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Cleveland, past and present; its representative men: online

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fortune, to be born in Vermont, at ^liddlebury, March 30th, 1S05, in
view of the Green Mountains, among rocks and mountains. This
region is principally famous for marl)le, slate, iron ore, and hardy
young men, generally known as Green ^lountain bovs.

An older brother, Abel B. Garli.k. having been apprenticed to a
marble cutter, came out West, sometime after the war of 1812, and
located at Cleveland. In ISIG, Theodatus, at the age of eleven years,



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376 CLEVELAND, PAST AND PRESENT:

had drifted as far as Kne, Pennsylvania ; in 1^19, to Cleveland. The
Winter of 1S19-20, he spent at Black Uiver, which was then the lead-
ing ship yard of the lakes.

Abel B, had artist's ability also. In this region no marble was to
be found, but a tolerable substitute existed in the fine grained blue
sandstone at Newburg. A mill was erected at the quarry on Mill
creek, below the falls, where these stones were sawed, as they are
now, into handsome slabs.

Like other New Englanders, the Vermont boys are early impressed
with the idea of self-support. Although Theodatus much preferred
fun and frolic to hard labor, he entered cheerfully upon the business
of a stone cutter at the age of sixteen. Their marble yard (without
marble) was on Bank street, where Morgan & Eoot's block now
stands. Abel marked the outlines of the letters upon incipient grave
stones in pencil, and Theodatus carved them with his chisel. Most of
the renowned sculptors of Ohio, such as Powell, Clevenger and Jones,
took their first lessons in the same way. All of them have left
samples of their untutored skill in various angels and cherubs, now
mouldering in old churchyards. The blue sandstone monuments, on
which Dr. Garlick cut inscriptions fifty years since, are still to be
seen in the earb,^ cemeteries of the Western Eeserve ; some are
touching enough, but not a few are more ridiculous than mournful.
When Nathan Perry became so prosperous that he proposed to
remove the old wooden store on the corner of Water and Superior
streets and replace it with a brick one, he concluded to expend
something upon ornament. He ordered two oval stone signs to be
made and to be built into the walls over the two doors, one on
each street. These were among the earliest efforts of Dr. Garlick.
Both of these stones were in existence until the ground was cleared
for the present Bank building, when they were broken up and put
into the cellar wall. In those days it was one of the duties of an
apprentice to sharpen the tools at a blacksmitirs forge. The young
man concluded to carve flying cherubims with their stone trumpets
to ring in the ears of coming generations no longer.

Having a robust physical constitution, he became passionately
fond of hunting and fishing. In 1S22, he lived with a brother in
Newbury, Geauga county, which was then a forest full of game. In
a letter referring to the sporting days of his youth, he wrote as
follows :

M7 brother and myself sxarted out very early one morning for a deer that -.ve knew
had been feeding around the cabin that night ; within a (juarter of a mile from the cabin



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my brother shot him, iind as ho fired, up jumped eleven elk ; oni; of oar ufijrlihorr^ n'.iot
five of them witliiu an acre of ground ; they were near together, at bav, fi'rlitini,' with
the <log5!. I hi-iped to get them in ; tliey were a part of a larger herd, we counted th«'ir
bi'ds in the sivnv where they had lain at night, and there were over one hundred iuthc
drove.

Ten or fifteen years previous to that time, one of those tornadoes
which occasionally visit this region, had prostrated the timber alon"-
a tract a mile wide and several miles in length, through the township
of Newbury. A thicket of bushes had sprung up among the fallen
trees, which furnished excellent browsing ground and shelter for
game, of which there was an abundance of bear, wolves, elk, deer,
turkeys, etc., constituting quite a paradise for a young Nimrod.

He finally determined to become a physician, and after some years
of the usual experience of medical students, practicing some, and
assisting at operations, he entered the medical department of the
University of Maryland, in the city of Baltimore, where he graduated
in 1834.

No sooner was his diploma secured than the artist again broke
forth. He suddenly produced bas-reliefs in wax of five favorite
professors without sittings, which were pronounced perfect likenesses.
General Jackson and Henry Clay gave him a short sitting, and the
next day their statueits were on exhibition. Mr. Clay expressed his
satisfaction lor his own in an autograph letter. Another miniature
in relief, fall length, of Chief Justice Marshall, from a portrait by
Waugh, was pronounced by Mr. Bullock, an English virtuoso, as
equal to anything produced by Thorwaldsen. But being surrounded
by medical men, who, like men of all professions, regard their own as
more important than any other. Dr. Garlick was induced to turn his
artistic skill upon anatomical models.

