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goddess in that temple on the mornings of the 18th to 21st days of
Panguui(March-April), and this is interpreted as an act of worship
by the sun. The temple is said to contain a remarkable stone car.
In the village is a noteworthy bull-god carved out of solid rock.

Tiruttalaynr. Tiruttalayur : Ten miles north-north-east of Musiri, Popu-

lation 1,751. The Saivite temple of Virabhadra is well known as
an excellent place for driving devils out of ' possessed ' women.
The two tamarind trees in front of the building are called respect-
ively the ' sleeping tree ' and the ' sleepless tree ' {urangum puli
• and nrangd puli) and are supposed to be two sages who were

turned into trees long ago by a curse.

Tiruvengimalai : Three miles west of Musiri. The name is
said to bo a corruption of Tiru-i-6ngi-malai (' the" holy high bees'
mountain ') and to have been so called because the sage Agastya,
finding the gates of the Siva temple closed one evening, turned
himself into a bee and so obtained entrance to perform his worship.
The lingara of the temple is said to be transparent and also to
throw a green shadow when camphor is burned. It is therefore
called the ' emerald ' [marakata) lingam. The god is connected
with the deities of Kadambarkovil and Eatnagiri. At all three
temples Mondays in Kartigai and the Tni piimm day are specially
holy.

T Wilson, p. 417 ; Local Records, viii, 326-333 ; U, 198 foil. ; and Ixvii, 130.



292 TRICHINOPOLY

CHAP. XV. account of its origin and early history. In these it is stated that
ifusiRi. the zamindar's family is descended from one Vema Reddi who
lived in Anegundi near Vijayanagar. A descendant of his, one
Terrama Eeddi, being ill-treated by the then Vijayanagar king,
emigrated to Trichinopoly and established himself in Scttikulam
(14 miles east of Turaiyur) with some 200 followers. They
cultivated in the day time and plundered at night till they roused
the anger of the local chieftain, a certain Vira Tottiyan, who
suppressed the intruders and took away all their property.
Beinforced by more followers from Anegundi, Yerrama Eeddi
gained the favour of the Nayakkans of Madura and secured from
them a grant of some of the forest near Scttikulam. Encouraged
by this success, he vowed to the gods Ekambara and Venkata of
Scttikulam that if they helped him to become a poligar his family
would ever afterwards call their eldest sons Yenkata and their
eldest daughter Kamakshi. He then attacked the local poligar
by night and murdered him in his house; and he afterwards
obtained the office of poligar by sending suitable presents to the
Nayakkan king.

These events arc said to have occurred between 1450 and 1456,
but if the connection of the family with the Madura Nayakkans is
historical, the dates must be over a century too early. The MSS.
go on to give a list of eleven poligara from Terrama Eeddi to
Yijaya Ycnkatachala Eeddi, who was poligar at the beginning
of the last century. The greatest of them seems to have been one
Nallappa Eeddi, the second from Terrama Eeddi, who is said to
have cleared the forest, founded villages and made Turaiyur his
capital. He is stated to have taken 5,000 men into the field
against ' the Eaja of Tanjore,' who was invading Trichinopoly ;
to have defeated him with great loss in a night attack ; and to
have received great gifts and honour from Yangaru Tirumala ^ for
this achievement. Another poligar named Linga Eeddi (seventh
fi'om Terrama Eeddi) is credited in another MS. with having
defeated a band of free-booters from Gingee ' in the time of
Min^kshi and Yangaru Tirumala.'

With the Anglo-French war in the Carnatic, more reliable
chronicles begin. In 1752 Turaiy^ir was overrun by the Mysore
and French troops, who deposed the then poligar and appointed
his cousin in his place. The new chief failed to pay his peshkash,
and was himself deposed in favour of his predecessor in 1755.
The English at this time were satisfied that Turaiytir belonged to
Mysore, and refused to interfere with the action of the French.

' The rival of Min6kshi, boe p. 60.



