built; Hon. William Knowlton, of Upton, afterwards in 1870 elected
trustee, and who was otherwise a frequent donor to the college, and
who died last year, gaye $2000 for the purchase of the herbarium
collected by W. W. Denslow ; and in the same year the first Index, a
college paper, was issued. In 1870 the state further appropriated
$25,000 for the payment of debts. In 1870 also the first serious
attack upon the integrity of the college, as a state college, was made
by the passage of a resolve "-That the Secretary of the Board of
Education, and the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture be directed
to devise a plan, if practicable, by which the college may, without
expense to the Commonwealth, be recognized as an independent
institution in analogy with other colleges in the Commonwealth, and
that they inquire whether the term of study in said college should not
be reduced, and report to the next General Court." Rev. Henry W.
Parker was chosen professor of mental, moral and social science, and
college preacher. In 1871 a legislative resolve allowed $50,000 for pay-
ment of debts and current expenses ; added $141.535.35 to the perpet-
ual fund of the college ; and ordered 10,000 extra copies of the college
report to be printed. The first class numbering 27 was graduated this
year on the 19th of July, and two days after, the Agricultural College
crew, " the Aggies " won in the intercollegiate regatta in 16 min. 46 1-2
sec. Selim H. Peabody was elected professor of mathematics, phys-
ics, and civil engineering. Henry J. Clark was elected professor of
comparative anatomy and veterinary science, and died July 1, 1873.
Miss Mary Robinson presented $1000 for the endowment of a schol-
arship. In 1872 Prof. Stockbridge was elected full professor of
agriculture. Abner H. Merrill. U. S. A., was detailed professor of
military science and tactics in place of Prof. Alvord. In 1873 Noah
Cressy was elected professor of veterinary science. Isaac D. Farns-
worth donated rhetorical prizes. Hon. William Claflin gave an agri-
cultural prize fund, known as the Grinnell agricultural prizes. The
Hills botanical prizes, and Prof. Peabody's entomological prize, were
given. In 1874 the legislature granted $10,000. Prof. Peabody
resigned. Samuel T. Maynard was elected gardener and assistant
professor of horticulture, and William B. Graves professor of math-
ematics, physics, and civil engineering. In 1874 also, three years
after the first class was graduated, the k( Associate Alumni of the
Massachusetts Agricultural College" were organized, an early and
striking proof of the interest maintained in the coll ge by its gradu-
ates, which from your numbers here to-dav you bid fair to retain. In
1875, the college entered into an agreement to represent the agricultu-
ral department of Boston University. Charles A. L. Totten was
detailed as professor of military science and tactics, and Prof. Charles
S. Sargent made a gift of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants.
In April, 1876, Dr. Nathan Diirfee, treasurer, died and the state
appropriated $5000 for current expenses. Prof. Cressy resigned. A
military prize and diploma were first given by Prof . Totten. In 1877,
the state appropriated $5000, one-half for payment of manual labor
by students from within the state. Hon. William Knowlton built a
On the 20th of May, 1876, President Clark left the country to
organize an agricultural college in Japan, leaving Prof. Stockbridge
in charge ; but returned the next year, and resumed his duties to
which he devoted himself until May 1, 1879, when he resigned.
In 1879, the legislature granted $32,000 to pay the indebted-
ness of the college, and provided that kt the expenses of the
institution shall be kept within the income to which it is legally
entitled, and the board of trustees shall be personally liable for any
debt contracted for any purpose in excess of the annual income of
the college, or for the payment of which money has not been previ-
ously provided." The state perpetual fund of the college was $350,-
000. The trustees offered in 1880, one hundred and fifty free schol-
arships, and Whiting Street, Esq made a beque-t of $1000 to the
general funds of the college. Prof. Levi Stockbridge gave $1000
for experimental purposes. Chas. A. Morris, U. S. A. was detailed
as professor of military science and tactics.