He located at Youngstown, Ohio, the same year that he graduated,
at which place, and at the Medical College of Cleveland, he devoted
nearly two years in getting up models of all parts of the human body,
taken from subjects in the dissecting room. They may yet be seen
in the Medical Colleges at Cleveland, Biilfalo, Toronto, Charleston,
South Carolina, Cincinnati, and other places. These were such close
imitations of nature that the late Professor Mussey, of Cincinnati,
pronounced them superior to the French models at Paris by Auzoux-
At Youngstown he made a life size l)ust of Judge Georire Tod, copies
of which are now in the family. In 1S.7-;, after a successful practice
at Youngstown, he came to Cleveland, and formed a partnership in
surgery with the late Professor H. A. Acklej-, and for a number of



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378 CLEVELAND, FAST AND PRESENT:

years was a member of the Board of Medical Censors of the Clevehmd
Medical College, and vice president of tlie Cleveland Academy ot
Natural Science. As he was a naturalist, he applied the principle.
of the anatomical models to animals and parts of animals, especially
fishes. He entered with great zeal upon the artificial propagation^ot
brook trout and other fish in connection with Dr. Ackley. In lbo«,
he published a small book, which is the standard work of the United
States on this subject.

He was a skillful physician and surgeon, a diligent student of
natural history, a kpen sportsman, and a great lover of the fine arts.
A good physical constitution is at least one-half of the capital oi any
man, however gifted in mind. In this respect he was like Christopher
North, with few equals. In the rude contests of strength among the
young men of a new country, the races, wrestling matches, and
occasional fights, he never felt like backing down; but ol late years
this powerful frame has been partially stricken with paralysis.

The doctor still resides in this city, devoted to natural science,
especially botany, but the days of his personal activity are past.



J. L. CASSELS.



John Lang Cassels, M. D., LL. D., was born in Stirlingshire, Scot-
land, and in 1827, while quite a young man, came to this country.
Soon after, he studied medicine with Prof. John Delamater, in
Fairfield, New York, and graduated in lSo4, in the College of Piiysi-
cians and Surgeons located at Fairfield, N. Y. He was Demonstrator
of Anatomy in that school three years, two years during his puuila-e
and one after his graduation. He opened an ofiice for the practice ni
medicine in Earlville, New York, in the spring of 1835, and in tlie fall
of the same year received and accepted the appointment of Frolessor
of Chemistry in ^Villoughby University, Ohio, which connection he
retained until the fall of 1843, when he and his associates opened and
established the Cleveland Medical College, in which he still occupies
the chair of Chemistry.

In 1837, he received the appointment of First Assistant Geologist of



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the New York State Geological Survey, which he oceupieil Imf several
s>eas(>ii>^, peironniiii:; lield labor in the summer and lecturing:: on < lu-in-
istry in Winou.irliby ^ledical College during the winter. His coiniec-
tioii with the New York survey gave him an excellent opi)ortuni'y to
become an expert practical geologist; his location being on the
Hudson river district, offered him a tine field of action, as it is really
the key to the geology and mineralogy of the State.

In the winter of ls39, he gave a course of demonstrated lectures on
chemistry before tlie Young Men's Library Association in Cleveland,
the first public lectures on science ever given in the city. The fol-
lowing winter the citizens of Cleveland invited him to lecture again
on the same subject, and he complied. The city at that time con-
tained mostly young people— only two gray-headed men attended the
Stone Church.

In 1S15, he spent most of the season in visiting and collecting
specimens of mineral in the lead region of Wisconsin, Illinois. Iowa
and Missouri, thus becoming familiar with the geology of their rich
mineral region.

In 181:6, he spent the whole season in exploring the Lake Superior
country, coasting the south shore in a bark canoe, having for his
traveling companions two Indians and a half-breed voyager. At this
date there were no steamers on Lake Superior, and but a very few
small sailing craft. It was during this time that he took squatter
possession of a mile square of the iron region of that country, for the
benefit of the Cleveland Iron Company. He was the first white man
that had visited this region, now so famous for its ferruginous wealth.
Near the close of the season he spent a short time geologizing Isle
Koyale, and returned to Saut St. Marie on the steamer Julia Palmer,
which had, during the summer, been hauled over the passage of Saut
St. Marie. During the winter following, at the request of a number
of Clevelanders, he gave a public lecture on the Lake Superior
region ; at the close of which he said he would venture a prophecy :
"Such was the charact?r of the climate, scenery, etc., of Lake
Superior that the time was not far distant when it would become as
great a resort for invalids and pleasure-seekers as Saratoga and New-
port now are."" Also, that there is iron enough in the iron district
sufficient to furnish a double track of the much talked of Whitney's
railroad. Tliese statements were tiien received with a stormy mani-
festation of incredulity.

