S. Southworth, of Lowell; Charles C. Sewall, of Medfield; Paoli Lathrop, of South Had-
ley; Phiueas Stedman, of Chicopee; Allen W. Dodge, of Hamilton; George Marston, of
Barnstable; William B. Washburn, of Greenfield; Henry L. Whiting, of Tisbury; John
B. King, of Nantucket, their associates and successors, are hereby constituted a body cor-
porate, by the name of *[the Trustees of] the Massachusetts Agricultural College, the
leading object of which shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies,
and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agri-
culture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of
the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life ; to be located as here-
inafter provided ; and they and their successors, and such as shall be duly elected mem-
bers of said corporation, shall be and remain a body corporate by that name forever.
And for the orderly conducting of the business of said corporation, the said trustees shall
have power and authority from time to time, as occasion may require, to elect a president,
vice-president, secretary and treasurer, and such other officers of said corporation as may
be found necessary, and to declare the duties and tenures of their respective offices;
t[and also to remove any trustee fi'om the same corporation, when, in their judgment, he
shall be rendered incapable, by age, or otherwise, of discharging the duties of his office,
or shall neglect or refuse to perform the same; and, whenever vacancies shall occur in
the board of trustees, the legislature shall fill the same] : provided, nevertheless, that the
number of members shall never be greater than fourteen, exclusive of the governor of
the Commonwealth, the secretary of the board of education, the secretary of the board of
agriculture, and the president of the faculty, each of whom shall be, ex officio. a member
of said corporation.
*[1. Amended by Chap. 223, Sec. J, Acts of 1864.
The corporate name of "The Trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural College " shall
hereafter be "The Massachusetts Agricultural College/'
f[2. Amended by Chap. 50, Resolves of 1884.
* * * the power of appointment of members of said board of trustees, and the powers
of removal defined in section one of chapter two hundred and twenty, of the acts of
eighteen hundred and sixty -three, shall i>e hereafter exercised by the governor with the
advice and consent of the council, instead of said board; and said board during the cur.
Hon. John Brooks of Princeton was a farmer, enthusiastic in his"
calling, who Iteid long been a member of the Board of Agriculture.
He died before the college was organized. Paoli Lathi-op of South
Hadley, was also a successful farmer who died in 1872. Allen \V.
Dodge of Hamilton, who died in 1878, was long connected officially
with the Essex society,, and was treasurer of the comity: Rov.
rent year shall, by lot, divide the elected members thereof into seven classes of two mi em *
bers each, of whom one class shall vacate their office January first, eighteen hundred and
eighty-five, and one class on the first day of January in each year thereafter; and such
action shall be certified by the board to the governor and council ; and appointments to fill
the vacancies so created shall be made for the term of seven years.
SEC. '2. The said corporation shall have full power and authority to determine at what
times and places their meetings shall be holden, and the manner of notifying the trustees
to convene at such meetings; and also, from time to time, to elect a president of said col-
lege, and such professors, tutors, instructors and other officers of said college as they
shall judge most for the interest thereof, and to determine the. duties, salaries, emolu-
ments, responsibilities and tenures of their several offices.
And the said corporation are further empowered to purchase or erect, and keep in re-
pair, such houses and other buildings as they shall judge necessary for the said college;
and also, to make and ordain as occasion may require, reasonable rules, orders and by-
laws not repugnant to the constitution and laws of this Commonwealth, with reasonable
penalties, for the good government of the said college and for the regulation of their own
body, and also to determine and regulate the course of instruction in said college, and to
confer such appropriate degrees as they may determine and prescribe : provided, never-
theless, that no corporate business shall be transacted at any meeting unless one-half, at
least, of the trustees ai'e present.
SEC. 3. The said corporation may have a common seal, which they may alter or renew
at their pleasure, and all deeds sealed with the seal of said corporation, and signed by
their order, shall, when made in their corporate name, be considered in law as the deeds
of said corporation ; and said corporation may sue and be sued in all actions, i-eal, per-
sonal or mixed, and may prosecute the same to final judgment and execution, by the name
of the Trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural College ; and said corporation shall be
capable of taking and holding in fee simple, or any less estate, by gift, grant, bequest, de-
vise, or otherwise, any lands, tenements, or other estate, real or personal : provided, that
the clear annual income of the same shall not exceed thirty thousand dollars.
