Maberly Phillips.

A history of banks, bankers, & banking in Northumberland, Durham, and North Yorkshire, illustrating the commercial development of the north of England, from 1755 to 1894, with numerous portraits, facsimiles of notes, signatures, documents, &c online

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sentenced to death. Maben was well connected, and during his imprisonment
was visited by many people in good position. On the fatal day he was dressed
in white and drawn on a sledge to the place of execution. Previously he had
attempted to escape from the Newgate Prison (Newcastle), for which he was put
into the dungeon and chained to the wall. He was executed " without the
Westgate," August nth, and, with two other felons, was buried in St. John's
Churchyard.



* An interesting account of Bennet (by the late James Clephan) will be found in Welford's " History of
Newcastle."

+ Hard head— a, small coin of mixed metal or copper. " The hard head is really the French hardie, Scotifled.
The hardie is supposed to be so called from Philip le Hardi, under whom they were first struck, and who began
to reign in 1270."— Pinker ton, Essay on Medals, 1789, ii., 110. " Dailie there war such numbers of Lions (alias
called Hardheids) prented, that the basenes thareof maid all thingis exceiding dear." — Knox, 'Historie of the
Keformation,' p. 147. It is evident that the coin also bearing a lion, struck under Mary 1559, had previously
received this name. For the complaint quoted from Knox refers to this year." Jamieson's " Scottish Dictionary."

t State Papers quoted in Richardson's " Rare Newcastle Tracts," No. 4,



[1^3]

In 1758, John Heslop was arrested on suspicion of coining. An advertisement
in the local paper of the day will show how evidence against a prisoner was then
obtained : —

Newcastle Courant, March 4th, 1758 — Northumberland. " Whereas one John Heslop alias Thomas

Anderson was lately committed to and is now a Prisoner in the Goal at Morpeth, for counterfeiting the

current coin of this Kingdom. All persons therefore who can charge the said Heslop alias Anderson

with any facts relating to coining or uttering counterfeit money are desired to make information

thereof before William Ward, Esq., and the Kev. Oliver Mayler, Clerk, two of His Majesty's Justices

of the Peace for the said County (by whom the said Heslop alias Anderson was committed) or any

other of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the said County.

By order of the Justices."

At the following Assizes Heslop was found guilty. He was sentenced to
death, but afterwards reprieved.



CLIPPING.

Coining appears to have been almost entirely confined to the lower ranks 01
society, but "Clipping" was practised by all classes.

A London writer in 1695 says : — "The coins had been diminished by clipping
and filing — many of the shillings contained only three pence in silver — an enonnity
attributed to the Goldsmiths who appear to have been rather sharp traders."

In the "Depositions from the Castle of York" (Surtees Soc. Pub., vol. xl.)
we find some interesting information upon this subject. The Editor (Dr. Raine)
says :—

" Cattle-stealing which is now so rare was one of the common vices both of tovni and country, but
perhaps the most serious and frequent crime was the clipping and deterioration of the coin. No one
can have any idea of the extent to which this infamous trade was carried on. I have seen the
confessions of several culprits, each of whom inculpated twenty or thirty others. The offence which
was high treason was repressed by the severest punishments, but the temptation was greater than
many would resist. There were few silversmiths in the north who had not purchased the proscribed
filings or clipped them o£E themselves. It was occasionally necessary to make a very severe example
of buyers as well as sellers. On one occasion a wealthy goldsmith, Arthur Mangey, the father of Thomas
Mangey, a well-known divine, was executed for this offence."

From the volume referred to we give two noted cases. Daniel Auty was
tried for clipping money in April, 1675. He was an adept at the art and boasted
that " he could clip as well as any man." He came to the house of a friend

" and desired him to procure of Mr. Beacham or any other, £100, or what other sum he could best
procure, for two or three days and he would allow this informant reasonable profitt for the loane
thereof, for the said Autye told him he could clipp about 3s. of every pound and doe it as well as any
man in England could doe it, and farther he told him it was not treason to talke of it."