Charles L. Flint, who had been since the organization of the Board
of Agriculture in 1852, secretary of that board, and since the organi-
zation of the college, clerk of the corporation, as well as ex-ojficio
trustee, to whom the college has ever been largely indebted for advice
and services, and who has shown his interest in the college by a sub-
scription of $1000 towards a library fund, consented to temporarily
fill the breach occasioned bv the resignation of President Clark, and
held office till March, 1880. Durino- his term of office, Prof. Parker
resigned, and Prof. Maynard was elected full professor of botany and
horticulture. Prof. Stockbridge was elected president in April. In
January, 1882, President Chadbpurne's health had so far improved,
that Mr. Stockbridge resigned, and President Chadbourne at once
resumed the office. During President Stockbridge's term, Prof.
Graves resigned in Aug., 188 L ; Charles L. Harrington was appointed
professor of mathematics, physics, and civil engineering, and Victor
H. Bridgnian was detailed as military professor. In 1882, under the
presidency of Mr. Chadbourne, $9000 was appropriated for a drill
hall and repairs. An act was passed May 12th establishing the
Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station. Prof. Har-
rington resigned, and Austin B. Bassett was elected professor in his
place. In January, 1883, the Durfee plant house was destroyed by
fire, and on the 23d of February the college met with the final loss of
President Chadbourne by death. Prof. Goodell acted as president
until September, when James C. Greenough, elected in July, assumed
the duties of the office. Mr. Greenough had not consented
to become a candidate, -but was elected by a unanimous vote, and
continued president until September, 1880.
In June, 1883, the legislature allowed $10,000 annually for four years
(and afterwards annually), and established eighty free scholar-
ships, two for each senatorial district, to be recommended b'v the
senator of the district.* Manly Miles was elected professor of agri-
culture, the drill hall was completed, and Leander Wetherell of Bos-
ton presented 1410 bound volumes to the library. In 1884, a resolve
allowed $36,000 for the erection of a chapel and library building, for
the completion of the president's house, and for the repair of north
"CONDITIONS OF AWARDING FREE SCHOLARSHIPS.
(Resolves of 1883. Chap. 4(5).
The eighty free scholarships *********************
to be given by appointment to persons in this Commonwealth, after a competitive exami-
nation, under rules prescribed by the president of the college, at such time and place as
the senator then in office, from each district, shall designate ; and the said scholarships
shall be assigned equally to each senatorial district; but if there shall be less than two
successful applicants for scholarships from any senatorial district, such scholarships may
be distributed by the president of the college equally among the other districts, as nearly
as possible; but no applicant shall be entitled to a scholarship unless lie shall pass an
examination in accordance with the rules to be established as hereinbefore provided.
Approval Jan. 2, 18S3.
Resolved, That there shall be paid annually from the treasury of the Commonwealth to
the treasurer of the Massachusetts agricultural college, at Amherst, the sum of ten thous-
and dollars, to enable the trustees of said college to provide for the students of said insti-
In 1884, Prof. Bassett resigned, and Clarence I). Warner was elected
in his place. Horace E. Stockbridge was elected associate professor of
chemistry. On the 4th of February, 1885, the south dormitory was
destroyed by fire, and in June following, $45,000 was appropriated
for rebuilding the dormitory, erecting a tower on the chapel and pur-
chasing scientific apparatus. Prof. H. E. Stockbridge resigned, and
Charles Wellington was elected associate professor in his stead.
George E. Sage, U. S. A., was detailed as professor of military sci-
ence and tactics. Ex-President French died Nov. *29, and Ex-Pres-
ident Clark on the 9th of March, 1886. In the same year the Henry
James Clark prize of natural history was first given ; Mr. Wilder pre-
sented several hundred volumes to the library, and $7000 for repairs
and other needs of the college was granted by the state.
