Marcus Tullius Cicero.

Selected orations and letters; with historical introduction, an outline of the Roman constitution, notes, excursuses, vocabulary, and index by Harold W. Johnston online

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postulabat. Sed quam multos fuisse putatis, qui, quae

10 ego deferrem, non crederent, quam multos, qui etiam

defenderent ! Ac, si illo sublato depelli a vobis omne

periculum iudicarem, iam pridem ego L. Catilinam

non modo invidiae meae, verum etiam vitae periculo

4 sustulissem. Sed cum viderem, ne vobis quidem om-

15 nibus re etiam turn probata si ilium, ut erat meritus,

morte multassem, fore ut eius socios invidia oppressus

persequi non possem, rem hue deduxi, ut turn palam

pugnare possetis, cum hostem aperte videretis. Quern

tical ; the real apodosis should be ' I
reply that;' for a similar ellipsis
see on I., 16. 38. Interfectum
esse, regular or irregular tense ?
See on L, 4. 14. et, ' that is,'
the so-called ' explanatory ' use of
et to define a word or phrase by
a more exact term. Here we
would otherwise have an extreme
instance of hysteron proteron, a
reversal of the natural order of

7-9. mos maiorum, see on L,
28. 15. huius imperil : for case
see on L, 12. 26. res publica,
'the public interests.' This
phrase, as all containing res, must
always be translated according to
the context. It seldom means
'republic,' usually 'nation,' 'con-
stitution,' ' politics,' ' public life,'
etc. postulabat, why singular ?

10. quae deferrem, ' the facts
which I laid before them ; ' defer-
rem is subj. by attraction; what
attracts it ?

11. defenderent, ' tried to jus-

tify,' sc. ea quae deferrem, not

12. iudicarem . . . sustulis-
sem (1. 14) : for tenses, see on L,

13. invidiae . . . vitae peri-
culo, ' at the risk of unpopularity
. . . at the peril of my life.' There
is a slight change of standpoint;
what should we expect for vitae f

4. 14. vobis is contrasted
with multos, 1. 9 and 10, and is
dat. of ind. obj.

15-17. re ... probata ' as
his guilt was not even then proved
to you either.' si ... multassem
fore ut . . . non possem: the
sentence is thrown into the indirect
form by cum viderem, the direct'
form being .si multavero, non
potero. The change of the prota-
sis is perfectly regular and that of
the apodosis is due to the lack of
a supine stem in posse. A. 288 /;
G. 240, 1. 2; H. 537 3, note 1; P.
5386. hue (= ad hoc) is explained
by the clause ut . . . possetis.

CAP. 2-3, 3-5.


quidem ego hostem, Quirites, quam vehementer foris
esse timendum putem, licet hinc intellegatis, quod 20
etiam illud moleste fero, quod ex urbe parum comi-
tatus exierit. Utinam ille omnis secum suas copias
eduxisset! Tongilium mihi eduxit, quern amare in
praetexta coeperat, Publicium et Minucium, quorum
aes alienum contractum in popina nullum rei publi- 25
cae motum adferre poterat ; reliquit quos viros,
quanto aere alieno, quam valentis, quam nobilis !
in. Itaque ego ilium exercitum prae Gallicanis legi- 5
onibus et hoc dilectu, quern in agro Piceno et Gallico
Q. Metellus habuit, et his copiis, quae a nobis cotidie
comparantur, magno opere contemno collectum ex sen-

19. quam vehementer, ironi-
cal, foris : why not foras as in
2. 26 ?

20. licet hinc intellegatis:

what mood might have been used ?
See on I., 6. 8. hinc (= ex hoc),
explained by the clause quod . . .
fero ; cf. in hoc, 1. 2.

21. 22. parum comitatus.
Sail. Cat. 32, says of Catilina's
departure: node inteuipesta cum
panels in Manliana castra pro-
fectus est. comitatus, voice ?
see on I., 26. 14. exierit, mood ?
see on 2. 25. omnis, ace. pi.
Note the other ending in 1. 1.

