»5£ j « v
AT LOS ANGELES
^ w> v
\* of [856 Mrs.
Mary Frances Gilman Peiree
Class of  Mrs. Harriet Boynton Gunnison
('las, of [862 Mrs. Emma Spaulding Bartlett
Class of [863 Miss Anna M. Bancroft
Class "f [864 Miss Kale A. Harrington
Class "i" [865 Mrs. Clara Thayer Perry
1 la 3 of [866 Miss Anna M. Seaver
('las. of [868 Mrs. Mary Adams Irish
Class of [869 Miss Mary F. Spink
Class of [870 .Mrs. Hattie Lathrop Anthony
('las, of 1S71 Mrs. Martha Burl Wright
Class m|" [872 Mrs. Ella Williams Fiske
('lass of 1873 Mrs. Lizzie Wedge Wells
("lass of 1874 Ali>. Ellen Tuck McLane
Class of 1875 Mrs. Abbie Junes llayward
Class of 1876 Mrs. Carrie Bassett Macomber
Class of 1877 Mi-s Fannie A. Greene
Class of 1878 Mrs. Mary Rose Pepper
Class of 1879 Mrs. Etta DeLand Gay
Of the one hundred twenty-seven graduates of the Oread these
Assistant Editors succeeded in finding- all but twenty-one. The
missing - biographies have since been secured by the Editor and
the Corresponding Secretary of the Association, so that the
record of graduates as found in this book is. as far as is known,
Six of these Graduate Editors, with ten others, obtained the
biographies of the non-graduates, their assignments being as
Pupils entering in 1849-57 Miss Elizabeth D. Bugbee and
Miss Esther H. Baker
Pupils entering in 1857-59 and in iS69.Mrs. Laura Goodnow Matoon*
Pupils entering in i860 Mrs. Eleanor Bliss Dexter
Pupils entering in 1861 Miss S. Maria Westbrook
Pupils entering in 1862. 65. and 71 ....Miss Anna M. Bancroft
Pupils entering in 1863, 64, 66, 75, 78. .Miss Anna M. Seaver
Pupils entering in 1867 Mrs. Ella Eddy Briggs
Pupils entering in 1868 Mrs. Emily Kingsbury Shattuck
Pupils entering in 1870 Mrs. Ella Williams Fiske
Pupils entering in 1872 Mrs. Abbie Fiske Judd
Pupils entering in 1873 Mrs. Florence Whidden Stowell
Pupils entering in 1874 Mrs. Jennie Taft Wheelock
Pupils entering in 1876 Miss Fannie A. Greene
Pupils entering in 1877 Mrs. Mary Rose Pepper
Pupils entering in 1879-81 Miss Ida M. Thayer
The non-graduate record contained in this book is inevitably
very incomplete. Several whose addresses were known did
not reply, the addresses of very man}- are still unknown, and
even the names of many who attended the Oread are probably
still unfound. owing to an incompleteness in the file of cata-
logues. In order to make sure that no one was left out who
would be glad to be included the Associate Editor sent a second
circular to all whose addresses were known and who did not
reply to the first circular. Beyond this it was impossible to go.
* Deceased, June 28. 1905.
The task of procuring the biographies of the teachers was
assigned to five Editors, as follows :
Teachers of 1840-59 Miss Mary S. and Miss Elizabeth A. Clapp
Dr. Pattison's Family Mrs. Harriet Boynton Gunnison
Teachers of 1859-79 Mrs. Martha Burt Wright
Teachers of 1879-81 Miss Abbie S. Davis
The following agreed to be responsible for the financial suc-
cess of the work, Mrs. Rockefeller to the amount of $100, the
others to the amount of $50 each :
Miss Esther H. Baker,
Miss Anna M. Bancroft,
Mrs. Mary Bancroft Winsor,
Miss Elizabeth D. Bugbee,
Mrs. Martha Burt Wright,
Mrs. Alice Bigelow Knowles,
Mrs. Ida Boyden Day,
Mrs. Laura Merriam Mayo,
Mrs. Laura Spelman Rockefeller,
Mrs. Eli Thayer and family,
The Class of 1861.
For the facts contained in the first chapter of this History,
"The Founding of the Oread," the Editors are indebted to
Air. Franklin Rice of Worcester, who kindly loaned the manu-
script copy of a chapter on that subject in his unpublished Fife
of Eli Thayer.