SEC. 4. The clear rents and profits of all the estate, real and personal, of which the
said corporation shall be seized and possessed, shall be appropriated to the uses of said
college in such manner as shall most effectually promote the objects declared in the first
section of this act, and as may be recommended from time to time by the said corpora-
tion, they conforming to the will of any donor or donors, in the application of any estate
which may be given, devised or bequeatned, for any particular object connected with the
SKC. 5. The legislature of this Commonwealth may grant any further powers to, or
alter, limit, annul or restrain, any of the powers vested by this act in the said corporation,
as shall be found necessary to promote the best interests of the said college ; and more
especially may appoint and establish overseers or visitors of the said college, with all
necessary powers for the better aid, preservation and government thereof. *[The said
corporation shall make an annual report of its condition, financial and otherwise, to the
legislature at the commencement of its session]. *
*[7. Amended by Chap. 378, Acts of 7871.
" The college shall furnish to the governor and council a copy of the annual report of its
SEC. (5. The board of trustees shall determine the location of said college in some suit-
able place within the limits of this Commonwealth, and shall purchase, or obtain, by gift,
grant, or otherwise, in connection therewith, a tract of land containing at least one hun-
Charles C. Sewall was also a farmer. Hon. George Marstqn, Dis-
trict Attorney of the South Eastern District, and afterwards Attor-
ney General, took great interest in the college. He resigned in 1878,
and has since deceased. Dr. Nathan Durfee was an extensive far-
mer, and from 1864 to 1876 treasurer of the college. All these and
the lamented Governor Andrew, out of the original board of trus-
tees, are no longer among the living. Henry Colt of Pittsfield, a
manufacturer, and Phineas Stedman of Chicopee, an enterprising
farmer, are the only surviving members who remain upon the board,
whilst the terms of Charles G. Davis of Plymouth, and Prof. Henry
L. Whiting have expired by limitation of law under the Resolve of
1884. Of the other original members Mr. South worth of Lowell re-
signed in 1864, and has since died, and was succeeded by Hon. Hen-
ry F. French. Gov. Wm. B. Washburn resigned in 1878, and was
succeeded by Hon. James S. Grinnell of Greenfield. Dr. John li.
King never accepted the trust, and is still living at Nantucket.
Charles L. Flint resigned in 1880, and was followed by Hon. John
E. Russell, as Secretary of the Board of Agriculture.
drecl acres, to be used as an experimental farm, or otherwise, so as best to promote the
objects of the institution; and in establishing the by-laws and regulations of said college,
they shall make such provision for the* manual labor of the students on said farm as they
may deem just and reasonable. The location, plan of oi'ganization, government and
co'urse of study prescribed for the college shall be subject to the approval of the ^legisla-
*[1. Amended ly Chap. 223, Sec. 2, Acts of 1864.
" governor and council."
SEC. 7. One-tenth pai't of all the moneys which may be received by the state treasurer
from the sale of land-scrip, by virtue of the provisions of the one hundred and thirtieth
chapter of the acts of the thirty-seventh congress, at the second session thereof, approved
July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the laws of this Commonwealth,
shall be paid to said college, and appropriated towards the purchase of said site or farm ;
provided, nevertheless, that the said college shall first secure by valid subscriptions or
otherwise, the further sum of seventy-five thousand dollars, for the purpose of erecting
suitable buildings thereon ; and upon satisfactory evidence that this proviso has been
complied with, the governor is authorized, from time to time, to draw his warrants there-
SEC. 8. When the said college shall have been duly organized, located and established,
as and for the purposes specified in this act, there shall be appropriated and paid to its
treasurer each year, pn the warrant of the governor, two-thirds of the annual interest or
income, which may be received from the fund created under and by virtue of the act of
congress named in the seventh section of this act, and the laws of this Commonwealth,
accepting the provisions thereof, and relating to the same.