23,24. eduxisset: what kind of
a wish is expressed by the phi. per-
fect subj. ? See on I., 22. 3. mihi,
not to be translated. A. 236; G.
351 ; H. 389; P. 382. in praetexta,
' in boyhood.' The praetexta, or
toga praetexta, had a purple bor-
der, and was worn by boys until the
sixteenth or seventeenth year, and
by magistrates; the toga of the

private citizen of full age was not
dyed. Nothing more is known of
the three men named here.

25. aes alienum, 'debt,' liter-
ally, ' other people's money.'

Explain the subj., accuset 3,
crederent 10, sustulissem, vi-
derem 14, possem 17, possetis,
videretis 18, putem 20.

5. 1, 2. Gallicanis legionibus.

A small standing army was kept in
Gallia Cisalpina in view of possi-
ble danger from the Gauls, and
to these troops Quintus Metel-
lus (as Praetor, p. 68, 73)
was adding reinforcements by a
fresh levy; cf. Caesar I., 10. 3.
agro Piceno et Gallico: point
out upon Map II. The ager Gal-
licus is the district lying along
the coast north of Picenum, and
once held by the Galli Senones.

4, 5. collectum agrees with ex-
ercitum in 1. 1. senibus despera-
tis, the veterans of Sulla (Creigh-



5 ibus desperatis, ex agresti luxuria, ex rusticis decocto-
ribus, ex iis, qui vadimonia deserere quam ilium ex-
ercitum maluerunt; quibus ego non modo si aciem
exercitus nostri, verum etiam si edictum praetoris osten-
dero, concident. Hos, quos video volitare in foro, quos

10 stare ad curiam, quos etiam in senatum venire, qui
nitent unguentis, qui fulgent purpura, mallem secum
suos milites eduxisset ; qui si hie permanent, mementote
non tarn exercitum ilium esse nobis quam hos, qui
exercitum deseruerunt, pertimescendos. Atque hoc

15 etiam sunt timendi magis, quod, quid cogitent, me scire

6 sentiunt neque tamen permoventur. Video, cui sit
Apulia adtributa, quis habeat Etruriam, quis agrum
Picenum, quis Gallicum, quis sibi has urbanas insidias

ton, p. 69), of whom Sail. Cat. 28 j
says: quibus lubido atque luxu-\
ria ex magnis rapinis nihil reliqui \
fecerat. ex agresti luxuria, ' of j
boorish high-livers ; ' for this use j
of the abstract noun, see on I., 31. |
5, and give two examples.

6. vadimonia deserere, etc.,
'to desert their bonds [men] |
rather than, etc.' vadimonium
was a promise, secured by bail, to
appear in court on a fixed day,
and vadimonium deserere = ' to
forfeit bail.' The plural is here
accommodated to that of malue-

7. quibus ego si = qui, si ego
eis ; the Latin idiom prefers to
put the relative in the subordi-
nate clause, non modo . . . ve-
rum etiam: with these correlatives
a weaker expression may be fol-
lowed by a stronger (a + B), ' not
only . . . but also . . . ', or a
stronger by a weaker ( A + b ) , 'I

do not say . . . but . . . .' Which

9. video volitare: translate
the infinitive by a present partici-
ple which might have been used.
A. 292 e; G. 527 R. 1; H. 535, I.,
4; P. 543, 6. volitare in these
orations has always a contemptu-
ous force.

11, 12. The use of perfumes
and the wearing of colors in pub-
lic excited the contempt of the
sober-minded Romans, mallem,
often used in wishes instead of a
particle ; the tense retains its
proper force. A. 267, c ; G. 254,
Rem. 2; H. 483. P. 473, c. edux-
isset: A. 331 f Rem.; G. 546,
Rem. 3; H. 499. 2; P. 491. suos
milites, 'as his own corps,' in ap-
position to hos, 1. 9.

