Marcus Tullius Cicero.

Seven orations, with selections from the Letters, De senectute, and Sallust's Bellum Catilinae online

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L-A.\G£ LIBRARY OF EDUCATION

UNiVtlRSITY OF CALIFORNIA

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Marcus Tullius Cicero
From the bust in the Vatican



MARCUS TULLmS CICERO

SEVEN ORATIONS

WITH SELECTIONS FKOM THE LETTERS, DE
SENECTUTE, AND SALLUST'S BELLUM

CATILINAE



EDITED

WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, GRAMMATICAL
APPENDIX, AND PROSE COMPOSITION

BY

WALTER B. GUNNISON, Ph.D.

LATE PRINCIPAL ERASMUS HALL HIGH SCHOOL,

BROOKLYN, NEW YORK

AND

WALTER S. HARLEY, A.M.

TEACHER OF LATIN, ERASMUS HALL HIGH SCHOOL




SILVER, BURDETT AND COMPANY

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO



. « ' . « '

. ' ' « » • * « « t X



' EDUCATION DEPT.

Copyright, 1912, by
Silver, Burdett and Company



PREFACE

The great success of the plan of the previous Latin books
of this series has been an encouragement to the authors to
present this volume of the works of Cicero and other read-
ing matter for the third year in college preparatory work.
The orations selected are those usually required for read-
ing, supplemented by selections from Cicero's Letters
and De Senectute and from Sallust, as recommended by the
American Philological Association and by the Regents of
the State of New York.

The general arrangement of the book is that which was
followed in the Caesar text which preceded it, — that is,
sufficient grammar has been furnished for the full explana-
tion of the text, with careful references to all the standard
grammars for fuller explanation. This is followed also
by exercises in prose composition giving as much as usu-
ally can be done during the year by an ordinary class. A
very careful effort has been made to present the essential
grammatical points of the author and the essential charac-
teristics of his style. This, together with the full vocabulary
and notes, it is hoped will equip the pupils fully for the read-
ing of the third year.

We wish to acknowledge the valuable criticism of the
manuscript, made by Dr. Sidney G. Stacey and by Dr.
WiUiam F. Tibbetts.

THE authors-
Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn, N.Y.
May 1, 1912.

V



Af\CC«N'yf O



PUBLISHERS^ NOTE

For helpful suggestions in regard to the illustrations
and for the loan of valuable photographs, the publishers
desire to express their indebtedness to Professor Adeline
Belle Hawes, of Wellesley College ; Professor John Fran-
cis Greene, of Brown University ; Professor Alexander
Rice, of Boston University ; and Mrs. Harriet Peirce
Fuller, of the English High School, Providence. Thanks
are also due to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the
Boston PubUc Library, and the Farnsworth Art Gallery
at Wellesley College, for courteous permission to repro-
duce photographs from their collections.



VI



CONTENTS

Pack

List of Maps viii

List of Illustrations ix

Introduction:

Marcus Tullius Cicero xvii

Roman Orator}^ . . . ■ xx\d

Roman Citizens . xxvii

The Popular Assemblies xxviii

The Senatp xxx

The Magistrates ....... xxxii

The Courts xxxvi

Provinces xxxvi

The Forum and the Public Buildings . . . xxxvii
Works of Reference xl

Orations :

Oratio in Catilinam Prima 1

Oratio in Catilinam Secunda 19

Oratio in Catilinam Tertia 38

Oratio in Catilinam Quarta 57

De Imperio Cn. Pompei Oratio .... c 75

Pro Archia Poeta Oratio 110

Selections for Sight Reading:

Pro M. Marcello Oratio 129

Epistulae Selectae 143

Cato Maior De Senectute Liber . • • .157
C. Sallusti Bellum Catilinae . • . . . 170

vii



viii CONTENTS — LIST OF MAPS

PAGB

Abbreviations 180

Notes 181

Grammatical Appendix 284

Latin Prose Composition 346

English-Latin Vocabulary ...... 399

Latin-English Vocabulary 415



LIST OF MAPS



PAGE



Plan of the Forum in Cicero's Time. From Plate
III, Ch. Huelsen, The Roman Forum, G. E. Stechert &
Co., New York, 1909 . . . . . . xxxix

Italy in Cicero's Time 20

The Roman Empire in Grf.ece and Asia Minor . 74



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



{Note. — Nearly all of the illustrations in this book have been made from photo-
graphs. In the few exceptional cases, the publishers take pleasure in stating in tM»
list the works to which they are indebted.]