"Mr, Greenough's presidency is marked by the changes and ad-
ditions made in the college buildings. The boarding house built
in 1867 was remodeled, repaired and painted ; the interior of the
original chapel building remodeled ; the original north dormitory ren-
ovated, and the president's house planned and built. The south
dormitory was rebuilt on a much larger scale, with accommodations
for the agricultural department, at a cost of about $33,000. To
President Greenough also, the college is indebted for his valuable serv-
ices and oversight, in the erection of this beautiful stone chapel and li-
brary building, constructed of stone (from a granite quarry in Pelham
purchased by the college in 1867), built and furnished at a'costof a
little over $31,000. Mr. Greenough also obtained a subscription of
between seven and eight thousand dollars for a permanent library
At the period of the college commencement in June, 1886, Henry
H. Goodell, who had been a professor in the college since the sum-
mer of 1867, and prior to the admission of its first class, and who
had also held various other positions of all grades up to that of
acting president, was elected president of the college, and is holding
the position to the general acceptance and gratification of the trus-
tees, the facultv, the students, and the communitv. The state has
tution the theoretical and pi-ictical education required by its charter and the law of the
United States relating thereto.
(Resolves of !(>. Chap. 3-4).
Resohied, That annually the scholarships established by chapter forty-six of the Resolves
of the year eighteen hundred eighty-three be given and continued in accordance with the
provisions of said chapter.
Approved April 16,
just appropriated $7000 for barn, sheds, ice-house, concrete side-
walks, tire apparatus, and heating appliances for the drill hall;
in April accepted the act of Congress concerning experiment sta-
tions, and has also appropriated $6500 for a laboratory building at
the Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station at Am-
At the accession of President Goodell, Charles Henry Fernald was
elected professor of comparative anatomy and veterinary science, and
Charles Swan Walker professor of moral and social science. And
Henry E. Alvord, formerly detailed as professor of military science,
returned to the college which he loved, as professor of agriculture.
And now, gentlemen, at the end of a quarter of a century since
the passage of the beneficent law we celebrate, with its author on our
grounds, whom we were so glad to welcome yesterday,* let us remem-
ber that it is not quite twenty years since the college was opened,
but we have time enough to review the past, to ask what mistakes
we have made, what trials we have survived, and to -see whether we
have encouragement for the future.
One crisis of the college was in 1870, when an attempt was made
by resolve, to disown the college, to renounce and discard it like an
abandoned child thrown upon its own resources. There is a law
human as well as divine, that parents shall support their offspring at
least during helplessness. Let it never be forgotten, and I pray you
to urge the consideration always, that this college is the child of the
state, which is bound by the highest obligations of honor, by avow-
als, before all the world, in consideration of the 'gift by Congress of
390,000 acres of land, to ;k support and maintain at least one college
where the leading object shall be * * to teach such branches of
learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." This
grant was made on a condition, and the state accepted the act with
that condition. The state therefore cannot discard the child. It
has agreed to ki support and maintain" it. It is the state's college,
ct the Massachusetts Agricultural College." The land is the property
of the state. The trustees are merely agents of the state, and there-
fore like any agents entirely subject to the orders of their principal.
It is for that reason, if there were no others, that the State Board of
Agriculture are properly made the overseers of the college ; for this
reason the state very properly should appoint the trustees, limit their
powers, and render them liable for wilful excess of expenditure.
*Mr. Morrill was called by telegram to Washington by the severe illness of his son.
The proposed legislative infanticide was averted, and the child
remained alive with its parents. The legislature became satisfied
that it could not be accomplished honorably, nor legally.