6. 17-19. Sail. Cat. 27:?V7iwr
C. Manlium Faesulas atque in
earn partem Etruriae, Septimium
quendam Carnertem [= ' of Cam-

CAP. 3-4, 5-6.


caedis atque incendiorum depoposcerit. Omnia supe-
rioris noctis consilia ad me perlata esse sentiunt ; pate- 20
feci in senatu hesterno die ; Catilina ipse pertimuit,
profugit ; hi quid expectant ? Ne illi vehementer
errant, si illam meam pristinam lenitatem perpetuam
sperant futuram.

iv. Quod expectavi, iam sum adsecutus, ut vos omnes
factam esse aperte coniurationem contra rem publicam
videretis ; nisi vero si quis est, qui Catilinae similis
cum Catilina sentire non putet. Non est iam lenitati
locus ; severitatem res ipsa flagitat. Unum etiam nunc 5
concedam : exeant, proficiscantur, ne patiantur desi-

erinum'J in agrum Picenum, C.
lulium in Apuliam dimisit. In
43 he gives the names of Lentulus,
Bestia, Statilius, Gabinius, and
Cethegus, as Catilina's agents in
the city. See p. 32, 54.

20. superioris noctis, ' of that
former night,' i.e., the night of the
meeting at Laeca's. See P. 30,
49. The report of Cicero's first ora-
tion had spread so widely through
the city that his hearers would
readily understand the allusion,
and not take the words in their
literal sense, 'night before last.'

22. Ne vehementer errant,
etc., ' truly they make a great mis-
take if, etc.' ne, interjection (not
adv. or conj. ), in class, prose
always at the beginning of the sen-
tence, and always followed by a per-
sonal or demonstrative pronoun.

Explain case of exercitum 1,
agro 2, copiis, nobis 3, exerci-
tum 6, quibus 7, hos 9, quos
10, se 11, nobis 13, hoc 14, sibi
18, die 21.

1, 2. Quod, explained by ut . . .
videretis : give example from 4.
expectavi, 'have been waiting
for,' not 'have expected;' the
three perfects in these lines are
'definite.' aperte modifies vide-
retis, in spite of its position; cf.
4. 18.

3. videretis, ' can now see,' A.
287, i: 'when a clause depends
upon one already dependent, the
sequence becomes secondary as
soon as the time is thrown back
into the past by any form that
represents past time.' nisi vero,
the regular phrase to introduce an
ironical exception ( here to omnes,
1. 1), always*takes the indicative,
nisi si, cf. Caesar I., 31. 14: the
addition of si to nisi gives the
latter an adverbial force, ' unless,'
' except.' Catilinae, gen. or dat. ?
See on I. , 5. 31. similis : for case
cf. orams, 4. 22.

6. Exeant, mood? A. 266; G.
256, 3; H. 483, 484, 1 ; P. 472, 2. So
proficiscantur and patiantur.



derio sui Catilinam miserum tabescere. Demonstrabo
iter : Aurelia via profectus est ; si accelerare volent,

7 ad vesperam consequentur. O fortunatam rem pub-
10 licam, si quidem hanc sentinam urbis eiecerit ! Uno

mehercule Catilina exhausto levata mihi et recreata
res publica videtur. Quid enim mali aut sceleris fingi
aut cogitari potest, quod non ille conceperit? quis
tota Italia veneficus, quis gladiator, quis latro, quis

15 sicarius, quis parricida, quis testamentorum subiector,
quis circumscriptor, quis ganeo, quis nepos, quis
adulter, quae mulier infamis, quis corruptor iuventutis,
quis corruptus, quis perditus inveniri potest, qui se
cum Catilina non familiarissime vixisse fateatur? quae

20 caedes per hosce annos sine illo facta est, quod nefa-

8 rium stuprum non per ilium ? lam vero quae tanta
umquam in ullo iuventutis inlecebra fuit, quanta in
illo? qui alios ipse amabat turpissime, aliorum amori
flagitiosissime serviebat, aliis f rue turn lubidinum, aliis

25 mortem parentum non modo inpellendo, verum etiam

7. sui, object, gen. : number ?
miserum, ' in misery,' to be taken
in the predicate with tabescere.

