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declared this local option law constitutional. " This in-
sures the permanence of township local option in Illinois."
The county local option law, unfortunately, was repealed
in 1913 another evidence of the constant warfare be-
tween the liquor interests and the temperance sentiments
of the people. A recent Legislature (1913) passed a new
" dram-shop law " prohibiting the sale of liquor within four
miles of the State University; but the residence district
bill to keep saloons out of such districts of homes, was de-
feated through the influence of the United Societies, the
powerful liquor organization in the State. Illinois needs
to join the educational campaign being carried on in Massa-
chusetts to teach the economic and civic waste caused by
alcohol. The first municipal poster on this subject is
recommended for thoughtful consideration. This poster
has been placed in every park, fire and police station in
Cambridge, Mass., by order of the mayor and council.

Most of the laws described in this chapter were passed by
the last two Legislatures and prove that Illinois is genuinely



It is only Heavy Drinking that harms.

That even Moderate Drinking Hurts Health, Lessens Efficiency.


. Alcohol braces us for hard work and atfainst fotitf lie.



Resolved, at the International Congress on Tuberculosis, 1905, to combine
the Fight Against Alcohol with the Struggle Against Tuberculosis.

At the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, the use of Alcohol as a
medicine declined 77 per cent, in eight years.

Most Modern Hospitals show the SUM tendency.

Alcohol is Responsible for Much of Oar Insanity, Much of Our Poverty, Much

TET THE PUBLIC SATS: We need the Revenue from Liquor

pared with the Costs of Carrying the Wreckage.




Commercialized Vice is Promoted through Alcohol.



The Very Assets of a Nation.

The Very Soul of a People.


Used by Courtesy of The Survey, August 9, 1913

First Municipal Poster against Alcoholism in the United States.

Placed by authority of the mayor and park commissioners

of Cambridge, Mass., in all parks and public buildings.


" moving forward " along- the highway of progress. If
Illinois will throw aside her outgrown State constitution
and adopt one better suited to the needs of the twentieth-
century the centennial birthday of the State, so near at
hand, will witness wonderful progress in effective govern-
ment. [For legislation of 1915 see Appendix C]


Reference List of Books and Pamphlets valuable for study of
Actual Government in Illinois.

1. Beard, C. A. American City Government. Century Co.


2. Boynton and Upton. School Civics with Civics of Illinois.

Ginn & Co. 1910.

3. Campbell, W. H. Illinois History Stories. Appleton. 1910.

4. Currey, J. S. History of Chicago. S. J. Clarke Co. 1912.

5. Debaters' Handbook Series. H. W. Wilson Co., Minneapo-

lis. 1909.

6. Eastman, F. A. Chicago City Manual for 1915. Bureau of

Statistics. Room 1005, City Hall.

7. Fairlie, J. A. County and Town Government in Illinois.

Annals American Academy, May, 1913.

8. Fairlie, J. A. Report on the Taxation and Revenue System

of Illinois. 1910. Illinois State Journal Co., Springfield.

9. Fairlie, J. A. Report of Joint Legislation Committee of 4?th

General Assembly. 1913.

10. Forman, S. E. The American Republic. Century Co. 1912.

11. Forman, S. E. Advanced Civics. Century Co. Revised ed.

12. Forman, S. E. Essentials in Civil Government. Illinois

Edition. American Book Co. 1909.

13. Garner, J. W. Government in the United States. Illinois

Edition. American Book Co. 1915.

14. Greene, E. B. The Government of Illinois. Macmillan Co.


15. Guitteau, W. B. Government and Politics in United States.

Houghton Mifflin Co. 1911.

16. Hurd, H. B. Revised Statutes of Illinois. Chicago Legal

News Co. 1915-1916.



17. James and Sanford. Government in State and Nation.

Scribners. 1912.

1 8. James and Sanford. Our Government: Local, State and

National. Illinois Edition. Scribners. 1903.

19. Judson, Harry Pratt. Government of Illinois. Maynard

Co. 1900.

20. Mather, Irving F. The Making of Illinois. A. Flanagan.


21. McCleary, J. T. Studies in Civics. American Book Co.


22. Moody, W. D. Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago.

Chicago Plan Commission. 1912.

23. Ostrogorski, M. Democracy and the Party System. Mac-

millan Co. 1911.