Notwithstanding the result of the movement above described,
again in 1879, and 1880, an attempt encouraged by Gov. Talbot and
recommended by Gov. Long was made to annex the Agricultural
College to another college. The resolve w ' requested Gov. Talbot
and council to examine the affairs of the college, and report some plan
for its permanent continuance with its relations to the state definitely
fixed, or some plan for its discontinuance ; but with the provision in
any event, that its finances shall from this time be finally separated
from the treasury of 'the Commonwealth." This meant life, ;t perma-
nent continuance," with an arranged or defined stipend, or abandon-
ment, being cut off with a shilling. Gov. Talbot's council were
puzzled. There could be no contract or arrangement made with the
college, because the college was the state's own minor child, and
belonged to the state. I arn informed by a surviving member of the
council that no report was ever made, and certainly no message, nor
report upon the subject appears in the Blue Book. Gov. Long in
his first inaugural message in 1880, speaks of what is recommended
in the report of the retiring governor and council as follows : " The
course which is recommended in the report of the retiring governor
and council is its union with Amherst College, if that can be effected,
with provisions, of course, for fulfilling the trusts heretofore involved
in the acceptance of funds from the town of Amhe.rst and from the
national government. Such a union, without destroying the integ-
rity of this institution, would certainly separate it from the state
treasury. It would save it from the annual attack that impairs its
steadiness and accomplishment. It would graft a living branch upon
a strong and growing college, which, adopting this new and inde-
pendent department of practical instruction, would, I am sure, even
though with the same income, increase its efficiency, and enable it
still, in the interest of agriculture and not subordinate to any other,
to better achieve the worthy purposes of its foundation. I trust you
will adopt such a course and the one recommended in the above-
named report is there suggested with that view as will make this
institution most valuable in promoting the great interest for which it
stands." Gov. Long wanted to make the college a " living branch"
upon another college ; but with what provisions he would fulfil the
trust involved with the town of Amherst, and the national govern-
except with their express consent, he failed to suggest. Gov.
Long was too fast, whilst Gov. Talbot's council hesitated and felt
that the -project was impracticable and unworthy of Massachusetts.
For if the state cannot discard, how can it annex, and let the Agri-
cultural College, in the words of Gov. Long, become k ' a branch of
another college"? I have never been able to see how the state could
11 support and maintain " a college if it is made an annex to another
college. How can the state send its Board of Agriculture as over-
seers to another corporation? tl At least one college." If an agri-
cultural college, so called, is located in the vicinity of another college,
it still cannot be another college, unless it rests upon a separate
foundation, with independent and distinct professors throughout;
and if so, there can be no saving of expense, by any such conjunction
as can be made under the law. I understand that the various colleges
under Oxford and Cambridge Universities, each rest on distinct foun-
dations, each with a master answering to the president of our col-
leges, each with a full set of professors and tutors throughout, and a
chancellor overall. E pluribus unum. These considerations apply
with peculiar force to an agricultural college with a farm attached.
How annex to Oxford or Cambridge a farm of four hundred acres,
with a college upon it, without keeping that college upon an essen-
tially independent foundation ? Nothing resulted from either of these
projects, and the college is still' the child of the state, to be supported
by the state.
All the governors of the Commonwealth but two, have been friendly
to the life of the college, and in 1883, when Gov. Butler took the
gubernatorial chair, he thought it better to feed and nourish it than
to put it out to nurse, or send it to some legislative Tewkesbury, and
did what he could to revive confidence in its success.
It cannot be denied that in the minds of many friends there have
been some disadvantages in the location at Amherst, because of its
proximity to a classical college ; because it has been somewhat diffi-
cult of access, (a trouble which will soon be remedied) ; and because it
has not attracted the beneficent grants and bequests, which it might
have received if in the neighborhood of a great city.
As to the first consideration, it is due to Amherst College to state
that the suggestion is made solely as to the relations, real or supposed,
between the two classes of students. Amherst college, on the con-
trary, has not only* scrupulously adhered to pledges made by its
president, Dr. Stearns, when the location of the Agricultural College
was under consideration, that the elder college would urge or counte-
nance no movement for annexation or absorption, but would do what it
could to accommodate the Agricultural College, but it has offered
accommodations at times, and granted the agricultural students access
to its library, etc.
Nor do I think the college has suffered much from the last consid-
eration. Although a large number of retired gentlemen, such as
formed the Massachusetts Society, have shown great interest in the
advancement of our agriculture, the active mercantile and manufac-
turing interests of Boston have never taken interest in the origin or
success of the college, whilst the metropolitan press has almost uni-
versally and constantly depreciated and disparaged the institution.
President John Adams; who was in 1805, president of the Massachu-
setts Society, nevertheless in 1812, wrote as follows : 4; We say and
say truly that agriculture and commerce are sisters, and their inter-
ests mutual and consistent ; but the misfortune is that individuals and
masses of both orders of men do not always understand the existence
of both interests, and instead of endeavoring to reconcile them,
employ all their policy -and influence to counteract each other. The
merchants in all the seaports discouraged the growth of wheat in the
state. Why? Because they supply us with flour from New York
t&c. and the article constitutes an important link in the chain of com-
merce. Agricultural patriotism is one thing, and mercantile patriot-
ism another in our dearly beloved Massachusetts ; both equally sin-
cere, both equally bona Jide. You will get no aid from Boston.
