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the Sanitarium instructed hundreds of patients in sanitary
living, enabling them to resume work. Its work is also
preventive through the dispensaries maintained in the more
congested districts and through the nurses employed to visit
the homes, search out cases of tuberculosis, and get them to
the dispensary for treatment if possible; also to teach the
home care necessary for cure and to prevent the spread of
the " white plague." A municipal sanitarium with eight
hundred beds has been constructed at Bowmanville.

The three great public safety departments, health, fire,
police; the work of the board of education and the park
commissions caring for municipal recreation, all deserve,
and will receive, special notice.

Is it wise for Chicago to spend six times as much for pro-
tection of property as for protection of life? Notice the
table of relative expenditures for these public safety de-
partments (p. 34) and think what it means.



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 29

HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF CHICAGO 1

" The public health is the foundation on which repose the happiness
of the people and the power of a country." Lord Beaconsfield.

" For most of us, our health is our wealth."

" The health department operates under the police power of the
State." 2

" The police power is the right of a community to do whatever is re-
quired to protect its health or morals." Dr. Evans. 3

Organization. The health department of Chicago is
organized under the following bureaus which are directly
responsible to the health commissioner appointed by the
mayor :

i. Bureau of Medical Inspection has two important divisions:
(A) Contagious Diseases, and (B) Child Hygiene. 4

A. Division of Contagious Diseases.

Duties :

a. To prevent spread of contagion.

b. To provide school inspection.

B. Division of Child Hygiene.

Duties:

To conduct infant welfare work. Over 100 nurses
do the home and school visiting in this division.

1 Courtesy Chicago Woman's City Club. (14)

2 See Forman: Am. Rep., pp. 313-318; and Adv. Civ., pp. 390-396.
s See Report Chicago Dep't Health for 1907-08-09-10.

4 "Little Mothers' Schools" for the practical instruction of young
girls in the care of the baby are conducted by the Child Hygiene
division of the health department in over thirty of the public schools.
Classes are held every week and fifteen hundred girls from twelve to
fifteen attend. This is another feature of the Department's campaign
to save the babies.

The weekly Bulletin issued by the Chicago Health Department is an-
other important link in this vital chain of disease prevention. (15)



30 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

2. Laboratory Service.

Duties:

a. To give early, sure diagnosis of contagious dis-

eases through " cultures " taken from throat,
nose, or blood of a sick person.

b. Milk and water analysis.

" Forty per cent, of Chicago's deaths are from
preventable diseases."

3. Bureau of Food Inspection.

Duties:

a. To protect the meat and milk supplies: works

with laboratory service.

b. To regulate markets and food supplies. " Death
lurks in dirty food."

4. Bureau of Sanitary Inspection.

About 13,000 buildings are erected annually in Chicago. The
hundred inspectors have abundance of work to do.
Duties :

a. To regulate housing.

b. To promote cleanliness (see illustration) through

inspecting plumbing.

c. To inspect restaurants.

d. Division of Ventilation, established July I, 1912,

looks after ventilation of moving picture thea-
ters, churches, and public halls.

" Bad housing promotes failure, stupidity,
crime, disease, and death."

5. Bureau of Vital Statistics.

Duties :

a. " Points out the path toward greater health for
all and records our progress in defeating dis-
ease."

"Auditors of the books of Life and Death."



ALL AB

CLEAN C/IICAGO"




'Chicago, Chicago Chicago'c^ucrth 1,
"Whither oV> whtVh&r oh whitVw. 60 6pry ?
"To clean up *W alley 6




I'll Vxw<&
6 mall co//in6 Vo buy."



CLEAN UP WEEK- MAY 5-10. 1913



Educational PosUr N 9 l6i



32 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

b. Issues burial permits.

Now registers birth certificates. (16)
A moving picture film entitled " An Error of
Omission," to illustrate the inconvenience and
loss that may come to any person who can not
show a birth certificate, has been prepared and
exhibited in many of the theaters. It is hoped
to arouse public interest so that every baby will
be registered within twenty-four hours of its
birth, as is now required by law.

6. Bureau of Hospitals, Baths, and Lodging House. (17)

A. Contagious Disease Hospital. [To be opened 1917.]

Bond issue $300,000 voted (1912) to erect new hospital.