SEC. J). In the event of a dissolution of said corporation, by its voluntary act at any
time, the real and personal property belonging to the corporation shall revert and belong-
to the Commonwealth, to be held by the same, and be disposed of as it may see fit in the
advancement of education in agriculture and the mechanic arts. The legislature shall
have authority at any time to withhold the portion of the interest or income from said
fund provided in this act, whenever the corporation shall cease or fail to maintain a col-
lege within the provisions and spirit of this act and the before-mentioned act of congress,
or for any cause which they deem sufficient.
Approved April 29, 1863.
1 have thus sketched the birth of the college, and the labors of
parturition. Like all children, it must now be tried by the ills and
chances that flesh is heir to; its period of dentition, and want of
nourishment, by perils nearly unto death, trials by fire, trials by
poverty, -threats of abandonment, orphanage, and of baby farming.
The corporation was organized November 18, 1863, with his Ex-
cellency John A. Andrew as President, Allen W. Dodge as Vice-
President, and Charles L. Flint Secretary. The magnanimity of
Gov. Andrew is shown from the fact that after the report of the
legislative committee he not only yielded all opposition, but entered
into a most zealous cooperation with the trustees in carrying out the
work assigned them. In the midst of duties and cares before unex-
ampled, during the anxieties and turmoils of a great civil war, he
found time to attend their meetings and joined with their executive
committee, consisting of Messrs. French, Colt and Davis, in visiting
Amherst in June, 1864 to examine their location.
On the 17th of March, 1864, a letter was received from Dr.
Thomas Hill, President of Harvard College, making- suggestions in
favor of the Bussey estate, but it was known to the trustees that the
views of Dr. Hill and Prof. Agassiz were not generally supported at
Cambridge. In April and earl} 7 in May the trustees viewed the ad-
joining premises of Mr. Phineas Stedman, and of Chester W. Cha-
pin near Springfield, the Kemp farm in West Springfield and the
Luddington farm ; in Northampton, the farm of Dr. Denniston ; the
Fairbanks farm; that of Mr. Clark, near Florence; the Day farm,
and that of Dr. Prince, near the Northampton Lunatic Hospital, of
which Dr. Prince was then superintendent; the farms of Cowles,
Cobb and others, here in Amherst; at Lexington, the farm of Mrs.
Gary ; and at West Newton, the Winchester farm then owned by T.
P. Chandler. But the towns of Lexington. Springfield, Northampton
and Amherst only, " offered to secure by valid subscription or other-
wise, the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars, for the purpose of
erecting suitable buildings thereon." On the -25th of April the
trustees decided to locate in Amherst by a vote of
For Amherst 8,
At this time the trustees were further instructed by an elaborate
report of their secretary upon the agricultural schools of Europe,
which he had visited in the summer of 1863.*
At a meeting on the 4th of May, 1864, Hon. Henry F. French,
then of Cambridge, became a member of the board of trustees, was
at once elected vice-president, and soon after appointed by the gov-
ernor and council, -agent of the state to sell the land scrip, which no
state could locate in another state or territory. Mr. French came to
the board with the reputation of one largely interested in farming
pursuits, who had published a book on lt Drainage," been a prolific
contributor to agricultural journals and to the agricultural report at
Washington, was a vice-president of the United States Agricultural
Society, and had recently become widely known in Massachusetts by
his- familiar and enthusiastic lectures for two years before the Legis-
lative Agricultural Society, on drainage, plows and plowing, and the
husbandry of England, which he had recently visited. Mr. French
entered upon his duties as agent with vigor, but his work was an em-
barrassing one. So much land scrip was thrown upon the market at
once by the different states, that its market value was greatly de-
creased, so that he was able to realize fifty cents an acre only, whilst
it is said that Mr. Cornell, a rich capitalist, generously took the New
York scrip and reserved it for the benefit of the college, whilst he
could realize at his leisure. f Mr. French was criticised in some
quarters for his acts in this regard, but I know he was much troub-
led, took the best advice, and did the best he could do.