I



GAZETTEET?. 298

to whom the Myaore general had surrendered all hin liphfs in the chap. \
district.' '^Phe polipar ap^ain fell into arrears in tlio following Mdsibi.
year, was again deposed, and his predecessor was again instated.^
The deposed chief took refuge with the zamindars of Udaiyar-
pnlaiyam and Ariyalur ; and in 175H, war having again broken out
between the French and Knglish, Captain Cailland, wlio commanded
the English troops in Trichinopoly, determined to reinsttite him in
Turaiyur in order to oblige those two chieftains, who had always
been opponents of the French. He accordingly sent a detach-
ment under Captain Joseph Smith in August of that year to attack
Turaiyur. Some spirited skirmishing took place in the woods
which surrounded the village,'"' the town was captured and the
French protege expelled. Three companies of sepoys with three
sergeants were left to protect the reinstated poligar. The expelled
chieftain escaped to Mysore, where he collected a force of mal-
contents and plundered the country between Turaiyur and
Uttatur. In November of the same year the garrison of Trichi-
nopoly had to be reduced for the relief of Madras, which was being
besieged by the French, and tlie greater part of the small force at
Turaiyur was recalled. The exiled poligar took advantage of the
opportunity and captured Turaiyiir ; and he then offered to pay a
large sum to the Nawab, who accepted his terms and confirmed
him in the possession of his estate.

In 1 773 the poligar quarrelled with his son, who, fearing for
his life, laid his cause before the Nawab at Madras. The peshkash
had hitherto been Rs. 1 ,50,000 ; and on the young suppliant
agreeing to raise it to Rs. 1,75,000, he was himself made poligar
and his father removed to Madras. The old man however used
the same means to get the estate that had been employed by
his son, and offered to increase the peshkash to Rs. 2,00,000 if the
property were placed under his authority.

' His offer was accepted, and he was restored to the pdlaiyam in
1787. In 1789 liowever the son, by the offer of 1,00.000 rupees as a
present to the Nawab, and on engaging to pay the same peshkash aR
his father had agreed to, was again reinstated. The country had
suffered by these repeated changes of authority, and the disturbances,
which naturally attended them, and the young chief wa« unable to
fulfil hi.s engagements. He was accordingly removed in 1793, and
his father, for the third time, placed in the manajijement of the palai-
yam, having- previously engaged to pay a peshkash of 2,75,000 Rupees.
The palaiyam in its impoverished state was of course unable to pay
this increased tribut'?, ard in 1795 the old chipf and his son became
reooncilpd. and. seeing that they had no chance of being able to meet

' Orme, i, 396. » Orme, ii, 118.

' Doaohbed in detail by Onne, ii, 387-iO.



294 TBicHINOPOlA'.

CHAP. XV. the Nawab's dHmande, left the country and took refnge in Tanjore,
.vl0siai. where the old man soon afterwards died. His son, taking advantage

of the disturbances which broke out in 1796 in Uriaiyarpalaijam, and

profiting by the distracted state of the country under the Nawab's
authority, determined to make an attempt to regain Turaiyur. He
accordingly collected a considerable nnmber of men, and, being aided
by the adherents of the family, laid waste all parts of the palaiyam.
The Nawab, seeing how fruitless and expensive it was to contend
with the expelled chief, who, although not absolute master of the
country, had yet sufficient power to prevent its being cultivated,
resolved to come to terms. As the poligar's resources had by this
time been nearly exhausted by the length of the contest, he listened to
the ovtrtures made him and agreed to retire to Tanjore, having first
obtained the Nawab's promise to allow him 1,000 Rupees monthly for
his subsistence, and to permit him to lev}^ annually an assessment on
the inhabitants of Toraiyur, which was to bear a proportion of 25
per cent, to the amount of the revenue collected by the State. This
arrangement continued in force till the assignment of the Oarnatic
to the Company.'

There was considerable delay in settling the limits and position of
the Trichinopolj zamindaris, and the matter was not finally decided
till 1816. In that year, in accordance with the general orders of
Government then issued on the subject,^ the Turaiyur poligar
was restored to that portion of his palaiyam w-hich he now holds.