Marcus TuUius Cicero. From the bust in the Vatican, Rome.
Brunn-Arndt photograph. [For discussion, see Bernoulli,
V. I, pp. 138-140, T. xii ; Biirckhardt, v. I, p. 165] F)'ontispiece

IN THE INTRODUCTION

PAGB

Scenes from the life of a famous Roman. Relief from a sarcopli-

agus in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence .... xvii
*' Cicero's Tower " at Arpinum . . , . . . xviii

Antium xx

So-called ruins of Cicero's villa at Tusculum .... xxi
Raphael's idea of Cicero. From Raphael's sketch book in the

Museo Civico, Venice . xxvi

The Forum in Cicero's time. Restoration according to the de-
scriptions in Ch. Huelsen, The Boman Forum, G. E. Stechert

& Co., New York, 1909 xxxviii

Cicero before the Senate. From one of the Pomfret Marbles in
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, England. Photographed
from the engraving by J. K. Sherwin, in Oxonii, E Typo-
grapheo Clarendoniano, 1783 . . ... xlii

IN THE TEXT

Headpiece: Roman eagle and oak wreath. Ornament from
Trajan's Forum ; now in the vestibule of the Church of the
Santi Apostoli, Rome ........ 1

The insignia of the Pontificate. From the frieze of the temple

of Vespasian ....... ... 2

The end of a Roman bronze bed (Pompeii). Museo Nazionale,

Naples .5

vs.



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

Cicero and Catiline in the Senate. From the painting by

Maccari 8

A city gate. Porta Latina, in Kome, as it is to-day ... 11

A domestic shrine. In the middle, the genius of the master of
the house, sacrificing, holding a libation saucer and box of
incense ; at the sides, two Lares (household gods), each
with a drinking horn and pail ; below, a crested serpent
about to devour the offerings ; in the pediment above, sacri-
ficial implements. From the house of the Vettii, Pompeii , 13

Ruins of the temple of Jupiter Stator. On the Palatine Hill,

Rome 17

The Roman Forum as it is to-day. View from the Tabularium,
looking toward the Coliseum. The columns of the Temple
of Saturn are prominent at the right. (See map, p. xxxix)
In the distance (right) the Palatine Hill .... 18

A gladiator's helmet, with reliefs representing an episode of the

Trojan war (Herculaneum). Museo Nazionale, Naples . 23

The end of a Roman banquet. From a Pompeian wall painting,

Museo Nazionale, Naples 25

A Roman sacrifice, showing soldiers carrying the signa militaria.
Relief of the time of Marcus Aurelius, from the Arch of Con-
stantine, Rome ........ 27

Ruins of the Roman theater at Fiesole (Faesulae) . . .28

L. Cornelms Sulla. From the head in the Vatican, Rome. (See

Helhig, 90) 31

The interior of the career to-day. Lower dungeon (Tullianum).

(See Forum map and restoration, pp. xxxviii and xxxix) . 32

A gladiator's shield and greaves. The shield is adorned with
a head of Medusa and an olive wreath (Pompeii). Museo
Nazionale, Naples . . 35

An orator in the toga. British Museum, London ... 36

Tailpiece : A Roman altar. The right-hand relief represents a
goddess with a torch ; the left hand, Leda and the swan. Altar
of the Castores, from the Lacus Juturnae, Roman Forum . 37

Headpiece : Sacrificial animals. From a relief on a balustrade

in the Roman Forum 38

The Mulvian bridge. Ponte Molle, as it is now called, rests
on the foundation of the Pons Mulvius, built by the Censor,
M. Aemilius Scaurus, in b.c. 109. The four central arches
axe ancient . .40



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Xl

PAOB

The Cumaean Sibyl with the Sibylline books. From the fresco

by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, the Vatican, Rome . 43

A Roman sacrifice. Showing Marcus Aurelius sacrificing before
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. From a relief in the
Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome ...... 47