[1^4]

Auty was a notorious vagabond and came to an untimely end. He and his
son-in-law, whose name was Busby, fitted up a place for coining. A quarrel arose,
when Auty was killed by his partner. Busby was convicted of the murder. He
was executed and afterwards hung in chains near Sandhutton, the gibbet long being
known as "Busby-stoop." Ralph Thoreby, the antiquarian, thus refers to this
incident in his diary, 1703, May 17th : —

" Along the banks of Swale are the very pleasant gardens of Sir William Robinson, lately Lord Mayor
of York, but a few miles after a more doleful object of Mr. Busby hanging in chains for the murder of
his father-in-law, Daniel Auty."

The other case is that of the Rev. John Booth, vicar of Bothal, near Morpeth.
He was tried May 8th, 1672.

" Mrs. Anne Smithson, of Stainley, sayth that near Lent in the year 1670-1, she being at
Bothwell Castle was informed by Ann Martin, servant to Mr. John Booth, parson of Bothwell Castle,
that the said Mr. Booth was a clipper of coyn. She further sayth that shee was an eye-witness of it as
also Roger Ambrey, who had part of the clippings. She saw through the crannys of boards and
observed a furnace about a yard high with panns and sheers fastened in a table. He had an assistant
called Henry Thompson now say'd to be at Tangier, although believed to be near Islip in Derbyshire.
. Upon his defrauding my Lord Newcastle and flight upon it, the said Booth sent to his wife to be sure
to pull down the furnace and to throw the iron pinns over the leads. Chr. Smithson, of Stainley,
gen. saith, ' that Mr. Booth did clip the king's coyne for lucre sake and sold it to one Ramsgill of
Newcastle a goldsmith and one Andrew Bell told him that he did carry a cloth bag from Bothwell to
Newcastle of Mr. Booth's with great lumps of silver melted in it which thumpt him upon the back like
boolder stones.' Many witnesses supported the charge of clipping. Ralph Daglish said that he built
a fire hearth for the rector in a corner near a window in a room over the gateway in Bothall Castle.
Booth had borrowed a pair of bellows from the village smith, and a person came forward who heard
the smith say " he wondered what the parson did with his bellows for they had a better blast than
they had before." Ramsey, a Newcastle goldsmith, deposed that he bought of Booth ' about 900
ounces of rund silver or bullion at twice,' thus showing the large scale on which the operations had
been carried on."

Booth at once fled the country, and seems to have behaved in a most atrocious
manner. To one witness he offered £12 if she would swear that she had been
induced to give false evidence. His assistant wrote to Sir Henry Goodricke,
saying : —

" Now by reason of my tender years he persuaded me to get out of the country till his troubles were
over, for he told me that there was none knew of his actings save myself, and a made in the house.
But for her he would give her a dose — which young made was taken away with one Douty, a
highwayman, by Booth's order and brought to Knaseborough, where she dyed very strangely and
suddenly."

I have no record of the value of silver at that date, but if we take it at 5/- per
oz., and it would probably not be less than that sum, the filings bought by Ramsey
would be worth £22^.



[1^5]

Specimens of clipped coins are here produced.




The upper illustration represents the obverse and reverse of half-crowns of
Charles I. the shape and size in which they left the mint. The lower one shows
half-crowns of the same coinage after passing through the hands of the clipper.

So notorious had the practice of clipping become, that in 1694 Fleetwood*
preached his noted sermon on the subject.

Francis in his " History of the Bank of England " quotes the case of William
Guest, one of the Tellers, who was found to have been in the habit of filing some
of the Guineas in his charge and afterwards procuring a newly milled edge, which
was executed by the use of a most ingenious machine invented by himself. Four
pounds eleven ounces of gold filings were found in Guest's house.



TONTINES AND LOTTERIES.

One branch of the business of the early provincial banker was the disposal of
lottery tickets. It is, therefore, necessary that a short account be given of State
Tontines and Lotteries. Fortunately they were discontinued ere the days of the
present generation, but for three-quarters of a century they inculcated and

♦ A Sermon Against Clipping Preach 'd before the Bight Honourable the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen
at Guild-hall Chappel, on December 16th, 1691. By W. Fleetwood, Chaplain in Ordinary to their Majesties.
London : Printed by Tho. Hodgkin, and are to be Sold by John Whitlock, near Stationers'-Hall, 1691.