The Siva and Vishnu temples at Turaiyur both possess some
little architectural merit. Many of the figures in both are
mutilated, a desecration attributed to Tipu, who is said to
have used both of . them as barracks. The town contains a fine
symmetrical revetted tank, in which the local ' floating festival ' is
held. There is also a large irrigation tank, in the centre of which
is a curious and picturesque building, three stories high, in which
the zamindar used formerly to spend short periods when the tank
was full of water. It is now in rather a dilapidated condition.

The temple of Draupadi here has a certain local reputation.
The ordinary vow to it is to walk through fire in front of the
goddess. The consent of the goddess for the performance has to
be obtained by sticking a sword point downwards in the ground
and seeing if it remains upright or falls. If the former, the god-
dess is supposed to give permission. Throughout the performance
the devotees strike the backs of their Tiecks with swords, and it is
said that they feel no pains from the wounds inflicted. In the
neighbouring liill called Perumdlmalai is the temple of Prasanna
VcTikatachalapati, who is considered to be the household god of
the zamindar. A flight of over 1,500 steps leads to the top of
the hill.

' Chapter XI., p. 388.



OAZBTTEEB. 205

Turaiy6r is well known for its weekly cattle-market. D^vangas CHAP. IV.
and Sedans weave cotton cloths of good quality and Kaikolans Mdhuu.
make coarse fabrics. A few blacksmiths make household vessels
from bell-metal. A small math (monastery) in the village controls
64 smaller maths in this and the South Arcot districts. It has
small endowments, but no control over any temples. There are only
two resident monks. Turaiyur is also known as the centre of a
still considerable enmity between the ' right hand ' and ' left
hand ' factious referred to on page 92.



296 TBICHINOPOLT.



NAMAKKAL TALUK.



CHAP. XV. Namakkal lies in the north-west corner of the district, and is
Namakkal. bounded on the west and south by the Can very, and traversed by
the Karaipottauar and Tirumanimuttdr rivers. The north-east of
the taluk is covered by the KoUaimalais, and the Talaiinalai hills
lie on its south-eastern border, while at Nama-kkal and Naindmalai
high and isolated rocks stand ovit of the plain. The density of its
population is comparatively high, being 439 persons to the square
mile. It contains more zamindari and iuam villages than any
other taluk in the district, because the permanent settlement was
introduced in the Salem district, to which it formerly belonged.

Fifty square miles in the taluk are reserved forest and C9
cultivable waste belonging to Government. There are no statistics
for the large zamindari area ; but of 212 square miles of Govern-
ment land only 38 are irrigated — 14 from Government channels,
19 from wells, and 5 from tanks. The soil (84 per cent, of which
is red and the rest black) is fertile, 73 per cent, of the dry land
being assessed at over a rupee an acre, and of the wet land 56 per
cent, at over eight rupees and 76 per cent, at over six rufoo;'.
The rainfall (2631 inches) is rather small. Eice, cholam and
varagu cover fairly large areas, but cambu is by far the most
widely grown crop.

The great Nainamalai cattle fair is one of the largest in the
district, and is a centre for the distribution of cattle to other parts.
The local Iniffaloes have some reputation and arc apparently the
only locally bred cattle which are exported. A good deal of weav-
ing is done in the taluk. Good cloths are made in large quantities
at Ncimakkal, Paramati, Tattayyangarpettai and Morupatti, and
coarser fabrics at the last two of these villages, Anangur and
Sendamangalam. Tape is woven by a few Muhammadaus at
Sendamangalam, and woollen carpets at Aniyapurain, Laddivadi,
and Puduiipatti. Blankets are made by the Kurumbans in the cast
of the taluk, and mats of korai grass at Oravandur and Valavandi^
and of date leaves at Sendamangalam and Andippatti. Household
vessels are manufactured in small quantities at Ntimakkal and
Sendamangalam, and by one smith at Kondamanayakkaupatti.
Two or throe stone-cutters live at ilazipalaiyam and JV[6han{ir,



aAZBTTEEH. 297

and bangles are made in fair quantities at Sdndamangalam and CHAP. XV
Kosavampatti. Good country shoos are made by the Chakkiliyans NImakkal.
of S^udamangalam and Nallipalaiyam, and baskets by the Medarans
all over the east of the taluk. The Arappalisvaran temple on
the Kollaimalais has been mentioned in Chapter I, p. 4. The
following are other places of historical and religious interest in
the taluk.