3. Aurelia via, the road along
the west coast leading from Rome
to Pisa, the direct route to Etruria,
the land route to Massilia.

7. 9. ad vesperdtm, ' by even-
ing,' in this phrase vesperum (ves-
per) is more common: which is
used in Caes. I. ,26.2? rem pub-
licam: case ? A. 240 d; G. 340;
H. 381; P. 400. Give examples
from I., 2.

10, 11. si quidem, ' at least if,'
the ' restrictive ' use of quidem.
eiecerit, for tense see on I., 5.

25. sentinam . . . exhausto:
cf. I., 12. 30-32.
20. per hosce annos, ' in all

these years : ' for the use of per and
ace. where we should expect to
find the abl. of 'time within
which,' see A. 256, a; G. 337,
Rem.; H. 379, 1. hosce: for the
form, see on I., 33. 27.

8. 21. per ilium, ' by his
agency.' lam vero, ' now, again,'
marks the transition to a new
point, so nunc vero, 1. 26. quae
tanta, etc. : see on I., 13. 9-10.

23, 24. alios, aliorum : silently
note the gender, fructum, 'en-
joyment,' 'gratification.'

CAP. 4-5, 6-9.


adiuvando pollicebatur. Nunc vero quam subito non
solum ex urbe, verum etiam ex agris ingentem numerum
perditorum hominum collegerat ! Nemo non modo Ro-
mae, sed ullo in angulo totius Italiae oppressus aere alieno
f uit, quern non ad hoc incredibile sceleris f oedus asciverit. so
v. Atque ut eius diversa studia in dissimili ratione per- 9
spicere possitis, nemo est in ludo gladiatorio paulo ad
facinus audacior, qui se non intimum Catilinae esse fa-
teatur, nemo in scaena levior et nequior, qui se non eius-
dem prope sodalem fuisse commemoret. Atque idem 5
tamen stuprorum et scelerum exercitatione adsuefactus

25, 26. non modo . . . verum
etiam : see on 5. 7, and give the
formula for this passage. Notice
the accumulation of these correla-
tives in the next few lines. Nunc
vero : see above, 1. 21.

28, 29. Nemo non modo
Romae, sed, etc., 'there was not
only no one at Rome but no one
in, etc. ; ' or, ' there was no one, I
don't say at Rome, but in, etc.'
Nemo goes with both clauses. See
on I., 25. 6. The formula for
these correlatives is either a + B
or A + b; which here ?

Explain the subjunctives vi-
deretis 3, putet 4, exeant, pati-
antur 6, conceperit 13, fateatur
19, asciverit 30; the case of de-
siderio 6, via 8, Catilina 11,
mail 12, Italia 14, iuventutis
22, Romae 28.

9. 1, 2. ut ... possitis, the
sentence is elliptical, and the verb
upon which this clause depends
must be supplied, ' I tell you this; '
such final clauses are said to denote
'the purpose, not of the action,

but of the mention of the action.'
Cf. the similar ellipses with si,
3. 5, and quod I., 16. 38. dis-
simili ratione, ' in different direc-
tions, lines.' ludo gladiatorio:
there were regular training schools
for gladiators, some of the most
famous at Capua. Gladiators and
actors were usually slaves, and held
in about as high estimation as
prize-fighters and variety dancers

3. audacior, 'more reckless'
than his fellows: standard of com-
parison omitted. A. 93, a ; G.
312; H. 444, 1; P. 164, a. So
levior and nequior.

5. sodalem, ' brother,' a
stronger word than intimum, as it
signified a fellow member of an
(originally religious) order or fra-
ternity. It gradually lost this
meaning, and sank (as here) to
'pal,' 'crony.' commemoret,
'assert,' always in Cicero a word
of ' saying,' never of ' reminding/
or 'remembering."