[1^6]

sustained a love for gambling that permeated all classes of society. Many-
interesting particulars regarding the early State lotteries are given in " Notes on
the National Debt " that appeared in the Journal of the Institute of Bankers,
April, 1890.

The earhest form of lottery was the Tontine, instituted in 1692. Life
Annuities were granted on the Tontine principle which

"Instead of depending upon separate lives, depended upon series of lives, and as the members of the
series died off, their shares were divided among the survivors, until the aggregate annuity or a fixed
proportion of it, became the property of the last survivor. . . . There were also lottery loans : a
low rate of interest being coupled with prizes in which every investor might be a winner : and there
were lotteries pure and simple with blanks only for the unsuccessful."

In 1699 an Act was passed prohibiting all lotteries. It states : —

" Several evil-disposed persons, for divers years past, have set up many mischievous and unlawful
games called lotteries . . . and have thereby most unjustly and fraudulently got to themselves
great sums of money from the children, servants of several gentlemen, traders, and merchants, and
from other unwary persons, to the utter ruin and impoverishment of many families, and to the
reproach of the English laws and government."

Nevertheless the Government were the first to break their own law by special
Act of Parliament passed in 1710 for raising ^1,500,000 by lottery. In the
first half of the eighteenth century the State lotteries were only used to attract
subscriptions to loans, but from 1755 profit was not only aimed at but largely
realised. The great rage for gains was from 1785 to 1823, during which time not
a single year passed without the issue of a lottery. " The aggregate revenue
derived from this source between these dates is estimated at about /i 1,000,000."

The prizes offered ranged from /lo to ^20,000. The regulations for
conducting them were most elaborate, and all arranged by the State. The tickets
in the first place were issued by the Bank of England ; they were principally
purchased by dealers in lottery tickets, who required a license, which was recorded
in the London Gazette. The tickets were circulated through the country by
numerous agents called "Morocco men" (from their red leather pocket books),
who sold them at enormous profit.

The rush for the first issue was often very great ; we read in the London
letter of the Newcastle Journal, Saturday, April 19th, 1755 : —

" The crowd was so great to-day at the Bank (of England) of subscribers for Lottery tickets, that the
Counters were broken by the Eagerness of the people in pushing forward. The subscription closed at
Five this evening and it is thought that double the intended number is subscribed for."

The pages of the local papers of this date abound in the most tempting
advertisements regarding the lotteries. Every vendor of tickets claims to have
had the greatest possible luck in the chances that he had sold on previous



[127]



LOTTERY HAND-BILLS.



Get



HOW TO

lip in the World.




I'M do«B ID the WO1I4,

Pray how ihall I riM



Ml tin .— Ml Ull joa, good Sir,

! If jow'tlopeo }C«reyc«.




If I cp#n my eye*.

Pn»y •\m\ i» yow «»]■ ^



Ttut ym'd look u tbia Ticket
I>t pcicbu d of BISH





WVy ■ Oimad Tvraty Thoiaiad
Hu Lock hat bmogbt ou!




Ak • if I had • Shut of n (able >

Phic,
to the world. [ aio mre. I *hoald

fuy tooa rMc.



Tlifa why don't yon b«y^— te't
Contnctor ooct aoi«.

Who kaov* «bat good Fortau
for you u in iton *




Tout adncc I will take, ud I U koiry

»wiy.
To purcbue > Ticket hc/«R Drawing



Slop !— We'll both go togrtber, tad

tbn we ibvU ice
K yoor Lock lad bum will togetbrr

agiw.



New Lottery will be all drawn in One Day,
the 30th of This Month, (August.) — Two
Prizes of £20,000, &c.— All Sterling Money.—
Every Ticket drawn singly. — £11,200 in Extra
Prizes.

Ticket and Shares are selling by
T. BISH, Sole Contractor,

4, CORNHILL, and 9, CHARING CROSS,
London.

And by all his Agents in the Country.