24. Smith, G. W. Students' History of Illinois. Published at

Carbondale, Illinois. 1907.

25. Session Laws of Illinois for 1915. Chicago Legal News Co.

26. Thomas, R. W. A Manual of Debate. American Book Co.


27. Winchell, S. R. A Civic Manual. A. Flanagan. 1910.

28. Wilcox, D. F. Great Cities of America. (Chap. IV Chi-

cago.) Macmillan Co. 1910.

Valuable Publications of Civic Organizations in Chicago.

I. Chicago Association of Commerce. Reports and a weekly

paper Commerce.

II. Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency, 315 Plymouth Court,
Harris S. Keeler, Director.

1. Park Government in Illinois. Dec., 1911.

2. Growing Cost of Elections in Chicago and Cook

County. Dec. 1912.

3. The Voting Machine Contract. Jan., 1913.

4. The County Treasurer's Office. Nov., 1913.

5. Nineteen local Governments in Chicago. 2nd ed.

Mar., 1915.

III. City Club. 315 Plymouth Court. George E. Hooker,


IV. Illinois Equal Suffrage Association. 603 Tower Building.

1. A. B. C. of Woman's Suffrage in Illinois.

2. Illinois Laws Concerning W omen.

3. Woman Suffrage Law of Illinois. July, 1913.
All by Catharine Waugh McCulloch.

4. What Illinois Women Have Accomplished with the


5. How the Suffrage Law Was Saved in the Illinois

Legislature, 1915.

V. Legislative Voters' League of Illinois. 10 So. La Salle
St., Chicago.

The Assembly Bulletin, issued monthly.

VI. Municipal Voters' League. 109 No. Dearborn St., Chicago.
Annual Reports on the Chicago Aldermen.


VII. Woman's City Club. 116 So. Michigan Ave. Amelia
Sears, Director.

1. A Suggested Solution of the Garbage Question.

2. Catechism for Women Voters in Illinois. Nov.

3. Handbook for the Women Voters of Illinois. Dec.

4. Madam, Who Keeps Your House?

5. Mothering a Municipality.

6. The Larger Housekeeping.

VIII. Chicago Normal College. History and Government of Chi-

cago, in the Educational Bi-Monthly.

IX. Chicago Public Library, Civics room, main building.
Package Libraries for the Study of Civics. This
magazine material is for circulation and can be had
in duplicate for class use.


Vital Statistics Law. The General Assembly of 1915 gave
the baby citizens of Illinois their right to a legal proof of birth
and descent, so important in matters of residence, inheritance,
voting, obtaining passports or work-certificates. " There is hardly
a relation in life from the cradle to the grave where a record of
birth may not prove of the greatest value." The law went into
effect Jan. I, 1916, and provides for registration districts and local
registrars who must be city or town clerks where possible, or
their deputies. All births must be registered within ten days,
under penalty, and proper certificates containing all the informa-
tion required by the United States Census bureau must be filed
with the State Board of Health within thirty days. The executive
secretary of the State Board is made superintendent of birth and
death registration under the law. All burial permits are issued
and recorded by the same authority subject to any sanitary
regulations made by the State Board of Health. A fee of .25 for
each birth certificate and burial permit is paid the registrar up
to 5,000, and .10 for each ensuing certificate. In Chicago the
registration is left with the health department but all original
certificates must be filed in Springfield with the State Board of
Health. An annual report of births and deaths must be published
by the State Board with such data as " will serve to promote public
health and the general welfare of the citizens of the state."

Commitment Law for the Feeble-minded went into effect July
i, 1915, after a campaign of thirty years to secure it. The object
as stated in the title is, " to better provide for the care and
detention of feeble-minded persons," and within the first six months
of its operation 150 such persons were committed for life to the
Lincoln State School and Colony. The law provides for a com-
mission of three persons " two of whom must be qualified phy-
sicians or one may be a qualified psychologist to be selected



by the judge on account of their known competency and in-
tegrity," to make a careful examination of the person thought to
be subnormal and report their findings to the judge. Thereupon
the person declared feeble-minded may be committed for permanent
care to a suitable private or public institution or colony, to the
great benefit of the community and the individual involved. This
is the first time psychology has ever been recognized by law.
This commitment law has attracted general attention throughout
United States and copies have been requested from every section
of the country. "Illinois is the first state to enact and put into
practical operation so comprehensive a plan for the permanent
segregation of its mentally deficient." 1

Consolidation Law for Chicago. Public opinion in Chicago
is slowly but surely moving toward consolidation of the 22 local
governments within the city and county limits as the only certain
remedy for numerous evils in the body politic, especially the
burdens due to nearly four hundred separate taxing bodies within
Chicago and Cook County. Various plans to get rid of useless
and duplicated offices in city, county, township, sanitary and park
districts are being suggested from several sources.