6-8. exercitatione adsuefac-
tus, etc.,' trained by his practice of



frigore et fame et siti et vigiliis perferundis fortis ab
istis praedicabatur, cum industriae subsidia atque in-

9 strumenta virtutis in lubidine audaciaque consumeret.

10 Hunc vero si secuti erunt sui comites, si ex urbe
exierint desperatorum hominum flagitiosi greges, o nos
beatos, o rem publicam fortunatam, o praeclaram lau-
dem consulatus mei ! Non enim iam sunt mediocres
hominum lubidines, non humanae ac tolerandae auda-

15 ciae ; nihil cogitant nisi caedem, nisi incendia, nisi
rapinas. Patrimonia sua profuderunt, fortunas suas
obligaverunt ; res eos iam pridem deseruit, fides nuper
deficere coepit; eadem tamen ilia, quae erat in abun-
dantia, lubido permanet. Quodsi in vino et alea comis-

20 sationes solum et scorta quaererent, essent illi quidem
desperandi, sed tamen essent ferendi; hoc vero quis
ferre possit, inertes homines fortissimis viris insidiari,
stultissimos prudentissimis, ebriosos sobriis, dormientis

debauchery and crime to bear cold,
etc., the ablatives are all of means,
but exercitatione is the general one
modifying the whole phrase adsue-
factus . . . perferundis, while the
others are the special ones that ac-
company adsuefactus. Cf. Caesar
IV., 1. 9, nullo officio aut disci-
plina assuefacti. G. 403, Rem.
2; P. 421. cum is concessive.

11. o nos, etc. ; for this form of
the apodosis, see on I., 23. 17.
Give example from 7.

10. 14, 15. audaciae, ' acts of
recklessness;' the word in good
writers has almost always a bad
sense. The plural of abstract
nouns may be rendered 'acts of,'
' instances of,' or the Eng. singu-
lar may be used, nihil nisi,

4 nothing but;' nisi, as a mere
connective, takes the same con-
struction after as before it, but cf.
L, 17. 26.

17. res, * cash,' is contrasted
with fides ' credit,' as iam pridem
' long ago,' with nuper, ' recently.'
nuper, since ? See on I., 14. 17.

18, 19. in abundantia, ' in the
days of their plenty; ' in this sense
abundantia is usually accompa-
nied by rerum. Quodsi: see on
L, 29. 11.

20, 21. quidem desperandi,
etc., ' beyond redemption, 1 admit,
but still, etc.,' a good instance of
the 'concessive' use of quidem.
What other use in 7 ?

23, 24. Notice the absence of
connectives between the pairs of

CAP. 5, 19-11.


vigilantibus ? qui mihi accubantes in conviviis con-
plexi mulieres inpudicas vino languidi, conferti cibo, 25
sertis redimiti, unguentis obliti, debilitati stupris eruc-
tant sermonibus suis caedem bonorum atque urbis
incendia. Quibus ego confido impendere fatum ali- 11
quod, et poenam iam diu improbitati, nequitiae, sceleri,
libidini debitam aut instare iam plane aut certe 30
adpropinquare. Quos si meus consulatus, quoniam
sanare non potest, sustulerit, non breve nescio quod
tempus, sed multa saecula propagarit rei publicae.
Nulla est enim natio, quam pertimescamus, nullus
rex, qui bellum populo Romano facere possit. Oninia 35
sunt externa unius virtute terra marique pacata;
domesticum bellum manet, intus insidiae sunt, intus
inclusum periculum est, intus est hostis. Cum lux-
uria nobis, cum amentia, cum scelere certandum est.
Huic ego me bello ducem profiteer, Quirites ; sus- 40
cipio inimicitias hominum perditorum ; quae sanari
poterunt, quacumque ratione sanabo, quae resecanda
erunt, non patiar ad perniciem civitatis manere. Proinde
aut exeant aut quiescant aut, si et in urbe- et in eadem
mente permanent, ea, quae merentur, expectent. 45

words: this is called asyndeton.
Give an example from Caes. I.,
20. ad fin. mihi : see on 4. 23.