The third chapter, "Reminiscences of the Early Years of
the Oread," was made by welding together material obtained
from a large number of sources. Among these may be men-
tioned as of special importance the manuscript of an address
given by Mrs. S. jane Wheelock Hickok at the third annual
meeting of the O. C. I. A., and extracts from letters written
b) Bernette Mill in [855 56, and loaned to the Editors by Mr.
G. B. Williams of Milford, Mass.. her husband. Much valua-
ble material was also furnished by Miss Elizabeth D. Bugbee,
Miss Elizabeth A. Clapp, Miss Susan F. Fairbank, Mrs. Cor-
delia Loring Brooks and Mrs. Mary ('apron Mason. We are
also deeply indebted to a large number of other early < )reades,
who have shown unusual kindness and interest in answering
our numer< ius inquiries.
To the Corresponding Secretary oi the Association, Miss
Anna M. Seaver. we are beholden for much o| the material in
the chapter "Dr. Pattison's Administration." The chapter
following, "Reminiscences of the Oread under Dr. Pattison,"
bears the name of its author beneath its title. It is unnecessary
to add that an article by the pen of Helen Kendrick Johnson
would give a touch of distinction to any hook.
.Mrs. Charles A. Dean of Wellesley Farms, Mass., though
not herself an Dread pupil, has always shown deep interest in
the Oread and the Association. In token of this interest, and
as a memorial to her two Oread sisters, Rosalinda Healy Palmer
of the class of 1855, and Ellen Pleroma Palmer of the class
of 1862, she has given one hundred dollars towards the publi-
cation of this book. A perusal of their biographies will show-
that to very few whose lives are recorded here could a memorial
be more fittingly given. Both were noble women who lived
lives consecrated to the good of others, though in entirely
different spheres of action. Rosalinda, a girl of rugged piety,
exceptional mental gifts and strong pioneer virtues, early took
upon herself, as the eldest daughter in a family of small means,
the task of not only winning an education for herself, but of
helping the four younger sisters to do the same. Though
devoted to her family, she was a woman of large interests and
sympathies and was a source of strength, cheer, and courage to
many a weaker soul. She died in early maturity.
To Ellen were opened the unusual opportunities of service in
home missionary fields. Like the Apostles of old, she counted
the many trials and hardships incident to her labors as "all
joy," and the amount of work she accomplished was little less
than marvelous. In addition to the ordinary duties of pastor's
wife and mother of a large family of children, she was tire-
lessly active in organizing and upbuilding societies for Christian
work of all kinds, in raising monev for church and benevolent
ends, and in doing countless deeds of kindness to the poor and
needy. She educated all her children, partially preparing the
two eldest for college. She died at the age of sixty.
The family of Mr. Eli Thayer, founder of the Oread, and
Mrs. Harris R. Greene, wife of its well-known Principal,
have rendered us invaluable services in furnishing facts, other-
wise unattainable, both for the historical and the biographical
parts of the book. Mrs. Thayer and her family have con-
stituted a final court of decision in all doubtful cases, especially
with regard to the early years of the school.
Miss Alice Wright has been her mother's secretary and has
devoted her time almost exclusively for the past year to the
preparation of the material for the press and the correcting of
the proof. A complete Index of Names has been made by
Dr. Henry B. Wright.
The pleasant task of giving "honor to whom honor is due"
cannot be concluded without a reference to her without whose
arduous and untiring labors, cheerfully given, this history could
not have been. We refer to the Corresponding Secretary of
the Association, Miss Anna M. Seaver. Starting in 1901 with
only three catalogues and only five or six known present
addresses, she had at the time of the decision to publish a
History in kjo2, compiled a list of over 1,400 names of former
Oread pupils, and had obtained the addresses of over 800. The
large majority of the biographies found in this book were
obtained through a use of her lists, which had been published,
or from additions to these lists which she has been constantly
If we are to give due credit to all who have assisted us, the
list should not be limited even to the large number already men-
tioned. To the many Oreades who have given of their time
and interest in searching for missing dates and facts, and in
obtaining biographies of Oreades long since passed away, who
have expressed in so kindly a way their pleasant anticipations of
the hook, and yet who have shown so much patience in waiting
for the large task of its publication to be accomplished, we can
only render our heartfelt thanks, and hope they may find some
measure of reward in the perusal of this book which they them-
selves have so largely helped to make.