On the 2nd of November, 1864, he was elected president of the
college, by a vote of eight out of twelve. There was in fact, at the
time, no other candidate before the board, who was desirous of an
election, but the vote indicated doubts of the propriety or expediencv
of his election, as there were two blank votes, and one for Hon. Geo.
B. Loring, and one for Chas. L. Flint, neither of whom desired the
On the 1st of February, 1865, President French, Hon. Joseph
White, then secretary of the Board of Education, and ex-officio
trustee of the college, and Mr. Henry L. Whiting, who was a pro-
fessional engineer of the Coast Survey, and now engaged in a topo-
graphical survey of the state, were appointed a committee to consid-
*See Massachusetts Agricultural Report for year 18(!3.
t New York was entitled to about a million of acres under the law, for which more
than $5,000,000 has been received, and much more wjould have been realized, had Mr. Cor-
nell been able to carry out his own projects.
er location and plan of buildings, a plan of organization and course
of study. There was a delay in the report of the committee, and om
the 3rd of August, six months after, Wm. B. Washburn, afterwards;
governor, and Henry F. Hills of Arnherst, were added to the com-
On the 13th of October, 1865, a special meeting was held at the
request of Davis, Durfee, Lathrop and Stedman, when Davis offered
a vote that the committee be instructed to locate the college buildings
on the plain near the center of the farm upon what is known as
chestnut tree ridge. The five members of the committee with Mr.
Colt voted in the negative, and the other six trustees present voted
in the affirmative. It was understood at the time that several of
these gentlemen having discovered that the president was persistent
in his views, voted with him to avoid a break upon the very first
question which carne before them. The other trustees thought the
question important, and they might well be condemned by good farm-
ers in placing buildings, farm buildings and all, on a hill in the south-
east corner of a large farm. Up to this time Col. Wilder was pre-
vented by ill health from attending the meetings of the board. No-
vember 1, 1865 the trustees voted to employ an architect to report
as to location, and Dec. 27, Mr. Vaux, the architect, made a report,
and the meeting was adjourned to Jan. 2, 1866, when Mr. Davis
renewed his motion. The President was so persistent in his opposi-
tion to the vote that he would not put the question ; when after several
hours of discussion Mr. Davis put the vote himself, which was car-
ried nine to six, Messrs. Hills and Whiting of the committee having
changed their votes, and being no longer willing to sustain the Presi-
dent. President French refused to consider this vote decisive, and,
without authority, commenced excavations in the hill for building.
The location was further discussed August 1st, and again on the 16th,
when the motion was once more carried. This was the second final
vote. Mr. French still refusing to '* commend the ingredients of the
poisoned chalice to his own lips," called a special meeting to let
Amherst people present their views as to location of buildings, at
which Hon. Edward Dickinson, Treasurer of Amherst College, came
down to Boston and lectured us like children, 4t unpacked his heart
with words, and fell to scolding." Thereupon Prof. Clark presented
a remonstrance of over three hundred citizens of Amherst against
interference with the discretion or action of the trustees. This meet-
ing was held Sept. 19, 1866.
Here closeth the dentition period of our college, before it had
begun to walk alone, in which the stomach as well as the head was
largely disturbed. Our first President threw up his commission and
took " French leave"!* During his presidency, in May, 1865, the
legislature authorized the town of Amherst to raise $50,000 by
taxation for the college, and in the same month granted $10,000 to
aid in the establishment of the college.
Prof. Paul A. Chadhourue was elected President Nov. 7, 1866, but
by reason of ill health, was obliged to resign the June following.
The course of study which he marked out has been substantially fol-
lowed ever since. Prof. Chadbourne was a wonderful man, as ver-
satile as any one we can name ; a scholar, a philosopher, a scientist,
a Christian minister, and a teacher, he possessed qualities which are
rarely combined in one man ; the shrewdness and economics of a
Yankee, practical familiarity with details, decision of character,
great administrative power, the faculty of separating what is practi-
cal from what is merely theoretical, great activity and energy, united
with method and system. He was therefore the man of all others
for the college during its formative period. He entered upon his
duties with every encouragement. The Governor and Council had
in September, 1864 approved the location. The legislature had fur-
ther approved it by granting power to the town of Amherst to raise
$50,000 by taxation for college buildings, and by the grant of $10,-
000, and the citizens of Amherst had thus also shown their continued
interest in the college, though delay had been occasioned by the suit
brought by a few of its citizens to dispute the constitutionality of the
Act. A citizen of an adjoining town had been unanimously chosen
superintendent of the farm, and instructor in agriculture. I refer to
Hon. Levi Stockbridge, who has ever since been so faithful, respect-
ed and popular an officer of the college. President Chadbourne had
also laid his plans for a small body of professors, and commenced
the south dormitory, laboratory and south boarding house, which
were completed in 1867. Dr. Durfee, Leonard M. and Henry F.