In 1859, the Jefierson College of Mississippi conferred the Degree
of LL. D. on Dr. Cassels.



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380 CLEVELAND, FAST AND PRESENT:

111 18(51, he was elected a corresponding member of the Imperial
Geological Institution of Berlin, Prussia.

For the last ten years, in addition to the duties of his chair in the
Cleveland Medical College, he has regularly filled the chair of chem-
istry and natural history in the Western Reserve College at Hudson.
During the past twenty years he has given several courses of popular
experimental lectures in his favorite branches of chemistry and
geology in a number of our neighboring towns, Akron, Canton, Arc.
He is also the regular lecturer in these branches in the Female
Seminary in Painesville.

Perhaps few men have been as extensively engaged in texicological
examinations during the past twenty years as Dr. Cassels. Many of
these have been of great interest, both in a social and moral point of
view. In all such cases he is regarded with great contideuce, both
on account of his scientific skill and his high sense of moral integrity.

As an analytical chemist he has few superiors, and is much of iiis
spare time engaged in the analysis of waters, ores, coal, limestone,
(tc. In 1S66, he analyzed the water of Cleveland which is brought
from Lake Erie and distributed through the city. He analyzed this
water taken from different parts of the city and from the point where
it entered the pipes to be forced into the reservoir; also from a
point in the lake three thousand four hundred and fifty feet from the
shore, where he advised that the inlet pipe ought to be located. All
these analyses are embraced in his report to the Trustees of the city
water works ; in which also are many valuable suggestions respect-
ing supply pipes and the character of the water for steam purposes



J. S. NEWBERRY



J. S. Newberry, M. D., LL. D., was born at Windsor, Connecticut,
of old Puritan stock, his ancestry having formed part of the colony
which in l(io5, emigrated from Dorchester, colony of Massachusetts
Bay, and founded the town of Windsor, the first settlement made in
Connecticut.

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durin;; wliicli time it held an honorable place in that community and
contributed several representatives, who took an important part in
the affairs of tlie State government, or in the defense of the colony
against tlie Indians, and in the French and Indian and Revolutionary
wars. Dr. Newberry's grandfather, Hon. Roger Newberry, a distin-
guished lawyer, and for many years a member of the Governor's
council, was one of the directors of the Connecticut Land Company,
which purchased a large part of the Connecticut Western Reserve.
The town of Newberry received its name from him. His son, Henry
Newberry, inherited his interest in the land of the company, by which
he became possessed of large tracts in Summit, Ashtabula, Medina,
Lorain and Cuyahoga counties, including one hundred acres now
within the city of Cleveland. Looking after these interests he made
three journeys on horseback (the first in 1814,) from Connecticut to
Oliio, and, in 1824, removed his family to Summit county, where he
founded the town of Cuyahoga Falls, remaining there till his death,
in 1854.

Dr. Newberry graduated at Western Reserve College, in 1846, and
from the Cleveland Medical College in 1848. The years 1849 and 1850,
he spent in study and travel abroad. Returning at the close of the
latter year he established himself, early in 1851, in the practice of
medicine in Cleveland. Here he remained till 1855, when his profes-
sional business became so engrossing as to leave him no time for the
scientific study to which he had been devoted from his boyhood. To
escape from too great professional occupation, and impelled by an
unconquerable passion for a scientific career, in May, 1855, he
accepted an appointment from the War Department, and became
connected with the army as acting assistant surgeon and geologist to
the party which, under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., made
an exploration of the country lying between San Francisco and the
Columbia river. The results of this expedition are embodied in V^ol.
6 P. R. R. Reports. The reports of Dr. Newberry on the " Geology,
Botany and Zoology of North California and Oregon," are republished
in a volume of 300 pp., 4to., with 48 plates. In 1857-8, he accompanied
Lieutenant J. C. Ives, U. S. A., in the exploration and navigation of
the Colorado river, one of the most interesting explorations made by
any party in any country. The object of the expedition was to open
a navigable route of communication with our army in Utah. To this
end an iron steamer was constructed in Philadelphia, taken in
sections to the head of the Gulf of California, where it was put
together and launched. With this steamer the river, before almost



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382 CLEVELAND, PAST AND PRESENT:

entirely unknown, was navigated lor five liundred miles, opening a
route of travel which has since been extensively used. Beyond the
point reached by the steamer the course of the river is for several
hundreds of miles tlirough the '' Great Cauon," as it is called, a chasm
worn by the stream in the table lands of the '' Colorado Plateau/'
This canon has nearly vertical banks, and is nowhere less than three
thousand feet deep ; in some places six thousand feet, or more than a
mile in depth.

