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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



Cni/^>l-w'u l\\i W1.I jiiWtll^



AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF MADRAS GOVERNMENT
PUBLICATIONS.



IN INDIA.

A. C. Barraud & Co. (Late A. J. Combridge & Co.), Madras.

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta.

E. M. GoPALAKRiSHNA KoNE, Pudumantapam, Madura.

HiGGiNBOTHAMS, (Ltd.), Mount Road, Madras.

V. Kalvanarama Iyer & Co., Esplanade, Madras.

G. C. Loganatham Brothers, Madras.

S. MuRTHY & Co., Madras.

G. A. Natesan & Co., Madras.

The Superintendent, Nazair Kanun Hind Press, Allahabad.

P. R. Rama Iyar & Co., Madras.

D. P.. Taraporevala Sons & Co., Bombay.

Thacker & Co. (Ltd.), Bombay.

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta,

S. Vas & Co., Madras.



IN ENGLAND.

B. H. Blackwell, 50 and 51, Broad Street, Oxford.

Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, London, W'.C.

Deighton, Bell & Co. (Ltd.), Camb. idge.

T. Fisher Unwin (Ltd.), i, Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C.

Grindlay & Co., S4, Parliament Street, London, S.W.

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. (Ltd.), 68—74, Carter Lane, London,

E.C. and 25, Museum Street, London, W.C.
Henry S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, London, E.C. .

P. S. King & Son, 2 and 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, London, S.W.
LuzAC & Co., 46, Great Russell Street, London', W.C.
B. Quaritch, II, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W.
W. Thacker & Co., 2, Creed Lane, London, E.C.



ON THE CONTINENT.

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris.
Martinus Nijhofk, The Hague, Holland.



MADRAS DISTRICT GAZETTEERS.



I I



GODAVARI

VOLUME I.



[Price, 2 rupees.] [3 shillings.]




\f • _NaBavaram "'-■' 'O '^''^'^'*°'''-'^ cj.jji'p h '^' "/ '*^'




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MADRAS DISTRICT GAZETTEERS



godAvari



BY

F. R. HEMINGWAY,

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE,



MADRAS:
REPRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS.

I 9 lis .






/9/S
PREFACE. /. /



This Gazetteer has been prepared on the plan prescribed by
Government according to which statistics have been rele-
gated as far as possible to a separate Appendix which is to
be revised decennially. The original ' District Manual ' was
written by Mr. H. Morris of the Madras Civil Service in
1878.

I have gratefully to return thanks for help from many
quarters. The account of the early history has been almost
entirely based on information supplied by Rai Bahadur
V. Venkayya, m.a., the Government Epigraphist, whose
kindness in reading and correcting my drafts and answer-
ing my questions I cannot too warmly acknowledge. The
District officials have all given me their ready and cordial
assistance, and so have many non-official residents of the
district. I wish particularly to express my obligations to the
Revs. J. H. Harper, J. Cain and A. Gangloff, to Messrs.
E. B. Elwin, I.C.S., H. Lafiamme, C. Mildred, G. F. F.
Foulkes, M. G. K. Waite, J. F. Marshall, M. Woodhouse,
W. J. M. Inkster, L. D. Buchanan, H. J. Allen, F. Armitage,
A. C. Pranatartihara Aiyar, R. Venkata Rao and V. Partha-
saradhi Chetti and to Capt. M. N. Chaudhuri, I. M.S. All
these gentlemen have helped me with the records at their
disposal or with their personal experience ; and they have
supplied a large portion of the material found in this Gazet-
teer. I have also to thank Mr. J. A. Gumming, I.C.S., for
reading through the proofs and for many valuable sugges-
tions.



F. R. H.



1111157



PLAN OF CONTENTS.



Chapter pages

I. Physical Description ... ... 1-16

II. Political History ... ... ... ... ... 17-37

III. The People 38-67

IV. Agriculture and Irrigation... ... ... ... 68-91

V. Forests ... ... ... ... ... ... Q2-101

VI. Occupations AND Trade ... ... 102-123

VII. Means of Communication ... ... 124-134

VIII. Rainfall AND Seasons ... ... 135-147

IX. Public Health ... ... ... ... ... 148-152

X. Education ... ... ... ... ... ... 153-159

XI. Land Revenue Administration ... ... ... 160-180

XII. Salt, Abkari and Miscellaneous Revenue 181-187

XIII. Administration of Justice ... ... ... ... 188-195

XIV. Local Self-Government ... ... ... ... 196-199

XV. Gazetteer —

Amalapuram Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 200-206

Cocanada Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 207-216

Nagaram Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 217-220

Peddapuram Taluk ... ... ... .>. ... 221-226

Pithapuram Division ... ... ... ... ... 227-239

Rajahmundry Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 240-248

Ramachandrapuram Taluk ... ... ... ... 249-254

Tuni Division ... ... ... ... ... ... 255-257

Bhadrachalam Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 258-265

Chodavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 266-277

Polavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 278-283

Yellavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 284-288

Index 289-302



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION.