26. obliti, from oblino : what
does obliti come from ?

11. 30. aut instare, etc.,
' is either now actually pressing
upon them, or at least nearing
them.' See on I., 4. 9.

32, 33. nescio quod : how
many uses ? See on I., 31. 2.
Which here ? propagarit, * will
have added.' rei publicae, dative.

36. unius. Pompeius, who had
swept the sea of pirates, and con-

quered the east (Creighton, pp. 71-
72; Allen, pp. 195-196; Myers, pp.
96-97; Pennell, pp. 120-122).

38-40. luxuria, amentia, sce-
lere : see on luxuria, 5. 5. Qui-
rites: see on 1. 1.

42. Metaphors from surgery.
quacumque ratione, sc. potero,
' by any possible means.'

44. in urbe et in, etc., 'in the
city, and of the same mind.' No-
tice the literal and metaphorical
uses of in so closely connected!

Explain mood of fateatur 3,
deficere 18, quaererent 20, ferre



12 vi. At etiam sunt, qui dicant, Quirites, a me eiectum
in exilium esse Catilinam. Quod ego si verbo adse-
qui possem, istos ipsos eicerem, qui haec locuntur.
Homo enim videlicet timidus aut etiam permodestus

5 vocem consulis ferre non potuit ; simul atque ire in
exilium iussus est, paruit, ivit. Hesterno die, Quirites,
cum domi meae paene interfectus essem, senatum in
aedem lovis Statoris convocavi, rem omnem ad patres
conscriptos detuli. Quo cum Catilina venisset, quis
10 earn senator appellavit, quis salutavit, quis denique ita
aspexit ut perditum civem ac non potius ut importu-
nissimum hostem ? Quin etiam principes eius ordinis
partem illam subselliorum, ad quam ille accesserat,

13 nudam atque inanem reliquerunt. Hie ego vehemens
15 ille consul, qui verbo civis in exilium eicio, quaesivi

22, insidiari 22, impendere 28,
propagarit 33, pertimescamus
34, expectant 45; case of scaena
4, istis 8, nos 11, consulatus 13,
viris 22, sermonibus 27.

Having answered the boni, who
might think his measures not
strong enough ( 3-11), Cicero
now turns his attention to the
improbi, who might think them
too strong ( 12-16).

12. 2. Quod ego si: quod is
object of consequi, 'effect;' cf.
6. 1. How does this differ from
the use of quod (also with si), in
I., 31.5?

4. Homo, slightly contemptu-
ous: cf. 1. 15.

6. iussus est: tense? See on
I., 16.11. Hesterno die really
modifies convocavi only, but by its
position is ambiguous ; his hearers
might connect it with interfectus

essem. For a similar (intentional ?)
ambiguity, see on I., 14. 12.
paruit, ivit: figure of speech?
See on 10. 23-24.

9. Compare with the whole
passage, L, 16. quo: part of
speech? cf. I., 30. 20. Point out
another example in this chapter.

12, 13. Quin etiam, 'Why!
even.' In this use of quin (= qui
ne ' why not ') developed from the
interrogative, it is always followed
by a startling statement and is
exclamatory in nature; cf. the
English ' why ? ' and ' why ! '
principes eius ordinis = omnes
consulares, I., 16. 9. subsellio-
rum: describe them. See on L,

13. 14, 15. Hie, * hereupon : '
this adverb is used (a) of place,
(b) of time, (c) of circumstances;
which here ? Give an example of
(a) from I., 9. vehemens . . .