The Bronze Wolf of the Capitol. Palazzo dei Conservatori,

Rome 49

Jupiter. The Zeus Verospi in the Vatican, Rome. (See Melbig,

No. 245) 51

A Roman sacrificial procession. From reliefs belonging to the

Ara Pads in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence . . 52, 53

A Roman in the toga, sacrificing. Vatican, Rome ... 54

A Roman altar. Altar of Juturna, Roman Forum ... 56

A corner in a Roman house. The wall painting at the left shows
Daedalus, pointing out to Pasiphae the wooden cow that he
has made. The painting at the right represents the punish-
ment of Ixion ; the prominent standing figure is that of
Mercury ; Juno sits on a throne at the right. From a din-
ing-room in the house of the Vettii, Pompeii ... 58

A Vestal Virgin. Found in the Atrium Vestae. Now in the

Museo delle Terme Diocleziane, Rome 59

The Atrium in the house of the Vestal Virgins. Showing the
statues of the Vestals and the marble-lined cisterns for
receiving rain water 65

A painting from a household shrine (Pompeii). In the center
the goddess of Fortune sacrificing, while a servant brings the
pig destined for an offering ; on the right and left, two
Lares ; below, two serpents at the altar. Museo Nazionale,
Naples. Photograph, G. Sommer & figlio .... 69

Scipio Africanus, the elder. Capitoline Museum, Rome . . 70

Marcus Tullius Cicero. From the bust in the Galleria degli
Uffizi. Brunn-Arndt photograph. (For discussion, see ^er-
noulli, V. I, p. 132 ; Biirckhardt, pp. 524, 525 ; Dutschke^
V. Ill, p. 293) 73

Cn. Pompeius. From the bust in the Museo Nazionale, Naples . 76

The triumph of a Roman general. Relief from a sarcophagus

in the Vatican, Rome 78

Medea. From the painting by N. Sichel. By courtesy of the
Franz Hanfstaengl Fine Art Publishing House, 28 West 38th
Street, New York , .,..,.. 86



Xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGB



Ostia. Showing the river and the main street bordered by ruined

shops 90

View of Rome as it looks to-day. Ruins of Sublician Bridge in

foreground o . . . 95

Fortuna. From the statue in the Vatican, Rome ... 96

M. Claudius Marcellus. From the statue in the Capitoline

Museum, Rome. Photograph, Anderson .... 97

Quintus Hortensius. From the herma in the Villa Albani,

Rome. Fhotograph, Anderson ...... 99

The Appian Way. Showing the aqueduct of Claudius . . 102

Marcus Tullius Cicero. From the bust in the Capitoline Mu-
seum, Rome. (See Burckhardt, v. I, p. 166) . . . 109

Headpiece : Poet and Muse. The poet is evidently reciting
from the scroll in his left hand. Relief from a sarcophagus,
British Museum, London 110

Antioch personified. The mural crown distinguishes her as a
city goddess. Below her feet the god of the Orontes issues
from the ground. From the statue in the Vatican, Rome . 112

A comic poet, with muse and actors' masks. On the wall above
the table, a writing tablet. The muse is supposed to have
held a stilus in her right hand, ready to write down the
poet's words. From a relief in the Lateran, Rome . . 118

Ennius. From the bust on the Scipio tomb, in the Vatican,

Rome 119

Orpheus, Eurydice, and Hermes. From the relief in the Villa

Albani, Rome 120

The bust of Ennius on the Scipio sarcophagus. The Vatican,

Rome. (For translation of inscription, see HeJhig, No. 127) 122

Alexander the Great. From the bust in the Capitoline, Rome . 123

Calliope, the muse of epic poetry. From the statue in the

Vatican, Rome ......... 125

Thalia, muse of comedy. Vatican, Rome 126

Tailpiece : Roman bronze lamp (Pompeii). Museo Nazionale,

Naples 127

IN THE SELECTIONS FOR SIGHT READING

Julius Caesar. From the bust in the Museo Nazionale, Naples . 128
The Piraeus, the harbor of Athens, where Marcellus was assassi-
nated . 134