The General Assembly of 1915 passed an act providing one
method, although a clumsy one, to bring about this greatly needed
reform. The act is very elaborate and includes a multitude of
detail but fails to strike at the root of the matter. If adopted
it would give the city council absolute control over the public
library, the house of correction, the parks and townships lying
within Chicago. But the great taxing bodies of the county, sani-
tary district, municipal tuberculosis sanitarium and board of edu-
cation are not touched by the act. This law can be submitted
to the legal voters by ordinance of the city council, at any general
election or by petition signed by a certain per cent, of the voters.
For adoption a majority of all the votes cast at such election is
necessary and also " a majority in two or more of the local gov-
ernments to be consolidated." This makes possible "piece meal
consolidation," and will not do violence to any of the local gov-

1 The Institution Quarterly, June 30, 1916, p. 33. Used through the
courtesy of A. L. Bowen, secretary, State Charities Commission. The
members of this commission succeeded in getting this much-needed law
through the legislature.


ernments concerned. But if Chicago depends solely on this law,
she will wait another century to get actual consolidation.

The garbage problem in cities under 100,000 can now be dealt
with in a scientific manner if the councils in such cities use their
new power to levy a special tax of two mills on the dollar to
provide for the collection and disposal of garbage. The method,
whether by reduction or incineration, is left entirely to the de-
cision of each community.

The 49th General Assembly has to its credit a county tuberculo-
sis law allowing county boards in all the counties of the state to
levy a three-mill tax to provide a fund " to erect and maintain
a county tuberculosis sanitarium " if the voters so order on a
referendum vote at any general election.


(The following notes are referred to by number in the cor-
responding chapters of the text)


(1) A lack of funds caused the office to be abolished in 1915.

(2) Only the most important officials, as heads of departments

or the " Mayor's Cabinet." Officials are not employees.

(3) H. A. Toulmin, " The City Manager," Appleton & Co., is an

excellent recent volume on this topic.


(1) Chicago City Manual, 1915, p. 135.

(2) Defeated Apr. 7, 1914.

(3) The time of regular council meetings was changed from

evening to afternoon by an ordinance passed Oct. 10,

(4) For non-partizan organization of the committees see note

28, pp. 224-25, Appendix D.

(5) Only true when Mayor and chairman are from the same

political party. 1916, Mayor Thompson, republican;
chairman Richert, democrat.

(6) Appropriations from the Water Fund must always be added

to estimates in the budget to find the total appropriations
for that year. Note amount given for 1916, p. 19.

(7) Mayor Thompson issued a proclamation Oct. 4, 1915, order-

ing the saloons of Chicago to be closed on Sunday ac-
cording to the State law which had been a dead letter
for many years. Order went into effect Oct. 10, 1915.

(8) Only two departments, Public Welfare and Public Service,

have been added since 1913. See chart, p. 25.

(9) Four year term defeated Apr. 7, 1914.



(10) Department of Public Service was created by Council, Mar.
30, 1914. It includes bureaus of transportation, gas,
telephone, electric and engineering.

(n) The new Municipal Pier, extending three quarters of a mile
into the lake near Chicago Avenue, and containing ample
facilities for all kinds of public recreation as well as
docking privileges for lake boats, was opened in June,
1916. It is administered by the Harbor Board but under
the commissioner of public works. The average daily
attendance for July, 1916, was over 50,000 and for Sun-
days, over 250,000. These figures show the great pos-
sibilities of the pier for serving the people.

(12) The name has been changed to Chicago and Cook County

School for Boys: located just outside the city limits on
part of the Gage farm. Buildings and site are provided
by the city; Cook County provides the maintenance; the
Chicago Board of Education provides the teachers and
pays their salaries. It was dedicated Chicago Day, Oct.
9, 1916.