SIGNS

To be observed before the

21st of JANUARY,

She-wing the Wonders that may be performed on that Day
by the Purchase of a Ticket or Share in the present popular
Lottery, which consists of only 12,000 Tickets, containing
2 Prizes of 20,000 Guineas, and upwards of 40 other Capitals,
all in Sterling Money (No Stock Prizes). Begins Drawing
JANUARY 21, 1817.



BY A WHOLE TICKET YOU MAY

build set up and become




BY AN HALF YOU MAY

retire into buy and be the



of




become



BY A QUARTER YOU MAY

of the and after provide for those




BY AN EIGHTH YOU MAY

portion off in provide for or secure a in




BY A SIXTEENTH YOU MAY

set up buy or advance iu if iu you may be




BY A WHOLE TICKET you may build a mansimi, set up

a carriage, and become Member of Parliament.
BY AN HALF you may retire into the country, buy a farm,

and be the ^squire of the village.
BY A QUARTER you may become independent of the world,

and after death provide for those yoii love.
BY AN EIGHTH you may portion off a Davghter in

marriage, provide for a Son, or secure a support in

old age.
BY A SIXTEENTH you may set up in business, buy a

commission in tlie army, or advance in tlie church; if in

distress you may be relieved, if in affluence you may do

a tlwusand good and charitable actions.



[128]



Exact Representation of Drawing the State Lottery,

For the Last Time in tliis Kingdom,
18tli Oct., 1826.




occasions. Twenty thousand tickets at £io was a very customary sum to be
raised — but the price of a ticket was often much greater. To tempt the poorer
classes chances were divided into halves, quarters, eighths, or sixteenths. Thomas
Moor "at the Burnt House in the Side," and T. Slack at the "New Printing
Office," were the leading Newcastle vendors from 1755 to 1760. From the
account of the Old Bank (Bell, Cookson,
& Co.) it will be seen that in 1759 they
were advertising to supply tickets in the
State Lottery upon London terms, and
from the books of Davison-Bland we gather,
that the bankers procured tickets for their
clients, and also invested in chances on their
own account. The drawing sometimes ex-
tended over a period of forty days. The
result of the tickets drawn was made
public daily, and if high prizes were left in
the wheel, speculation in the remaining
chances grew deeper and deeper. A large
prize was generally awarded to the latest
drawn ticket, so that to the very last the
excitement was maintained.

In the early part of the present
century Newcastle was flooded with hand-
bills on this subject, in prose, verse, and
hieroglyphics. I here produce a few
specimens.

The last drawing was held on i8th
October, 1826, as will be seen from the
annexed quaint illustration of the plan
pursued.

The writer of the article previously
referred to, in the Journal of the Institute
of Bankers, says : —

'< The demoralisation these lotteries produced
among all classes of society, at length compelled the
State to listen to the protests and warnings which
reflective people had constantly addressed to them
on the subject. In 1826 they were finally abolished,
and tontines and lotteries have since that time com-
pletely disappeared as a resource of British finance."



The Wheel containing the Numbers.
The Wheel containing the Prizes.
The Proclaimer of the Numbers.
The Proclaimer of the Prizes.
The Blue-coat Boy who draws the Numbers.
The Blue-coat Boy who draws the Prizes.
The Commissioner to watch the Drawing of the
Numbers.

8 The Commissioner to watch the Drawing of the
Prizes.

9 The Commissioner to check that the right Num-
ber is proclaimed.

10 The Commissioner to check that the right Prize
is proclaimed.

11 The President who knocks with his hammer
when a Number is to be drawn.

12 & 13 The Two Commissioners who file the Num-
bers and Prizes as they are drawn.

14 The Commissioners' Clerks who take down the
Numbers as they are drawn.

Hazard &. Co. Contractors for this the Last
of all Lotteries, respectfully remind the Public
that the present is positivehj and inevitably
the Last Lottery that will be allowed in this
Kingdom.

Six Prizes of £30,000!

IN ONE DAY, ISth THIS MONTH, October.

13" HAZARD and Co. in One Lottery Sold ALL the

f30,000 Prizes, and very recently THREE £20,000

Prizes in one Day.