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

PAGB

A girl with tabellae and stilus. From a Herculanean wall

painting in the Museo Nazionale, Naples .... 143
The harbor at Baiae . • . . . . . . . 145

Arpinum (general view) 147

A grain mill at Pompeii. A corner of a baker's shop, showing

the baking oven at the left ; grain mills at the right , . 148
A group of Roman women. From a Herculanean wall painting,
sometimes called "The Tiring of the Bride." Museo Nazio-
nale, Naples 149

A Roman woman sacrificing. From the statue sometimes called

"Livia" (Pompeii). Museo Nazionale, Naples . . . 151

Tombs on the Appian Way .157

Themistocles. From the bust in the Vatican, Rome . . . 160
Appius Claudius entering the Senate. From the painting by

Maccari 162

Activities on shipboard. A ship entering port. From a relief

on the end of the tomb of Naevoleia Tyche, Pompeii . .163
Homer. From the bust in the British Museum, London . . 164
Socrates. From the herma in the Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Visconti has translated the Greek inscription as follows :
" Not only now, but always, it has been my habit to follow
the dictates of my own judgment. Mature reflection, I find,
after strict examination, to be the best of all things" . . 165

An ancient theater (Tusculum) 167

Tailpiece : A cinerary urn. Vatican, Rome .... 169

IN THE NOTES

The temple of Jupiter Stator. Restoration from Duruy''s His-
tory of Borne . 182

The Palatine Hill as seen from the Forum. View from the

Tabularium .......... 184

Caius Marius. From the bust in the Uffizi, Florence . , 187

Subsellium. A bench about six feet long and one foot wide,
used in the Senate house. Trollope, Illustrations of Ancient
Art, London, 1854 193

A Roman house. Showing the shrine (sacrarium) in place.

House of Castor and Pollux, Pompeii 197

The Rostra. Restoration after Fig. 30, Huelsen, The Boman

Forum, G. E. Stechert & Co., New York, 1909 . . .203



Xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Gladiators. From a stucco relief on the tomb of Umbricius

Scaurus, Pompeii Beal 3Iuseo Borbonico, Naples, 1824 . 207

Cicero in the toga. (See description of cut, p. xlii) . . . 215

Tabellae et stilus. Objects in order : tablets, double inkstand,

stilus, inscribed parchment. Beal Museo Borbonico, 1824 . 220

A Roman sacrifice. Showing the altar, the ram destined as an
offering, and the person sacrificing holding the patera.
From a relief in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston . . 222

Gladiatorial combats. Showing a vanquished gladiator holding
up his thumb in an appeal to the populace for mercy. From
a relief on the tomb of Umbricius Scaurus, Pompeii. Beal
Museo Borbonico, Naples, 1824 225

Cato (Uticensis) and Porcia (so-called). From the portrait

group in the Vatican, Rome ....... 229

A section of the career. Showing the upper chamber and the
lower, or Tullianum, where the conspirators were put to
death. Yrom Diiruy^s History of Borne 230

Sella curulis. A chair about fourteen inches high, which could
be folded together like a modern camp stool, and so could be
carried about after the consul whenever he appeared in pub-
lic. Trollope, Illustrations of Ancient Art, ^London, 1S64: . 231

Plan of a shop (Pompeii). From Mau''s Bompeii. By courtesy

of the Macmillan Company 238

A baker's shop. From a Pompeian wall painting. Museo Nazio-

nale, Naples 239

Front elevation of the Rostra. Restoration after Fig. 27, Huel-

sen, The Boman Forum, G. E. Stechert & Co., 1909 . . 245

Coin of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus (b.c. 121-63). Bau-

meister, Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums, Munich, 1885 246

Coin of Perseus, last Greek king of Macedon. Baumeister,

Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums, Munich, 1885 . 262

A rostral column. The columna rostrata of Duillius. From the
restoration in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. Bhoto-
graph, Anderson ......... 263

Children at dice play. Medea with a knife, at the right. From
a Pompeian wall painting. Museo Nazionale, Naples. Fho-
tograph, G. Sommer & figlio, Naples 276

Orpheus with his lyre. From a Pompeian wall painting. Mu-
seo Nazionale, Naples 279

Plato. From the herma in the Vatican, Rome .... 283



BIBLIOGRAPHY

[The following authorities may prove helpful in connection with the objects picture4
in this book, and with other monuments of the time of Cicero.]