(13) A boys' court to try offenders between 17 and 21 years old

was organized in 1915. It tries boys who are beyond
the Juvenile Court age yet ought not to be thrown with
hardened criminals. A Night Court is a recent addi-
tion and is proving very successful.

(14) Four infant welfare stations are now maintained in the

congested districts.

(15) Clean Living, a monthly magazine on health, has recently

been added to their preventive agencies.

(16) Required by act of legislature beginning Jan. i, 1916.

(17) Half a dozen comfort stations have at last been opened after

a long campaign to secure these public conveniences.
They are under the bureau of the health department.

(18) Under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. twenty minute talks

on hygiene are given during the winter months in the
noon hour in car shops, factories and industrial plants
all over Chicago. These talks are part of the educa-
tional work of the health department and are given by
its members.


(19) Dr. John Dill Roberston was appointed health commissioner,

April, 1915, by Mayor William Hale Thompson.

(20) Dr. Drake is now Secretary of the State Board of Health.

Appointed by Governor Dunne, Apr. 10, 1914.

(21) Fire Prevention School Reader, Sept., 1915, issued by state

fire marshal department gives good material on this im-
portant subject.

(22) The official title is Chicago Normal College. It is located

on the South side and the Normal furnishes about half
of the teachers in the Chicago schools.

(23) Henry E. Legler, appointed Oct. 9, 1909.

(24) Since the map opposite p. 47 was prepared, four park dis-

tricts have been added to the number of park govern-
ments in Chicago, making 16 in all.

(25) An act of the legislature, approved June 29, 1915, provides

for such consolidation of local governments in Chicago
whenever the legal voters of the city so order at any
election. The difficulty is to get the proposition on the

(26) Percentages are for 1913, but practically true for 1916.

(27) Progress is being made toward a genuinely scientific solu-

tion of this ancient problem. The Municipal Reduction
plant is being rebuilt and soon will be one of the best in
United States. An up-to-date garbage crematory has
been built and is operated by convict labor at the Bride-
well. A modern incinerator is being built at Ninety-fifth
St. and new garbage boxes, trucks and loading stations
are being installed over the entire city.


(28) Since 1902, the Chicago Council has been organized on a

non-partizan basis of honesty and fitness. Council com-
mittees are made up by a committee on committees of
six aldermen, two from each side of the city to repre-
sent the two leading parties. This committee on com-
mittees is elected in March by a caucus of the better
aldermen. This caucus is called by the Municipal Voters


League and the committee lists submitted by the com-
mittee on committees are reported to the new council
after the April election. For fourteen years the council
has approved these lists. The Municipal Voters League
thus assumes the burden, which individual aldermen would
naturally shrink from assuming, of excluding the so-
called " gray wolf " element from a voice in making up
these council committees. The great bulk of the work
of the council is done in the committees. The Municipal
Voters League is a non-partizan league of private citizens
of twenty years' standing and the improved quality of
the Council is largely due to its efforts.
(Above statement is from executive secretary of the league.)


(i) By annexation the Northwestern part of Evanston township
to the City of Evanston in 1914, the whole of that town-
ship is now included in Chicago. The Southeastern cor-
ner of Ridgeville township has been annexed to Chicago.
The remainder of Ridgeville township since July 17, 1916,
has been made the " Town of the City of Evanston " to
provide a consolidated township for that city.


(1) County commissioners are ex oMcio also commissioners of

the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, created
by an act of legislature, 1913, and approved by referendum
vote, Nov. 3, 1914. A bond issue of $1,000,000 was voted
by the commissioners Mar. 5, 1915, for the purchase of
forest districts.

(2) Change in party control caused her resignation, Dec. 22,

1914, in spite of notable work on the commission.

(3) Appropriations for 1916, $13,182,000. Smaller building op-

erations account for the decrease ; but all department ap-
propriations are larger.

(4) Legislature increased salary to $12,000, but suit by the

county to prevent payment of the increase is now before
the State Supreme Court.


(5) The Juvenile Psychopathic Institute under Dr. W. C. Healy

conducts all these physical examinations and also tests
any child thought to be subnormal.

(6) The new building was dedicated Mar. 4, 1915.