B. Isolation Hospital for smallpox cases.

C. Free Municipal Lodging House for homeless men.

D. Twenty public baths. Three new ones to be built at

cost of $20,000 each. Council (January, 1916) appro-
priated $37,400 for running expenses of these bath houses.
" Disease means dirt somewhere."

7. Board of Examiners of Plumbers.

Required by State Law.

Independent of the health department is the city phy-
sician, appointed by the mayor: salary $4,000, with two
assistant physicians. The council appropriated $8,825 for
this department, 1916. Why are not these doctors under
the health commissioner?

How are dead animals removed from streets and alleys?

Notify a policeman or telephone the superintendent of
streets in the ward. If not removed within twenty-four
hours, call up the health department, because it then be-
comes a public nuisance and a menace to health. The dead-
animal contractor has a contract with the city through the
health commissioner by which he must remove such bodies



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 33

free of charge and get his pay from the hides and profit to
a rendering plant; but he must be notified only by the
proper city department. This is a round-about process, and
in the interest of public health, cleanliness, and good munic-
ipal housekeeping, ought to be made more simple and
direct.

A new contract was made in 1912 by which motor-wagons
are to be used for removing dead animals from the streets.
Such motor-wagons are already in use for the bodies of
small animals, and those for large animals are being built.
This insures much quicker, more thorough service for every
part of the city. If the citizen could notify directly the
contractor instead of being obliged often to call two dif-
ferent city departments, another forward step in municipal
sanitation would be gained.

An illustration of the campaign to prevent disease being
waged by the department of health follows.

During July and August, 1916, the health department
exhibited its films, " Summer Babies," and " An Error of
Omission," in a large number of moving-pictures theaters in
the congested wards of the city. To teach the necessity of
pure milk the photo-play, " The Man Who Learned," was
also given. About 260,000 people saw these pictures and
thus gained a vivid lesson in health preservation. Two new
photo-plays, entitled, " Dr. Killjoy Was Right," to illustrate
typhoid prevention and show on the screen " the high and
mighty tumblers of the germ family" the typhoid bacilli
and a film, "Life History of a Fly" will soon be ex-
hibited. Nearly a half million persons visit the 600 " mov-
ies " in Chicago daily. The health department has been
quick to seize such an unrivaled opportunity to secure an
audience for a campaign of health education. (18)



34 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

1916
$7,324,803.90

$3,417,659.66
$1,490,249.24



School purposes for education and buildings $23,625,000

Public library, 1916, for maintenance 1,131,400

Scaled down under Juul law to $600,000
Municipal tuberculosis sanitarium 1,040,000

BACK- YARD PROVERBS

" Have you a ' swell front and a swill back ' ? Does your land-
lord, the janitor, do your neighbors, or you yourself, let waste and
garbage endanger the neighborhood through carelessness ? " Dr.
G. B. Young, ex-Health Commissioner of Chicago. (19)

Dr. Young has issued some back-yard proverbs to impress his
meaning, reading as follows:

" Your back yard reflects your habits of cleanliness.

" What impressions are your neighbors getting from your back
yard?

" A dirty neighbor is a menace to neighborhood health.

" ' Personal liberty ' must of necessity be subservient to com-
munity welfare.

" A dirty neighbor will do more than most anything else to
depreciate residence property values.



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO



35



" If you value your reputation, your health, or your property
keep clean and see that your neighbors keep clean."

The Fresh-Air Crusade. " Four breathing dolls, two
mamma dolls and two baby dolls, are booked to cover a
good part of the world as missionaries. They are apostles
of the fresh-air crusade.
It begins to look as
though they were destined
to do more for the cause
of ventilation and fresh
air than all the talking
that all the doctors of the
world have done about
it.

"The breathing dolls
were invented and set to
breathing by Dr. C. St.
Clair Drake of the Chica-
go health department. ( 20)
They are connected by
rubber tubes with a little
electric pump that pumps



incense through their nos-
trils. You can see the
incense rise from them in
puffs, for all the world as
though they were breathing in frosty air. Two of the dolls
lie abed in a tiny room with windows and doors wide open.
Two lie abed in another tiny room with windows and doors
tight shut.