Kapilamalai : Fifteen miles south-west of Namakkal. Is Kapiiamalai
said to have boon so named because it was the abode of the sage
Kapila. The Siva temple is frequently visited by pilgrims, the
usual VOAV being to burn ghee within it. The architecture of the
building is well spoken of in Macleaiie's Manual of the AJnunia-
tration, and the erection of ' several fine manlapams ' round it is
there ascribed to the Nayakkans of Madura. Mr. Sewell mojitions
that two copper plate grants dated 1574 and 1G37 A.D. were found
in it. The latter was a grant by Tirumala Nayakkau of Madura.

Mohanur : Twelve miles south of Namakkal on the Cauvery. Mdhan6r.
Population 3,621. Is the chief village of a union (established in
181)1) which also comprises Nanjai Mohanur and Erappu Mohanur.
The name is supposed to be a corruption of Mahanur (' the son's
village ') ; and is explained by a story that Siva, when searching
for his son Subrahmanya, found him here and settled here beside
him. The god in the Siva temple is placed facing the west
instead of (as elsewhere) the east. No story has been invented to
explain this, 'i'wo other peculiarities of the temple are that a
stream of water is supposed to flow underground from a spring
inside it, and that the light placed in front of the god is supposed
never to flicker. With reference t(j the latter belief the god is
called ' the god of the unmoving light, ' or Achaladipesvarar.
The Canverv near this village is su{>posed to be more than usuallv
holy.

The Karuppan of tbis place is well known. Ho is called
Navaladiyan i ' ho that sits at the foot of the ndwd tree') and is
frequently worshipped by creilitors who cannot get their debts paid.
The bonds are hung up in frout of him, aud he is then supposed
to plague the debtors with bad dreams until they pay up.

The village contains three saltpetre refineries, and there are
two stone-cutters in the place who carve images of the Hindu
gods with some skill. Plantains are largely exported from here.

Morupatti : Fifteen miles east-.^outh-cast of Namakkal. Mdrupttti,
Population G,81o. The chief village of a union (established in
1891) which also contains the village of IJrudaiyampatti. Some
89



298



TKICHINOPOLY.



CHAP. XV.

NiKAKSAL.

Nainamalai.



Nimakkal.



150 Kaikolans weave cotton fabrics of various kinds and some 50
Senijaus weave women's clothis of good quality.

Nainamalai: Ten miles north-east of Namakkal. A Vishnu
temple stands on the top ot a very striking rocky hill which rises
here abruptly from the plains. It is regarded with great venera-
tion by the people of the Salem district, who visit it in large
numbers, especially on Saturdays in Purattasi (September-October),
It is known as the abode of the sage Kanvar, the foster-father
of Sakuntala, the heroine of the well-known drama written by
K^lid^sa.

Namakkal : Head-quarters of the Divisional Officer (a Deputy
Collector) and of the taluk. Population 6,843. Contains also the
offices of a sub-magistrate, district munsif and sub-registrar, as
well as a police-station, a board high school, a Government girls'
school, a local fund dispensary (founded 1872) and a travellers'
bungalow. It is the chief village of a union (established in 1886)
which also comprises Kosavampatti, Chinna Muthalapatti, Periya-
patti, Bodupatti, Kuppampalaiyam, Kondichettipatti, Ayyam-
pdlaiyam and Lakyampdlaiyam.

The town lies at the foot of a great rounded mass of white
gneiss on the summit of which is a hill-fort. It is divided into
' the fort ' (kottai) and the ' suburb ' {pettai), the former lying to
the west and the latter to the east of the rock. It is a well-built
town with broad streets.