Hills had given $20,000 for the establishment of a plant house and
*Meanwhile May 26, 1866, the Board of Agriculture, which was one of the first Boards <>!
Agriculture created in any state, was constituted a board of overseers "with powers and
duties to be defined and fixed by the governor and council," but "no powers granted to
control the action of the trustees of said college, or to negative their powers and duties."
The board was also " authorized to locate the state agricultural cabinet and library, and to
hold its meetings in said college," and the president of the college was constituted a mem-
ber ex officio of the Board of Agriculture. [Chap. 263, Acts of 1866.
botanic garden, and all was promise when the college met with this
first great loss.
On the 7th of August, prior to the opening of the college, Prof.
Clark was elected president, Henry H. Goodell professor of modern
languages, and Ebeuezer S. Snell of mathematics. On the 2d of Octo-
ber following, the college was opened to students, of whom forty-seven
were admitted before the close of the term. The college was at last fairly
launched, and the prayers of the trustees, who since their incorpora-
tion had held thirty-five meetings on as many days, were about to be
answered. President Clark was peculiarly fitted after these great
discouragements, by his energy, enthusiasm and hopefulness, to
encourage his fellow laborers, and to excite enthusiasm in others.
He was the man of all others to start a college, if not to run one. I
shall not dwell upon his character or his work, inasmuch as at the
last dinner of the alumni a year ago a full and eloquent eulogy was
presented by President Goodell, which is still fresh in the minds of
those who heard or read it ; as also the tribute to his memory in
the last report of the college. During his administration in 1867 the
Washington Irving Literary Society was founded. Mr. Wilder gave
1300 specimens of choice plants to the plant house. In 1868 the
Legislature authorized the governor to issue arms and equipments
to the college, and Congress had passed the act annexed.*
In 1868 the Legislature allowed $50,000 for the further erection of
buildings. In 1868 President Clark also procured a meeting of the
New England Agricultural Society for a trial of plows on the farm,
and a country meeting of the State Board of Agriculture ; the north
dormitory, north boarding house, botanic museum and Durfee plant
house were completed. The same year Charles A. Goessmann, the
modest, industrious, learned and faithful professor of chemistry was
OFFICERS DETAILED FOR COLLEGES.
SEC. 1225. The President may, upon the application of any established college or uni.
versity within the United States, having capacity to educate, at the same time, not less
than one hundred and fifty male students, detail an officer of the Army to act as president,
superintendent, or professor thereof; but the number of officers so detailed shall not
exceed thirty at any time, and they shall 1)6 apportioned throughout the United States, as
nearly as may be practicable, according to population. Officers so detailed shall be gov
erned by general rules prescribed from time to time by the President. The Secretary of
War is authorized to issue at his discretion and under proper regulations to be prescribed
by him, out of any small arms or pieces of field artillery belonging to the Government and
which can be spared for that purpose, such number of the same as may appear to be
required for military instruction and practice by the students of any college or university
under the provisions of this section; and the Secretary shall require a bond in each case,
in double the value of the property, for the care and safe keeping thereof, aud for the
return of the same when required.
appointed, and Samuel F. Miller was elected professor of mathemat-
ics, physics, and civil engineering. He died ranch lamented, Oct.
28, 1870. In 1869, $50,000 was appropriated by the state for the
further erection of buildings. Henry E. Alvord, U. S. Army, now
professor of agriculture, was detailed for duty as professor of mili-
tary science and tactics ; the college hall, farm house and barns were