M. B. W.
New I [aven, ( !onn.,
July 7, 1905.
THE FOUNDING OF THE OREAD
THE Oread Collegiate Institute was founded by Mr. Eli
Thayer in the late forties. Becoming convinced that it
was one of the demands of the age that young women
have the same opportunity for study and intellectual develop-
ment as young men, he began with characteristic energy and
originality to work towards this end, and for several years
devoted his time and means untiringly to its accomplishment.
The establishment of the Oread was his original conception,
and he carried out his plan without asking advice or assistance
Sometime in 1845 ne purchased a tract of land on what was
then known as Goat Hill, a barren and rocky eminence in the
suburbs of Worcester. By subsequent purchase he enlarged this
field till it covered about ten acres, extending to and including
the lot on which the Piedmont Church now stands. For the
school buildings Air. Thayer was his own architect. He per-
-1 mally supervised the work of construction, and we can easily
believe that no workman ever ventured to disagree with him
or disobey him about his plans or methods. How little Mr.
Thayer had said to outsiders about his scheme, and how little
he had sought the advice and support of others, is shown by
the fact that his intention to erect a young ladies' school on
the summit of the hill he had bought was not discovered till
a part of the structure was nearly completed.
Mr. Thayer's original plan was a building resembling a
feudal castle of the Middle Ages, in the form of a quadrangle.
with an inner court about 170 feet square. Circular towers
50 feet in diameter and four stories high were to be placed at
the four corners. These were to be connected by four halls,
each three stories high and 40 feet deep, the whole to be used
for dormitories, recitation and lecture rooms, dining rooms.
reception rooms, and other apartments which such an institu-
tion would require. The building thus planned w r as designed
to accommodate about six hundred students, more than were
2 Oread Collegiate Institute
then found in any American college. The foundation of the
north tower was laid in 1848 and the tower completed in 1849.
The south tower was finished in 1850, and the east hall, con-
necting these two towers, in 1852, the whole having a frontage
of 250 feet. The other parts included in the original plan were
never begun. It is an interesting fact that the stone used in
the construction of the building was quarried from the hill on
which it was to be erected.
Mr. Thayer called the new school the Oread Collegiate
Institute, and named the hill on which it stands Mt. Oread.
The name was suggested by Vergil's lines on the mountain
nymphs who followed Diana, Aen. I. 500, —
quam mille secutae
Hiuc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades.
The building was called by the pupils Oread Castle.*
The school was opened May 14, 1849, though at that time
the north tower only was completed. The fourth story con-
tained seven rooms and was occupied by fourteen boarding
pupils, two being placed in each room. Day scholars were
also admitted. During this year instruction was given in a
single large room on the third floor, the dining room was on
the lower floor, and the remainder of the tower was occupied
by Mr. Thayer and his family. f Mr. Thayer and Mrs.
Thayer's sister, Miss Rebecca Capron, taught all subjects
except French, which was in charge of a non-resident instructor
from the city. The records of this year are not preserved, but
we are told that Ellen Capron was the first pupil, and that
the following were among the first, — Juliet Warner, Maria
Partridge, Isabella and Addie Flagg, Hannah Pond and Susan
After the second tower was completed, a year later, it was
occupied by the boarding pupils and resident teachers. It also
;:: In honor of Mr. Thayer, whose Emigrant Aid Company sent settlers
into Lawrence County and did so much to make Kansas a free state.
the name Mt. Oread was given to the projection of the bluff bordering
on the Kansas River Valley at Lawrence, on which the University of
Kansas was located in [866.
f This tower was Mr. Thayer's residence until December, [898, when
the building was purchased by Mr. Henry I ). Perky in order to estab-
lish the School nt Domestic Science.
Founding of the Oread 3
contained, besides dormitory rooms, the music rooms, recitation
rooms, and chapel. The dining room was still in the north
tower, which, before building operations on the connecting ball
were begun, was connected with the south tower by a plank
walk, across which the girls marched three times a day to their
meals. After the first story of the hall was built the girls
passed back and forth through the unfinished building. The
resident teachers of this year were only two in number, besides
Mr. Thayer. Miss Clarke was now the Preceptress (called in
those days "the Governess"), while Miss Capron remained as
teacher of music. According" to the prospectus of this year,
there were three non-resident teachers, the French instructor,
Mons. Mailly, Mr. Henry Woodward, teacher of Painting and
Drawing, and Miss Cornelia A. Brigham, Assistant in the Eng-
lish branches. The school was already beginning to be a
popular one in the immediate vicinity. There were many day
scholars, and although the boarders were mostly from the
nearby towns, all the Xew England states were represented.