The foi"t is most easily accessible on the south-west, on which
side narrow steps have been hewn in the rock. It can also be
scaled on the north by a tinittu vasal or ' secret gate,' designed
no doubt for flight or as a sally-port. On the lower slope of the
hill to the south and south-west are the remains of a first line of
fortifications. The outer walls of the true fort above are in almost
perfect preservation. They are made of well-cut blocks of the
same stone as the rock itself and are secured to the rock with
mortar. No mortar has been used for the higher courses, which
hold together simply by their own weight and accurate fitting.
The whole is surmounted by a parapet of strong brick-work, some
three feet thick, serrated by machicolations and pierced in every
direction tor musketry. Eound the interior of the ramparts runs
a masonry platform to enable marksmen to reach the loopholes.
These arc so skilfully luade that there is not an inch of grouud all
round the fort which is not commanded by them. The area
enclosed by the ramparts is about an acre and a half. It con-
tains a small temple and a ruined brick building, said to have beeu
oooe a treasury.



(JAZETTEfiR. 299

The erection of the forb is attrihuted by native tradition either chap. xv.
to Ramaohandra Na'yak, j)oli{^ar of Sendaniangalani and Namak- Namakkal.
kal or to Lakshrai Narasinihayya, a harhar (attendant) of the
Mysore king. Mr. H. LeFann, I.C.S., in the Salem Districi
Manunr (from which the aV)ovo account is taken), douhts if it
could he of an earher date than about 1730. Jt never seems to
have done itself justice as a place of defence. It was taken by
Col. Wood in his forward movement in 1768 and lost again the
same year to Haidar. In the time of Haidar and I'ipu a hilladur
held the fort for Mysore ; and it was subsequently held for the
Company by a guard of sepoys, the European Commandiag
Officer residing in a bungalow in the kottai near the temple.

Ndmakkal possesses a certain religious interest. The Vishnu
temple is often visited by local supplicants, especially when a devil
has to be driven out. There are also a number of sacred bathing-
places [Urthoms) in hollows in the side of the rock. The largest
of these, the Kamalalayam, is sacred to Lakshmi, under the title
of Namagiriammal. It is supposed that Hanuman visited the
tank to quench his thirst, on the way to cull sanjivi to heal
Tinkshmana, and found Lakshmi doing penance here. While he
was speaking to her the stone he was carrying turned into the
present Namakkal rock. The natives still show the footsteps o'
Hanuman near the tank ' to witness if they lie.'

Some 120 Patnulkarans here "weave men's cloths with silk
borders, and two or three smiths make brass vessels. There is not
much trade in the place.

NanjaiEdayar : Ten miles south-west of Naimakkal. I'opu- Nanjai
lation 3,;i50. The chief village of a union (constituted in 1891) ^dajar.
which also comprises Anichampalaiyam alias Tirumalainamasa-
mudram.

Oravandur: Thirteen miles south of Namakkal on the Oravandtir.
Cauvery. Population 2,338. The name is said to be a corrup-
tion of Orupandur, ' the place of the ball '; and it is explained by
a story that the village goddess of Madukkarai on the other side
of the Cauvery, Sclldudiyamman, lost a ball in the Cauvery and
found it in this place. The inhabitants say that the goddess has
transferred her abode to this place (a statement denied bv the
Madukkarai people) and worshi}) her here accordingly. She is
offered buffalo sacrifices (which she does not get at Madukkarai)
during her fortnight's festival in Masi (February -March). A
little mat-sveaving is done in the village.

^ Volame ii, 116.



300



THICHINOPOLY.



CHAP. XV

NiMAXKAL-

Faramati.



Pottan^r.



S6nda-
mangalam.



Tattayyan-
garp6tlai.



VassalliT.



V«fir.



Vengam.



Faramati: I'jleven miles west-south-west of Ndmakkal.
Population 2,906. Head-quarters of a deputy tahsildar and a
sub-registrar. The Siva temple here and in the hamlet of
Mavureddi are said to contain numerous inscriptions. Thirty
Patnulk^ran families weave superior men's cloths with silk
borders.

Pottanur : Fifteen miles south-south-west of Namakkal.
Population 8,065. The chief village of a union which also
includes Pudupalaiyam.

S6ndamangalam : Seven miles north-east of Ndmakkal.



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