pars \\\. cap. 49,

. , „,-, Hardoiiin ix.

after treatuig of the other sacraments, says : — ' ihere coi. 2011.
remains Extreme Unction, which (since in death
there is the last conflict) is applied, that either the
sick may recover, if God see fit, or in faith and good
hope may fall asleep in the Lord.'

Hugo of St. Victor writes respecting it : — ' First, De Sacramentis,
the soul is cured, then the body is healed. The body He aii-d A.n. ii'4i>.
is sick for the correction of the soul. Therefore, in
order to obtain the health of the body, the soul must
first be cured. And if, perchance, the body is not re-
established in its former vigour, there is no danger
if only the soul shall have received its healtli.'

The Eoman Eitual teaches as follows : —

'The Sacrament of Extreme Unction, which was iusti- Kitualc Romamim,

-.. . T 1 1 1- 1 T • r i.1 Do Saoniiiirnto

tuted by Christ our Lord, as a celestial medicine, tor the irxtnniK Luctionis

health {salutaris) not only of the soul, but also of the

body, is with all zeal and diligence to be applied to

those who are dangerously sick; and, indeed, if possible,

at that time when their mind and reason are still in full

vigour : so that, in order to their fuller reception of the


grace of the sacrament, they may also on their part con-
tribute faith, and tlie pious will of the mind, whilst they
are anointed with the holy oil.'

Extreme Unction can never be given to anyone
whose life is endangered otherwise than by sickness,
as it would be if ' practically looked npon as a mere
preparation for death.' I subjoin the teaching of
the Tridentine Catechism on this point, and as to the
proper time for its aclministration : —

r. II. chap. %-i. * The faithful are to be taught that, although this

sacrament appertains to all, certain classes of persons are
excepted, to whom it is not to be administered. And in
the first place are excepted persons in sound health ; for
that to them Extreme Unction is not to be given, the

St. James V. li. Apostle also teaches, when he says: "Is any one sick
among you ? " and reason shows, for it was instituted to be
medicinal not only to the soul, but also to the body. As,
then, those onl}^ that labour under disease have occasion
for cure, so also this sacrament ought to be administered
to those who seem to be so dangerou.sly ill that it may be
feared lest their last day of life should be near. Those,
however, sin very grievously {r/ravissirae — a word which
denotes raortal sin) who are wont to observe that time of
anointing a sick person when, all hope of recovery having
been already lost, he is beginning to grow dead and sense-
less ; for it is obvious that it avails very much to a more
abundant reception of the grace of the .sacrament, if the sick
man be anointed with the sacred oil whilst the mind and
rea.'jon are .still in vigour, and he can bring to its reception
faith and the religious will of tlie mind. Wherefore, parish
priests must take care to apply this heavenly medicine, by
its own power at all times most salutary, then especially
when they see that its efficacy will also be increased by the
piety and devotion of those to whom it is to be administered.
'To no one, therefore, who is not visited bv grievous sick-


ness, is it lawful to give the sacrament of Unction, even
though he is about to incur risk of life ; either by under-
taking a perilous voyage, or by engaging in battle from
which certain death may impend over him, or even though,
condemned to capital punishment, he should be hurried off
to execution. Furthermore, all who want the use of reason,
are not fit to receive this sacrament ; nor are children, who
are not guilty of any sins, from the remains of which they
would have occasion to be healed by the remedial efficacy
of this sacrament ; nor yet idiots nor madmen, unless they
have sometimes the use of reason, and then in particular
give signs of piety, and ask to be anointed with the sacred
oil. For a person who, from his very birth, never had the
use of his mind and reason, is not to be anointed ; but if
the sick person, whilst yet in sound mind, wished to be
made a partaker of this sacrament, and subsequently
became insane and delirious, he is to be anointed.'

Cardinal Bellarmine's teaching is the same : —

' Many,' he says, ' fall into a great error, in not wishing Explanation

to receive this Sacrament till the moment of their passing r,, • ,- "V, ^ •

1 _ * Christian Doctrine,

away ; but the proper time to take it is when the physicians revised

judge the malady to be dangerous, and when human reme- '^ i^lPfhp

dies do not appear to be sufficient ; and therefore recourse Van. Consrepition

is then had to heavenly remedies, and so, not seldom it

happens that the sick person is healed by means of the holy

oil. Therefore this holy sacrament should not be asked

for, when we are not in danger of death, nor yet ought it

to be postponed till there is no more any hope. And this

is the reason why the holy oil is not given to those who are

about to be executed, because such persons are not sick,

nor have they any hope of life.'

The matter of the Sacrament is oil (which must
be from olives only) blessed by a bishop. This
blessing is given with ceremonial and great solemnity
during the mass of Maundy Thursday, the bishop

of the Eeform.

172 Tin-: matter and form of extreme unction.

leaving the altar for the purpose between the conse-
cration and communion. The Eoman (Tridentine)
Catechism observes, concerning the holy oil : —

Part II. chapter vi. « This matter most aptly signifies that which is effected
inwardly in the soul hy virtue of the Sacrament. For as
oil is very efficacious in mitigating bodily pain, so does the
virtue of this ISacrament alleviate the sadness and anguish
of the soul. Oil also restores health, brings cheerfulness,
and affords, as it were, food to light ; whilst it is also very
well calculated to restore the strength of a wearied body.
All which things declare the effects produced in the sick
person by divine power through the administration of this

The form of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction
consists in the following prayer, which is repeated
at the anointing of each organ of the senses : —
' Through this holy unction t^t and through His most
loving mercy, may the Lord forgive (or indulge) thee
[indulgeat tibi) whereinsoever thou hast trespassed
[quidquid deliquisti) by sight, hearing, &c. &c.' —
These words breathe more than the mere forgive-
ness of the guilt of sin ; they imply a fulness of
merciful indulgence.

The Eoman Catechism observes that the depreca-
tory form is intimated by St. James, and thus ex-

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