" One side of each of these rooms is a plate of glass.
And through these plates of glass whoever looks gets the



PEfi WUCH JEE-SH AIR. IS JUS! JTOO1




36 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

lesson of good ventilation slap in the face. One room is
full of smoke and vapor. The glass is clouded with mist.
You can hardly see the two dolls that lie abed there, and
you can't tell for sure whether they are still breathing or
not.

" The other has n't a visible particle of smoke or vapor
in it, except for the little puffs of incense that come from
the nostrils of the dolls. One room is full of fresh air.
The other is full of foul air. One room is well ventilated.
The other is n't ventilated at all. It is n't likely that any
one who once sees this graphic comparison will ever sleep
in a closed room again."

Fire Department. In the early 30*5, when Chicago
was only a village of frame shanties, the trustees expended
most of their energies planning to safeguard the village
from fire. No person was allowed " to endanger the pub-
lic safety by pushing a red-hot stove-pipe through a board
wall," or " carry open coals of fire through the streets ex-
cept in a covered fire-proof vessel." All citizens were re-
quired to keep a fire-bucket in the house and on an alarm
of fire, hurry to the spot equipped with said bucket ready
for immediate use. The village grew so fast a hook and
ladder company was formed in 1835 and the first fire-engine
was purchased for $894, a wonderful engine for that day.
Contrast the modern automobile fire-engine costing $9,000
now used by the city.

Chicago now values her fire-fighting equipment at more
than $3,000,000. At the head of the force, two thousand
strong, is the fire marshal, appointed by the mayor and paid
$8,000 for his hazardous work. His position is no sine-
cure ; he actually leads his men at many of the fires and must
be an experienced firefighter to hold his place. He has



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 37

six assistant marshals, one of whom has charge of fire-
prevention work.

The entire city is divided into twenty fire districts, with
a chief and battalion of firemen in each district. The or-
ganization and discipline are military in effect, and Chicago
has the reputation of possessing one of the best organized
and bravest bodies of firemen in the country.

The equipment includes nearly one thousand horses, six
fireboats, steam and chemical engines, automobile-engines
and trucks, hook and ladder companies, and old-fashioned
hose carts. There is great need of a new high-pressure
water system to protect Chicago's sky-scrapers.

The anniversary of the great Chicago fire, October 9,
1913, was celebrated throughout the State by the inaugura-
tion of a fire-prevention day. Governor Dunne by procla-
mation recommended its observance. Property-owners
were urged to clean up their property so as to lessen the
hazard. Fire drills were held in many schools and shops,
and an effort made to have rubbish disposed of so that it
would not increase the fire risk.

Governor Dunne in his proclamation said : " Statistics
show fire waste is increasing annually in the State of Illi-
nois, and last year it averaged $1,000,000 a month. Be-
sides this, nearly four hundred people in this State lost
their lives through the agency of fires. No nation or State
can long endure the waste and drain upon its resources due
to fire, and the fact that so many of them are largely pre-
ventable is a reproach to our people and needs immediate
attention and remedy." (21)

What can we do as public-spirited citizens to decrease this
appalling waste from fires? Here is another reason for
frequent " municipal house cleaning days/'



38 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

POLICE DEPARTMENT OF CHICAGO

Under the ordinance, passed January 27, 1913, for the
reorganization of the police department of Chicago, the
general superintendent, appointed by the mayor, with con-
sent of council, at a salary of $8,000, stands at the head.
" It shall be the duty of said general superintendent of
police to preserve the peace and secure good order and
cleanliness within the city of Chicago, and to that end he
shall enforce all laws and city ordinances and the orders of
the city council and the mayor."

It takes an army nearly five thousand strong to guard
the lives and property of the city, and it costs Chicago tax-
payers for this service over $7,325,000 this year.

The active force of men is now directed by the first
deputy superintendent under the new semi-military organi-
zation. The second deputy superintendent must not be a
member of the police force, but is of equal rank and salary
with the first deputy. Both are under civil-service rules.
The second deputy has charge of all departmental property,
records, inspections, and drills. He has charge of the
moving-picture bureau, the lost and found department, and
the supervision of moral conditions in the city. Should you
have any complaint to make about the conduct of the
policeman near your home, report to the second deputy su-
perintendent. He also provides a system of credit and de-
merit marks to be charged up to the men by their command-
ing officers during drills, both mounted and unmounted, and
these marks have a decided effect on their records toward
retention in the service and for promotion. This is one
way to secure good discipline among the force.