A great Variety of Numbers are Selling by

R. HALL, Newcastle-on-Tyne,

AGENT TO HAZABD AND CO.

Boyal Exchange Gate, 26, Cornhill, d 324, Oxford
at. end of Regent St.



[i^9]

%\6t Of 1Rortb*'Countr^ Bankers

THAT APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN CONNECTED WITH LONDON FIRMS.



LAMBTON & CO., Newcastle.
1788 Davison-Bland, Landell, Chambers, G.
Hoar, Smoult, & Ashworth.

1790 Hoar and Smoult return to India, firm
becomes R. J. Lambton & Co.



MOWBRAY, HOLLINGSWORTH, & CO.,

Dablington,
1773 M. Mowbray.

1784 Richard Richardson & John Mowbray.
3802 Wetherell, Mowbray, & Co.
1806 Mowbray, Hollingsworth, Shields,
Boulton, Wetherell, & Mason.



NORTHUMBERLAND BANK.
1803 Batson, Reed, & Co.
1821 Stop payment.
Resume at Berwick as Batson, Berry, & Co.



CHAPMAN & CO., Newcastle.
1819 Edw. Chapman, of Whitby, Wm.

Chapman, of North Shields.
1824 Chapman & Co.
1836 Converted to Joint Stock Bank.



GOODCHILD, JACKSON, & CO.,
Sunderland.
1802 John Goodchild, John Jackson, C.A.
Heurtley, Wm. Jackson.



BARNETT, HOARE, & CO., London.
1740 John Bland & Son.
1761 Bland, Barnett, & Co.
1763 Bland, Barnett, & Bland.
1772 Bland, Barnett, & Hoare.
1790 The name of Bland drops out.



HOLLINGSWORTH & CO., London.

PRESCROTT, GROTE, & CO., London.
1736 Pepys & Hollingsworth.
1748 Hollingsworth & Co.
1750 No trace.



1766 Prescott, Grote, Culverden, & John

Hollingsworth,
1801 *Prescott, Grote, & Prescott.



REMINGTON & CO., London.
1763 Knight, Batson, & Co.
1766 Batson, Stephenson, & Co.
1785 Batson, Stephenson, Grace, & Glover.
1794 Batson & Remington.
1812 Stephenson & Remington.



FRY & SONS, London.
1806 Fry & Sons.
1815 Frys & Chapman.
1824 Extinct.



JACKSON, GOODCHILD, & CO., London.

1802 Jackson, Goodchild, & Co. Recorded in
lists, but not in the account of the
banks in handbook of " London
Bankers."

1819 Drop out of lists.



1811 RAIKES & CO., Malton.



CURRIES & CO., London.
1788 A junior partner of the name of Raikes

admitted.
1814 Curries, Raikes, & Co.

* There was an old Darlington family of the name of Prescott. They intermarried with the Allans, another
Darlington family. A member of this house became partner in Bussell, Allan, & Wade, bankers at Sunderland,
1790 to 1800.

Q



PART II.

BANKS REVIEWED

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.



[ 132]



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BANKS REVIEWED.





PAGK




Alnwick & County Bank


133




Backhouse & Co. . .


134




Baker, Shafto, Ormston, & Co.


155




Batson, Berry, Langhorn, & Wilson . .


162




Batson, Wakefield, & Scott


163




Baxter & Co.


173




Beckett & Co. (see Bower d Co.)






Bell, Cookson, Carr, & Airey . ,


174




Bell, Woodall, & Co


196




Blake, Sir P. & Co. [See Batson,






Wakefield d Scott)






Bower & Co


199




Branch Bank of England


201




Britain & Co.


'Al8


.


Broadley & Co. . .


218




Bullock, Benjamin


218




Campion, Margaret & Robert . .


219




Chapman & Co. . .


221




Chaytor, Sir William & Co


225




Clark, Richardson, & Hodgson


227




Clement, J.


229




Cooke, Robinson, & Co. . .


2.30




Dale & Co.


233




Darlington District Joint Stock Bank..


230




Davison- Bland & Co.


239




Dresser, Joseph, & Co. . .