Amelung, Walther, Fiihrer durch die Antiken in Florenz, Munich,
1897.

Baumeister. Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums, Munich, 1885.

Bernoulli, J. J. Romische Ikonographie, Stuttgart, 1882-1902.

Brunn. Denkmaler griechischer und romischer Sculptur. Unter
Leitung von Heinrich Brunn herausg. von Friedrich Bruckmann,
Munich, 1888-

Brunn u. Arndt. Griechische und romische Portrats. Nach Aus-
wahl und Anordnung von Heinrich Brunn und Paul Arndt her-
ausg. von Friedrich Bruckmann, Munich, 1891-

BuRCKHARDT, Jacob. Der Cicerone, Leipzig u. Berlin, 1900.

Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiq-
uities, in the British Museum, London, 1904.

DuTSCHKE. Antike Bildwerke in Oberitalien, Leipzig, 1878.

Helbig, Wolfgang. Guide to the Public Collections of Classic Antiq-
uities in Rome. Translated by J. F. and F. Muirhead. Leipzig,
Karl Baedeker, 1895.

Huelsen, Ch. The Roman Forum, G. E. Stechert & Co., New York,
1909.

Mau, August. Pompeii : Its Life and Art. English translation by
F. W. Kelsey, Macmillan, 1899.

MiCHAELis. Ancient Marbles in Great Britain.

Monaco, Domenico. A complete handbook to the National Museum
at Naples. English translation by E. Neville Rolfe, Naples, 1906.

Tbollope, Edward. Illustrations of Ancient Art, London, 1854.



XV





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Scenes from the Life of a Famous Roman ^



INTRODUCTION



MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO

1. Early Life. — Marcus Tullius Cicero, the foremost Roman
orator and writer, was born Jan. 3, 106 b.c. His birthplace was
Arpinum, a small country town about seventy miles southeast of
Rome, famous also as the birthplace of Marius. His father, a
member of the equestrian order, was descended from a family
of old standing. Quintus, a younger brother of Marcus, became
a praetor at Rome, and afterwards won distinction as one of
Caesar's lieutenants in Gaul. The two brothers were early taken
to Rome and placed under the care of the best instructors. One
of these was Archias, the Greek poet, whose citizenship the orator
defended in later years before Quintus, when the latter was pre-
siding judge.

After a general training in grammar, rhetoric, and the Greek
language, Marcus began the study of law under Mucins Scaevola,
the greatest lawyer of his time. This study he supplemented by
attending the courts and the Forum, listening to such advocates
as Crassus and Antonius. Then at the age of eighteen a short
military campaign under Pompeius Strabo, uncle of Pompey the

^ The group at the left represents the great man's triumph. Note the
horses, and Victory with the palm. The central group shows him sacri-
ficing ; and the third represents his marriage. Notice that the principal
figure is made carefully the same in ail three groups ; that in the two
first, however, he is represented in the tunic, and in the third, as wearing
the toga.

xvii



xviii



INTRODUCTION




"Cicero's Tower" at Arpinum



Great, gave Cicero all the experience he desired as a soldier.
Gladly he resumed his studies, — rhetoric, logic, philosophy, and
oratory, — pursuing them for two years, at Athens, in Asia Minor,
and at Rhodes. At Athens he met Pomponius Atticus, who be-
came his intimate friend and correspondent. At Rhodes, he was
instructed by the celebrated rhetorician, Apollonius Molo, who
also taught Caesar. It was this instructor who said, after listen-
ing to the young orator, " You have my praise and admiration,
Cicero, and Greece my pity and commiseration, since those arts
and that eloquence, which are the only glories that remain to her,
will now be transferred to Rome."