A brief account of the various bureaus under which the



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 39

department is organized will best show the great number
of services the force renders.

1. Two motor-boats . rescue drowning persons, recover
bodies and property from the water.

2. Patrolmen assigned to the forty-five police precincts
into which the city is divided. These men cover the 199
square miles of the city's area.

3. Traffic squad. The pick of the force are assigned
to guard the street-crossings in the loop and they prevent
many accidents every day.

4. Mounted police about 175.

5. Ambulance and patrol-wagon service. There are
police ambulances for accident cases in eight wards ; many
automobile-patrols and automobile-ambulances are now in
use, a modern feature, increasing many fold the effective-
ness of this service.

6. Motorcycle squad for rapid service : to control speed-
ing on the city highways and for special strike duty. The
tracking of stolen automobiles is another useful service of
this swiftly moving squad.

7. Vehicle Bureau. Issues licenses to peddlers, public
automobiles, hack-drivers, garages, stables, and all motor-
cycles and express-wagons.

8. Bureau of Vagrancy. Arrests, brings to punishment,
or deports all suspicious persons and loiterers who seem to
have no regular business. The article, " The Forgotten
Army," by H. M. Hyde, Chicago Tribune, September 4,
1913, gives a different view of Chicago's army of vagrants.
The article is well worth reading.

9. The Dog-Pound Master imprisons stray or vicious
dogs, looks after the dog licenses, and kills dangerous ani-
mals.



40 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

10. Detective Bureau identifies and keeps track of crim-
inals by aid of photographs (the " rogue's gallery "), finger-
prints, etc.

11. Moving-picture Bureau has the censorship of films,
postal and picture cards. This bureau suppresses hundreds
of indecent films and postcards every year. It also inspects
theaters and arcades. The movies furnish the only amuse-
ment within reach of a large part of the population of
Chicago. Over a half million men, women, and children
visit these shows every day. Of this number over 150,000
are children under fifteen years old. A strict censorship of
the films in Chicago is very necessary. 5

12. Ten policewomen were appointed by the mayor July,
1913, and placed on patrol duty in the dance halls, at bath-
ing beaches, and moving-picture theaters. 53 They report to
the first deputy and are especially charged to look after un-
protected women, girls, and children. In each of the ten
police-stations where women arrested are taken, there is a
police-matron to have charge of such women. There are
now about seventy-five women officially connected with the
department.

13. Custodian of Lost, Stolen, and Seized Property.
About 5,000 packages of money, jewelry, clothing, revolvers,
bicycles, slot machines, were received by the custodian dur-
ing 1915. More than $15,000 in cash was held in trust
by him. Slot machines and all gambling outfits must be
destroyed immediately. Revolvers and all dangerous
weapons taken miust be dumped in the lake five miles from
shore. One of the police motor-boats is used to do this.
All unclaimed property is sold at public auction and the
proceeds turned into the police pension fund. It is well for

5 See Report Gen. Supt. of Police 1912, pp. 5 and 101.
5a There are now thirty policewomen.



GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 41

citizens to understand what becomes of lost and stolen prop-
erty taken up by the policemen and that they must go to the
custodian's office in the city hall to recover such property.

Public Safety. Stop! Look! Listen! 6 How can
each of us help to reduce the large and growing number
of street accidents? Every time we dart across the street
before the traffic policeman's signal ; cross the street, or even
a country road, without looking in both directions for autos
and teams; attempt to drive over a railroad crossing after
the warning signal has rung, or the flagman has given notice
the train is coming, we wilfully, to save two minutes' time,
run the risk of death, or even worse, being crippled for life,
by our lawless act.

Let us call things by their right names. We are law-
breakers when we run these risks, for no one has any moral
right to endanger his life and limbs in such a reckless
fashion. If private citizens would take half the pains to
guard their own lives that the city police department
through its fine traffic squad, and the railroad and street-car
corporations, take to protect and safeguard us, the death
harvest from preventable street accidents would be dimin-
ished fifty per cent.