CAP. 6, 12-14.


a Catilina, in nocturno conventu apud M. Laecam
fuisset necne. Cam ille homo audacissimus conscientia
convictus primo reticuisset, patefeci cetera; quid ea
nocte egisset, quid in proximam constituisset, quern ad
modum esset ei ratio totius belli descripta, edocui. 20
Cum haesitaret, cum teneretur, quaesivi, quid dubitaret
proficisci eo, quo iam pridem pararet, cum arma, cum
secures, cum fasces, cum tubas, cum signa militaria,
cum aquilam illam argenteam, cui ille etiam sacrarium 24
domi suae fecerat, scirem esse praemissam. In exilium 14
eiciebam, quern iam ingressum esse in bellum videbam ?
Etenim, credo, Manlius iste centurio, qui in agro
Faesulano castra posuit, bellum populo Romano suo
nomine indixit, et ilia castra nu'nc non Catilinam ducem
expectant, et ille eiectus in exilium se Massiliam, ut 30
aiunt, non in haec castra conferet.

eicio. Cicero quotes ironically
the charge of the improbi. vehe-
mens ille consul. The Latin
idiom does not ordinarily connect
adjectives of praise and blame
directly with names and titles of
persons. Instead, the adjective is
usually separated from the noun by
(a) an appositive (see on I., 4. 4),
or (b) ille. civis: case? cf. simi-
Hs, 6. 3. verbo, ' a mere word : '
what is referred to ?

16, 17. a Catilina, < asked Cat-
ilina.' Do not translate a. A.
239 c, note 1; G. 333, Rem. 2; H.
374, note 4; P. 394 (2) a. fuisset
necne, ' whether or not.' A. 211,
a; G. 461, 460; H. 353, note 3; P.
581. homo : could vir. have been
used ? See on I., 13. 4.

18-20. ea nocte, in proxi-
mam : see p. 30, 49. quern ad

modum, 'how.' ei: case? See
on I., 16. 10. ratio totius belli,

'the whole campaign.'

22, 23. proficisci : mood ? See
on I., 17. 21. cum, causal, with
? cum arma, cum secures,
cum, etc. What figure of speech ?
See on I., 1. 3. arma, secures,
etc., indicating his usurpation of
the consular power, secures,
fasces : see p. 64, 54. 55.

24. aquilam: see on I., 24. 28.
illam: meaning? See on 1. 10.
sacrarium: see on I., 24. 30.

14. 27. credo, parenthetical
and ironical as often (not always) :
give an example from I., 5. 26.
iste : meaning here ? See on L,
2. 17.

30. Massiliam : case ? A city
(originally a Greek colony) in the
south of Gallia, of considerable



VTI. O condicionem miseram non modo administran-
dae, verum etiam conservandae rei publicae ! Nunc si
L. Catilina consiliis, laboribus, periculis meis circum-
clusus ac debilitatus subito pertimuerit, sententiam

5 mutaverit, deseruerit suos, consilium belli faciendi ab-
iecerit et ex hoc cursu sceleris ac belli iter ad fugam
atque in exilium converterit, non ille a me spoliatus
armis audaciae, non obstupefactus ac perterritus mea
diligentia, non de spe conatuque depulsus, sed indem-

10 natus innocens in exilium eiectus a consule vi et
minis esse dicetur ; et erunt, qui ilium, si hoc fecerit,
non improbum, sed miserum, me non diligentissimum
consulem, sed crudelissimum tyrannum existimari velint !

15 Est mihi tanti, Quirites, huius invidiae falsae atque

15 iniquae tempestatem subire, dum modo a vobis huius

size, wealth, and culture, and a
favorite refuge for Romans avoid-
ing punishment by going into
exile, ut aiunt: p. 31, 51
ad fin.

Explain mood of dicant 1, pos-
sem, eicere/n 3, interfectus
essem 7, fuisset 17, egisset 19,
scirem 25, aiunt 31. Define the
following ' figures of speech,' and
give an example of each from
these orations: anaphora, asynde-
ton, hendiadys, ellipsis.

1-3. condicionem, ' terms,'
' task: ' case ? See on 7. 9. con-
siliis, laboribus, periculis : fig-
ure of speech ? Point out other
examples in this chapter.

4-7. pertimuerit . . . et con-
verterit. Note the series of five
future perfects, of which the last

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13

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