2. Cicero as an Advocate. — Cicero's first appearance as an ad-
vocate was in 81 B.C., in a civil suit in defense of Publius Quinc-
tius, with the brilUant Hortensius as the opposing counsel.
The following year he appeared in a criminal suit defending Sextus
Roscius against a plaintiff who was a favorite of Sulla. His
success in winning the case was therefore a special triumph. In



MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO xix

77, after his return from foreign study, he resumed the practice
of law, in which he was destined soon to take the leadership.

3. Cicero's Early Political Career. — It is significant of Cicero's
qualifications that being a novus homo, i.e., one whose ancestors
had never held office, he himseK was elected to the four offices
of the cursus honorum at the earhest legal age : quaestor at thirty,
curule aedile at thirty-six, praetor at thirty-nine, and consul at
forty-two. The quaestorship in 75 b.c. was spent in the prov-
ince of Sicily, where his justice and impartiahty endeared him to
the people, while he greatly increased his popularity at home by
sending grain from the province at a time of great scarcity. The
holding of this office entitled Cicero to a seat in the Senate for life.
Five years later the Sicilians appealed to Cicero to prosecute
their Roman governor Verres, for tyranny and extortion. He
conducted the impeachment with such skill that Hortensius, the
defendant's counsel, gave up the case and Verres voluntarily
went into exile. ■

In 69, as curule aedile, Cicero pleased the people by the public
games which he furnished in good taste, though not with the
lavish expenditure of his wealthier predecessors. His praetorship
in 66 was made memorable by the passing of the IVIanihan Law,
conferring upon Pompey supreme command in the war with
Mithridates. Cicero's speech in behalf of the bill was the first
he delivered to the people from the Rostra, an oration noted for
its perfect form (see p. 243). By means of it he won the favor
of Pompej^, who was soon to become an important pohtical factor,
and, while incurring the opposition of the senatorial party, he
secured the support of the populace. It paved the way to the
consulship.

4. Cicero's Consulship. — Declining the governorship of a
province at the close of his term as praetor, Cicero devoted his
attention to securing the highest prize, the consulship. His
name was presented in 64 b.c, with five other candidates, includ-
ing Antonius and Catiline. Cicero owed his election to his clean
record, which secured for him the solid support of the equites,
his own order, and of many patricians of the better sort. He
was the first novus homo to be elected since Marius, his fellow



XX



INTRODUCTION



Arpinate. Antonius, second in the contest, became hi?
colleague.

During his term he opposed the agrarian law of ServiHus Rul-
lus, defended Rabirius, an aged senator falsely accused of murder,
and also the consul-elect, Murena, charged with bribery. But
the main event of his consulship, and indeed of his Ufe, was the
suppreseion of the conspiracy of Catiline (see p. 181). This task
was the more difficult because his colleague was in sympathy with
the conspirators, and Caesar and Crassus had supported Catihne
in his candidacy. Furthermore, there was no strong garrison in
Rome at the time, for the legions were with Pompey in the East,
and the nearest troops were in Cisalpine Gaul. It was the con-
sul's prompt action that made him pater 'patriae, and honored
him with a supplicatio, the first given to a civihan.

5. Cicero in Exile. — Having passed the goal of his pohtical
ambition, Cicero spent the next four years as an active member
of the Senate. In 62 b.c. he dehvered his oration for the poet




Antium



MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO



XXI




So-called Ruins of Cicero's Villa at Tusculum



Archias, his former teacher (see p. 269). He also defended P.
Cornehus Sulla, who was charged with complicity in the con-
spiracy of Catiline. In private Ufe there was much that added
to the enjoyment of the honors he had earned. His house was on
the Palatine Hill, the best residential section of Rome. He had
villas or country seats at Antium, Cumae, Formiae, Pompeii,
and Tusculum, with their libraries and works of art.

But a cloud hung over his pleasures. On the last day of his
consulship, as he ascended the Rostra to give an account of his
administration, Metellus, the tribune, had tried to prevent him
by declaring that a magistrate who had put Roman citizens to
death without trial, should not himself speak. The gathering
storm of opposition burst in the tribuneship of Clodius, 58 b.c.
This profligate patrician had become the personal enemy of the



Online LibraryMarcus Tullius CiceroSeven orations, with selections from the Letters, De senectute, and Sallust's Bellum Catilinae → online text (page 1 of 38)