PAGE
General DESCRIPTION (page i) — Chief towns (2) — Etymology of the name-
Natural divisions (3). Hills— The Ghats. Rivers (4)— The Godavari —
Its sanctity (6) — Its islands and encroachments — The season of its floods
(7) — Its tributaries — The Yeleru, Soils (8). Geology — Physical changes
now in progress (9). Minerals (10) — Coal — The Gauridevipeta field —
Bedadanuru — Gold (11) — Iron — Graphite — Mica — Building stone — Rock-
crystals, garnets, sapphires. Climate — Rainfall — Temperature (12) —
Wind and weather. Flora. Fauna (13) — Cattle— Buffaloes — Sheep and
goats (14) — Cattle-breeding — Feeding methods— Cattle diseases — Cattle
fairs (15)— Game— Fish — Native sportsmen (16) ... ... ... ... 1-16

CHAPTER IL

POLITICAL HISTORY.

Early History (page 17)— Asoka's conquest, 260 B.C. — The Andhras, down
to 200 A. D. (18) — The Pallavas, about 200-615 A.D. — The Chalukyas —
Their conquest of Vengi, about 615 (19)— Separation of the Eastern and
Western Chalukyas, about 630 — Hiuen Tsiang's description of the former
(20) — Eastern Chalukya rule, 630-999- -Chola conquest, 999 — Kulottunga
Chola I (21) — He obtains the Chola and Vengi thrones, 1070 — His viceroys
in Vengi — His death in 1119 and the decline of the Cholas (22)— The
Velanandu chieftains, twelfth century (23) — The Kona chiefs of the delta
— Local chiefs of Ellore, Nadendla, etc, — The Kakatiyas of Warangal
conquer Kistna about 1200 (24) — And Godavari about 1300— Pratapa
Rudra's viceroys — Temporary Musalman conquest of the district, 1323 (25)
— The Korukonda Reddis, 1325-95 — The Reddis of Kondavid, 1344-1422
— The Rajahmundry Reddis, 1422-50 (26) — The Gajapatis of Orissa take
the district, 1450 — But cede part of it to the Muhammadans, 1470 — The
latter ousted, 1489 (27) — Conquest by Vijayanagar, 1 515— Musalman
conquest of Kistna, 1540 — And of Godavari, 1571 (28). Muhammadan
Period — Weakness of their rule — Aurangzeb establishes his authority,
1687 (29) — The Subadar of the Deccan becomes independent, 1724 — The
Northern Circars ceded to the French, 1753 (30)— Their difficulties there —
Eussy at length obtains possession, 1757 (31) — Forde's expedition against
the French, 1758 — His victory at Condore — The country cleared of the
French (32) — Cession of the Northern Circars to the English, 1765 (33).
English Period (34) — Early administration — Disturbances of the peace —
In 1785-go (34)— In 1790-1800— Quieter times thereafter (36)— Subba
Reddi's rebellion, 1858 — Outbreaks in Rampa 17-37



X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

THE PEOPLE.

PAGE

General Characteristics (page 38)— Density of the population— Its growth
— Parent-tongue — Religions. The Jains (38). The Musalmans. The
Christians — American Evangelical Lutheran Mission — The Canadian
Baptist Mission (40) — The Church Missionary Society (41) — The Roman
Catholic Mission (42). The Hindus — Villages— Houses (43)— Dress (44)
— Food (44) — Amusements — Superstitions (46)— Village, caste, and family
gods (47) — Marriage rules and ceremonies (49) — Funerals (50). Prin-
cipal Castes — Telugu Brahmans (51) — Razus (53)— Komatis (54) — Kapus
(55) — Kammas — Perikes (56) — Idigas (57) — Gamallas — Kamabattus (58)
— Sanis— Malas — Madigas (60) — Koyas — Hill Reddis (66) 38-67



CHAPTER IV.

AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION.

Wet Cultivation (page 68)— Paddy; its seasons — Its varieties — Rain-fed
paddy (69)— Sowing 7'ersiis transplantation — Methods of raising seedlings —
Preparation of fields (70) — Transplantation and care of the crop — Second-
crop cultivation (71) — Third crops — Agricultural maxims — Wet crops
other than paddy (72) — Rotations — Cultivation of sugar-cane — Jaggery-
making (74) — Ratooning — Varieties of sugar-cane — Recent sugar-cane
disease and the Samalkot experimental farm (75). Dry Cultivation (76)
— Seasons, etc. — Cultivation (77)— Cholam — Tobacco (77) —Improvement
of the leaf — Shifting cultivation in the Agency— Storage of grain (79).
Irrigation — Protected area. Thk Godavari Anicut — Origin of the idea
(So) — First estimates — The site and design (81) — Progress of construction
(82) — Subsequent difiiculties (83) — Alterations since effected (84) — Distri-
butarv works (85) — The Gannavaram aqueduct (86) — Completion of
distributaries (87) — Financial results of the scheme — Possible extensions
of it (88) — Its administration. Other Irrigation Sources (89) — Minor
channels and tanks— Wells— Artesian wells (90). Economic Condition
OF Agriculturists 68-91



CHAPTER V.

FORESTS.

Early Operations (page 92)— Progress'of reservation. Settlement (93)—
Proprietary rights -Susceptibilities of the jungle tribes (04)— P6r/z< cultiva-
tion. Administration (95)— In Rampa— In the rest of the Agency (96)
— River transit rules (97)— Fire-protection — Artificial reproduction (97);
casuarina— Mangrove Introduction of exotics, etc. General Charac-
ter OF the Forests— On the coast— In the uplands (99) — In Polavaram
and Yellavaram— In Rampa (100)— In Bhadrichalam— Timber and the
market for it (loi)— Minor forest produce— Forest revenue 92-101



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER VI.

OCCUPATIONS AND TRADE.

PAGB
Arts and Industries (page 102) — Silk-weavers — Cotton-weavers (103) ;
their numbers — Their methods — Tape-weaving (104) — Gunny-weaving —
Cotton-dyeing — Chintz-stamping (105) — Mats and tattis — Metal-work —
Painting (106) — Pith-work— Musical instruments — Wood and stone carving
— Ropes (107) — Oils — Tanning — Shoes (108) — Baskets — Bangles — Pottery
(109) — Country sugar - Mercury — House-building (no) — Printing-presses
—Rice-mills — Indigo factories — Ship-building— Dowlaishweram workshops
— District Board Workshops at Cocanada (in)— Samalkot distillery and
sugar-factory — Dummagudem lace (112). Trade — Markets — Grain-deal-
ing — Exports — Imports (113) — Trade of Cocanada— The harbour — Port
conservancy (114) — European business houses at Cocanada (115) —
European Chamber of Commerce— Steamers visiting the port — Amount of
trade — Character of trade (116). Weights and Measures (117) —
Goldsmiths' weights — Commercial weights — Measures of capacity (118) —
Miscellaneous commercial notations (120)— Lineal measures — Land
measures (121) — Measures of time (122) — Local monetary terms ... ... 102-123

CHAPTER VII.

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION.

Roads — (page 124)— Their length and condition— Quarries — Maintenance,
establishment and allotments (125) — Bridges — Ferries (126). Water
Carriage (127)— The rivers — Upper Godavari project (128)— Navigable
canals (129) ; their history — Expenditure and traffic (130) — Nature of
traffic (131) — Conflicting interests of irrigation and navigation (132).
Madras Railway. Accommodation for travellers (133)—
Bungalows — Chattrams ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 124-134

CHAPTER Vm.

RAINFALL AND SEASONS

Rainfall (page 135). Famine (136) — The conditions existing —Famine
in 1791 (137)— The ' Guntiir famine' of 1833 (138) — Distress in
1835-38 (139) — Disasters of 1839-41 (140)— Improvement resulting from
the anicut — Scarcity in the Agency, 1897. Inundations by the sea
(141) — About 1706 — In 1787 (142) — Its extent and effects — The accom-
panying hurricane (143) — The landholders' losses — Inundation of 1839.
Cyclones (144). Floods- In 1614 (X4



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