(7) By amendment to this law (July i, 1915), alien widows who

have taken first citizenship papers are eligible for a
pension for their children under 14, born in this country.
This change in the law has greatly increased the number
of pensioners in Cook County.

(8) According to the report of the chief probation officer, Joel

D. Hunter, 6,116 boys and girls were brought before the
Juvenile Court during 1915.

(9) Established 1915 with consulting staff of three alienists who

serve without pay.

(10) To this large sum must be added the $27,400 appropriated by
the county board for outdoor relief in the country towns.


(1) A new assessment was made in 1915.

(2) After 1916, the county collector cannot retain these fees but

must turn them over to the county. (See pp. 73-74.)

(3) An amendment to the state constitution giving the legisla-

ture power to reduce and simplify the processes of taxa-
tion was voted on favorably on Nov. 7, 1916.

(4) The new " Town of the City of Evanston " was created by

the County Board, July 17, 1916, and leaves all that re-
mains of the Town of Ridgeville in Chicago.

(5) The district described here is popularly known as "the

loop." It is one of the most valuable bits of property in
the United States. The tax rates, 1915, for Town of
South Chicago containing the loop:

State .55

County .59

Sanitary .42

City 1.82

School 1.81

Park .41

Total rate, $5-6o



(1) In Chicago, raised 1915 to $7 for each regular election day

and $5 for revision days, but the increase is being con-
tested in the courts. Granted, Oct., 1916.

(2) State convention of each party also nominates the presi-

dential electors for their party.


(1) The panel, or required number of jurors, either grand or

petit, is obtained in Cook County from the jury com-
missioners, p. 82.

(2) The wonderful Fall River road and High Drive in Estes

Park, Colo., are examples of convict-built roads of which
Colorado is justly proud.


(1) There has been no new reapportionment since 1901 owing to

political influence in the Legislature. See p. 99.

(2) Session Laws, 1915, p. 464.

(3) The 49th General Assembly, 1915, was dead locked six

weeks over the election of a speaker. (Pp. 149-150.)

(4) Lawrence Y. Sherman is the first U. S. Senator chosen by

popular vote in Illinois. He was reflected for the full
six year term in Nov., 1914. Term is from Mar. 4, 1915,
to Mar. 4, 1921. Senator Lewis' term expires Mar. 4,

(5) "When the State Pays" and "Padding the Payrolls," the

Assembly Bulletins issued by the Legislative Voters
League, vol. 9, Nos. 24-25, are the best brief statements
of such facts for the 49th General Assembly. Every
civics pupil should make use of these valuable little
bulletins of the L. V. L. issued monthly.

(6) The new law gave the Public Utilities Commission power

to prohibit passes and they promptly forbade them within
the state, to the joy of the railroads and the great dis-
gust of the legislators.

(7) The 49th General Assembly, 1915, under the leadership of

Speaker Shanahan reduced the number of standing com-


mittees from 67 to 33 by altering the ancient house rules
a great gain toward more efficient law making.

(8) A salary raise to $3,500 was passed in the session of 1915.

See note p. 143 on anti-pass ruling.

(9) Legislature of 1915-16. The three sessions of the 49th

General Assembly furnish a number of illustrations of
the archaic system under which the Legislature of Illi-
nois is organized. There were three sessions, one regu-
lar and two special, the latter made necessary by the
careless wording of some of the large appropriation bills
that had been " railroaded " through the last day of the
session and afterward declared unconstitutional by the
Supreme Court. The regular session in January began
with the customary deadlock in the House over the elec-
tion of a speaker. This deadlock lasted six weeks owing
to the old struggle between the " wets and drys," neither
side being willing to yield any point in this legislative
duel and neither party seeming to consider the rights of
their employers and paymaster, the people of Illinois,
to their services as legislators. Late in February the
deadlock was broken by the election of a so-called " wet "
candidate, but a man with a reputation for justice and
impartiality a man respected by both sides. Under his
leadership the ancient rules of the House were amended
to reduce the seventy standing committees to thirty-three
i and the House payroll for janitors, watchmen and clerks

was cut down to the smallest amount in ten years. But
the Senate " padded its payroll " with an unusual num-

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Online LibraryMary Louise ChildsActual government in Illinois → online text (page 15 of 16)