The boarding pupils this year are reported to have been twenty-
two in number.
Upon the completion of the whole eastern facade in 1852,
the school became at once popular, and the boarding pupils
entirely filled the building, while the day scholars brought the
whole number in attendance well up towards one hundred and
fifty. In 1854 there were twelve teachers.
At no period in its history was the school more prosperous,
nor did it ever have a higher standard of scholarship than in
the years between 1852 and 1856. Mr. Thayer had planned
an institution of a high order, and it proved itself one worthy
to be called a woman's college. Three departments were
established, primary, academic, and collegiate, the latter of
which offered a four years' course of study closely modelled
after that of Brown University, of which Mr. Thayer was a
graduate in the class of 1845. Besides the regular academic
studies, instruction was also provided in painting, drawing,
music, and other branches considered essential in the education
of women. Nor was physical training neglected. Regular
exercises in gymnastics were recpiired of every pupil, "as
means of health and to develop symmetry of form and grace of
carriage ;" the students were expected to walk daily in the
4 Oread Collegiate Institute
open air ; and a stone barn and riding amphitheatre, in archi-
tectural harmony with the main building', were erected on the
grounds soon after the school was established, to provide an
opportunity for equestrian exercise.
The spirit with which Mr. Thayer embarked on this new
enterprise, the independence with which he assumed the entire
burden of responsibility. — be the outcome success or failure —
RIDING AMPHITHEATRE AND STONE BARN.
is shown in the following statement which was printed in some
of the early catalogues :
"Individual effort originated and has thus far sustained this
institution. It lias received no endowments from private muni-
ficence or public bounty, except good wishes and liberal patron-
age. This is all the endowment it will receive in the future.
Whatever may be the result, it must stand on its own merits,
and the will of the people. We hope that its patronage will
never be prompted by any feelings ol compassion or condescen-
sion. We sell education at cost. 1 1" our merchandise is not
worth our price, or if we have brought wares to the market
for which there is no demand, we ask no one to share our loss.
Founding of the Oread 5
"Oread Castle was founded in good faith, under the honest
conviction that it might serve the country, and the world. by
advancing, in some degree, the able cause to which it is devoted.
Such, we hope, may he its destiny."
But although Mr. Thayer put himself under obligation to
no one in his undertaking, he had the cordial approval and
moral support of many eminent persons, among the number
being Francis Wayland and Barnas Sears. Presidents of Brown
University; Rev. George Bushnell, the first pastor of Salem
EDWARD EVERETT HALE.
Street Congregational Church and the first Superintendent of
Schools in Worcester : Edward Everett Hale, then settled over
the Church of the Unity in Worcester ; Lydia Maria Child, the
distinguished author and anti-slavery champion, and Hon.
Henry S. Washburn of Worcester, best known as author of
"The Vacant Chair." :: All of these, with the exception of
Miss Child, were on his Board of Reference for many years.
* "The Vacant Chair" was written in memory of Willie Grout, who
was killed by a spent ball after distinguishing himself by acts of notable
bravery at the Battle of Ball's Bluff. October 21, 1861. At the time of
his death he held the rank of First Lieutenant, though only eighteen
years old. He was the brother of Xellie and Lizzie Grout., who were
pupils at the Oread under Mr. Thayer and Dr. Pattison.
LIFE OF ELI THAYER
ELI THAYER was born in Mendon, Mass., June n, 1819.
He was seventh in direct descent from John Alden and
Priscilla through Ruth, daughter of Rev. Noah Alden of Bell-
ingham, who married his grandfather, Benjamin Thayer.
He received his early education in the district schools of
Mendon, at the Bellingham High School, and in the Academy
at Amherst. He prepared for college at the Worcester
"Manual Labor School," afterwards the Worcester Academy,
and graduated from Brown in 1845, the Salutatorian of his
class. On his return to Worcester the following autumn, he
taught in the Worcester Academy and soon became its Prin-