Commerce, literature, science, theology, are against you ; nay, med-
icine, history, university, and universal politics might be added." I
do not adopt this extravagant statement of Mr. Adams as strictly
applicable at present, but quote it as a curious coincidence with the
fact I was stating.
Neither am I discouraged by any indications of a want of interest
in the college, or in the number of its students, but only in the want
of funds to sustain a college as it should be. The Commonwealth
cannot do for this college what it pledged itself to do, without money.*
But students will come as fast as we can accommodate them, and do
*Jt ought to be known that among the numerous inquiries by letter during the last year
over ninety poor young men sought admission to the college; provided they could earn then-
way by work upon the farm and by other means. Manual labor of students is not, of
course, profitable in itself. No one could do more good in the educational direction than
by donating In whole or in part to a fund of $100,000, to be known as the " Manual Labor
them justice. I have too much faith in the progress of the age, to
suppose for a moment that an} 7 effort to develop an accurate science
and knowledge of gathering succor from our mother earth will be a
failure. Why, in 1805, I read that Mr. Mori-ill's own University of
Vermont had thirty students, and one professor, and he was the
president. I had just entered Harvard in 1836, when she celebrated
her second centennial, and heard Oliver Wendell Holmes recite his
" Who was on the catalogue
When college was begun ?
Two nephews of the president, .
And the professor's son.
They turned a little Indian b'y
As brown as any bun.
Lord ! how the Seniors knocked about
The freshman class of one."*
Neither am I discouraged by any want of success of the college
either in its instruction, or in its experimental work. Under the cir-
cumstances it has far exceeded any reasonable expectations. It is
remarked by friends who have most closely watched its graduates,
that they were better prepared for the actual work of life than those
of the classical colleges. I purposely avoid any discussion of the
philosophy of an agricultural education, and of the scope and sphere
of this college. My province is confined to a relation of facts of the
past. But it is proper that I should remind you that Agassiz declared
that the experiments on the circulation of sap in plants, and their
expansive power during growth are worth all the college had cost the
Commonwealth. I append a summary, which it would be irksome
now to read, of the experimental and other scientific work conducted
at the college.
On the use and effect of common salt on grain and root crops.
The construction and repair of highways. 1869. Miller.
The establishment of true meridian lines as the basis of all sur-
veys. 1870. Miller.
Report on the management of stock. 1871. Dillon.
Stassfurt-salines as a potash resource in agriculture. 1871-72.
*Turn to the Harvard catalogue and you will find: In 1643 4 graduates, in 1640 and 1(541
none, in 1644 7, in 1645 7, in 16464, in 1647 7, in 1648 5, in 1652 1, in 1654 1, in 1655 2, in 16.56 4,
in 1672 none, in 1673 4, in 1674 3, and so on, whilst the class of 1685, consisting of 14, was the
largest class which had graduated during the fifty years since " the college was begun,"
and twenty-two was the largest number of any class prior to 171!.
The growing of sugar-beets, the manufacture of sugar from them,
and trial of. their value for cattle food. 1871-76. Goessmann.
Report on sugar-beets raised on the college farm. 1872. Goess-
Fertilization of farm lands with reference to commercial fertilizers.
The circulation of sap in plants and their expansive power during
growth. 1873. Clark.
Practical trials of new implements and farm machinery. 1873.
The sources of supply and the quantity and quality of our manu-
rial agents. 1873. Goessmann. ,
Investigations of the quality and composition of commercial ferti-
lizers offered for sale, and the protection of the community from
fraud by legal control and inspection. 1873-86. Goessmann.
Observations on the phenomena of plant life. 1874. Clark.
Experiments with compound commercial fertilizers to test their
comparative agricultural value and their value as compared with sin-
gle elements. 1874. Stockbridge.