203




Dunn, Benjamin. .


263




Elstob, Luke


264




Fenton, Scott, Nicholson, & Smith . .


205




Fletcher, Stubbs, Dew, & Stott


266




Forster, Burrell, Rankin, & Co.


266




Frankland, John & James


273




Goodchild, Jackson, & Co.


274




Hague, Strickland, & Allen


279




Hammond, Hirst, & Close


280




Hawks, Grey, Priestman, & Co.


281




Hayes, Leatham, Hodgson, & Co.


283




Hodgkin, Barnett, Pease, Spence, & Co.


284




Hutchinson, Geo. & Thos.


287




Hutton, Other, & Co


291




Industrial Bank, The . .


294




Lambton & Co. (see Davison-Bland






d- Co.)






Lawson, Sir John


296




Lister & Co.


298




London & Northern Bank


299




London Bank of Scotland


803




Loraine, Sir Chas. & Co. (see Baker,






Shafto, d Co.)






Lumley, Smith, & Co. . .


304




Miles, Wells, & Co


306




Mills, Robinson, Hopper, & Co.


307




Mowbray, HoUingsworth, & Co. (see






Richardson d Mowbray)






Mowbray, HoUingsworth, Wetherell,






& Co


310




National Provincial Bank of England


3L3 .





Newcastle Commercial Joint Stock

Bank
Newcastle Joint Stock . .
Newcastle, Shields, & Sunderland

Union Joint Stock Bank
Northern Counties Bank
North-Eastern Banking Co., Limited. .
North of England Joint Stock Bank . .
Northumberland & Durham District

Bank
Pease & Co.

Pease, J. & J. W

Peirse, Consett, Topham, & Walton . .

Peirson, Thomas . .

Raikes & Co.

Raper, Swann, & Co.

Reed, Batson, & Co. (see Batson,

Wakefield, d Scott)
Richardson & Holt (see Clark,

Richardson, d Hodgson)
Richardson & Mowbray . .
Ridley, Sir Matthew White, & Co. (see

Bell, Cookson, d Co.)
Roper & Priestman (see Sir John

Lawson)
Russell, Allan, & Co.
Sanders & Sons . .
Savings Bank, The Newcastle . .

Shields, William

Simpson, Chapman, & Co.

Si:npson, Sanderson, Taylorson, & Co..

Skinner, Atty, & Holt

Stockton and Durham County Bank . .
Sunderland Joint Stock Bank . .
Surtees & Burdon
Swaledale and VVensleydale Joint

Stock Bank
Sykes, Sir Christopher . .
Tyne Exchange Banking Co. . .
Union Joint Stock Bank, The (see

Newcastle, Shields, d Sunderland

Union Joint Stock)
Warwick, Lamb, Wright, & Co.
Wear Joint Stock Bank, The (con-
templated) . .
Wholesale Co-operative Society, Limited
Woodall, Tindall, & Co. (see Bell,

Woodall, d Co.)

Woods & Co

York City and County Banking Co. . .

York Union Banking Co.

Yorkshire Agricultural & Commercial

Banking Co.
Yorkshire Banking Co. . .
Yorkshire & Cleveland Bank . .
Yorkshire District Banking Co.
Yorkshire Penny Bank . .



315
319

320
326
328
330

335
345
346
350
360
361
361



353



362
365
366
372
373
378
379
.382
383
385

401
402
403



404



404

405



406
409
410

412
414
415
415
417



Part II.— BANKS.



Hlnwich an& dount? Banft. ainwicn.

Partners.

Passed to North Eastern

Founded iSsT- William Dickson. t c- xi t r.

•^' Joint Stock Bank, Ltd., iSy;.

William Woods. "^ » > /o

THE collapse of the Northumberland and Durham District Bank in 1857, ^^ft
Messrs. Lambton & Co. the sole bankers at Alnwick. Deeming that there
was room for another bank, many of the leading tradespeople waited upon
their townsman, Mr. William Dickson, Solicitor, and asked him to open one.
Mr, Dickson conferred with his friend, Mr. William Woods, Banker, of Newcastle,



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