Teamsters, truck-drivers, autoists, are finable if they dis-
obey the whistle of the traffic policeman. There should be
a similar ordinance giving the right to arrest and fine any
pedestrian who likewise disobeys the traffic signal. Until
the council puts such an ordinance into the municipal code,
all citizens can help reduce the dangers from Chicago's con-
gested streets many-fold if they will simply render implicit

6 See article by F. V. Whiting, by this title " Outlook," August 23,
1913. Also Chicago City Manual for 1912, pp. 167-171; Mayor's
letter on " The Automobile and Motorcycle Peril."



42 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

obedience to the traffic signal one whistle allowing all
vehicles to move north and south; two whistles, east and
west. The pedestrian's opportunity is when the city guard-
ian of public safety has halted one of the moving lines.

Chicago Railways Company has a Public Safety Bureau
and exhibits moving pictures to illustrate its safety direc-
tions. The company will gladly loan its films to any or-
ganization or school desiring to teach its useful public-safety
measures. A Public-Safety Commission of twenty-five
citizens was organized (September, 1913) by the coroner
of Cook County, to investigate the great number of deaths
in the county through accidents and to suggest ways and
means to enlist the public in a campaign to safeguard human
life on streets and highways.

SCHOOL SYSTEM OF CHICAGO.

The board of education, of twenty-one members, five of
whom are now women, are appointed by the mayor, with
the consent of the council, and have entire control of Chi-
cago's great public-school system, with three exceptions.
The council must concur whenever bonds are issued, sites
purchased, or school buildings are erected. The board ap-
points the general superintendent, at present John D. Shoop
who succeeded Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, an educator, retired
since 1915, whose work for the Chicago schools was re-
markable. In the words of Mrs. Young, the aim of the
school system is : " To invigorate and strengthen the chil-
dren for their future as citizens of this republic."

The first school building owned by Chicago was built in
1844 on the present site of the Tribune Building, Madison
and Dearborn Streets. This' block is still school land.

The following quotation from Beard's American City



* GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO 43

Government, p. 136, is a good illustration of the "un-
earned increment " in land values in Chicago and what in-
come the city schools might have had: " In 1818 when
Illinois became a State the United States government
gave the square mile between State, Madison, Halsted, and
Twelfth Streets, to the State of Illinois, to be held in trust
for the support of the public schools and the education of
the children of Chicago. Except for one block, between
Madison, Dearborn, State, and Monroe Streets, nearly all
this square mile was sold about seventy years ago, for less
than $40,000. Within fifteen years after it was sold this
square mile was worth $6,000,000. To-day its value
is hundreds of millions of dollars without improvements.
The rent for this square mile of land would be sufficient to
support for all time the entire school systems of the State
of Illinois without an additional dollar of taxation." This
statement was made in 1909 by three former members of
the Chicago school-board. The " unearned increment " is
the great increase in the value of land due entirely to in-
crease in population and in no wise to any effort or labor
on the part of the owner.

"If Chicago's standing army of 400,000 school children
were formed in military order, eight abreast, this army
would make a line fifty-two miles long longer than any
street in the city." To care for this army, the city main-
tains three hundred public and high schools with seven
thousand teachers at an expenditure for 1916 of $16,500,-
ooo for running expenses and $6,000,000 for new school
buildings a grand total of $22,500,000 for public edu-
cation. 7

7 Much of this material was prepared in the form of charts by the
Chicago Woman's City Club, through whose courtesy it is used here.



44 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS

What has Chicago to offer in return for this vast sum,
which forms one-third of the taxes collected for all pur-
poses? A child may enter a kindergarten at five and pass
through the eight grades, then four years in high school,
and two years at the city normal (22) should the boy or
girl desire to teach, eleven years' training at public ex-
pense. A child may have physical, technical, manual, and
domestic-science training in addition to the regular mental
work, with music, drawing, painting, and all commercial
branches thrown in. For the workers who are ambitious
for an education, the city provides evening schools with a
regularly paid corps of instructors. October, 1916, there
was a small army of 30,000, many over twenty-one, enrolled
in these " after-supper " classes.

Notice this list of special classes maintained for the deaf,
blind, crippled, and subnormal children; open-air and low-


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