The party with which Dr. Newberry was connected, spent nearly
a year in exploring the country bordering the Colorado, adding much
to our knowledge of our western possessions, and giving, in their
report, an interesting and graphic description of, perhaps, the most
remarkable portion of the earth's surface. Half of the report of the
Colorado Expedition was prepared by Dr. Newberry, and so much
importance was attached to his observations by his commanding
officer, that in the preface he speaks of them as constituting "the
most interesting material gathered by the expedition."'

In 1S59, having finished his portion of the Colerado Report, Dr.
Newberry took charge of another party sent out by the War Depart-
ment, to report to Captain J. N. Macomb, topographical engineer. U.
S. A., for the exploration of the San Juan and upper Colorado rivers.
The Summer of 1S59 was spent in the accomplishment of the object
had in view by this expedition, during which time the party traveled
over a large part of Southern Colorado and Utah and Northern
Arizona and New Mexico, filling up a wide blank space in our maps
and opening a great area before unknown, much of which proved
rich and beautiful, abounding in mineral wealth, and full of natura[
objects of great interest. Among the results of this expedition were
the determination of the point of junction of Grand and Green rivers,
which unite to form the Colorado, and the exploration of the valley
of the San Juan, the largest tributary of the Colorado ; a stream as
large as the Connecticut, before almost unknown, but which, though
now without an inhabitant upon its banks, is for several hundred
miles lined with ruined towns or detached edifices built of stone.
and once occupied by many thousands of a semi-civilized people.
The report of this expedition made by Dr. Newberry, containing
much new and interesting scientific matter, was finished just Ijefore
the war, but yet remains unpublished.

Immediately after the commencement of the war, the United
States Sanitary Commission was organized. Dr. Newberr}^ was one
of the first elected members, and it is, perhaps, not too much to say






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ITS REPRESENTATIVE MEN. 380

that no otiior one individual contributed more to the <rreat success
that attiMidod tlie labors of that organization. In Sopteniljcr, l^tJl,
he accepted tlie position of Secretary of the Western Department of
the Sanitary Commission, and from that time had the general super-
vision of the affairs of the Commission in the valley of the ]Mississipi)i;
his head-quarters being first at Cleveland, and subsequently, as the
frontier was carried southward, at Louisville, Kentucky.

Through his efforts branches of the Sanitary Commission were
established in the priricipal cities of the West, and agencies for the
performance of its work at all important military points, and with
each considerable sub-division of the army. Before the close of the
war the entire West was embraced in one great system of agencies
for the production and distribution of supplies, and the care of sick
and w^ounded on the battle-field, in hospital or in transitu. The
magnitude of the work of the Sanitary Commission at the West may
be inferred from the fact that there were at one time over five
thousand societies tributary to it in the loyal States of the Northwest
— that hospital stores of the value of over 35,000,000 were distributed
by it in the valley of the Mississippi — that over 850,000 names were
on the records of its Hospital Directory at Louisville, and 1,000,000
soldiers, for whom no other adequate provision was made, were fed
and sheltered in its " homes."

Of this great work Dr. Newberry was the responsible head, and by
the wisdom and energy displayed by himself very much of the
harmony and efficiency which characterized this organization are to
be ascribed.

As his labors in connection with the Sanitary Commission were
drawing to a close, Dr. Newberry was appointed Professor of Geology
in the School of Mines of Columbia College, New York city. He
entered on the duties of the position in 1S66. In 1S69, he was
appointed by Governor Hayes to the office of State Geologist, created
by the Ohio General Assembly of that year.

The scientific acquirements of Professor Newberry have given him
a world-wide fame. As a Geologist his reputation ranks among the
foremost. He has been honored with the membership of the most of
the learned societies of this country, and of many in Europe ; was one
of the original corporators of the National Academy of Sciences ; was
recently elected president of the American Association for the
advancement of Science, and is now president of the New York
Lyceum of Natural History.



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384 CLEVELAND, PAST AND PRESENT:



D. H. BECKWITH.



The first Homeopathist in Cleveland was W. R. Adams, who suc-
ceeded in converting Dr. Hoyt, with Avhom he formed a partnership.
Very soon after, in 1S45, Drs. Wheeler and Williams were added to the
list. There weie but six families in the city having iirni faith in the
principles of homeopathy, and these were silent followers of Dr. John
Wheeler, not willing to be known as such, so strong was public
opinion against them. Dr. Wheeler continued unshaken by the
strong opposition he met with, and heeded neither sneers nor denun-
ciations. His course was onward and his practice successful, every
month adding to his list of converts, and the profits of each year
doubling the preceding one. Dr. Wheeler was the first member of
the profession to propose that a homeopathic medical college should
be located in Cleveland, and he earnestly pressed his theory that
Cleveland should be the centre of homeopathy in the West. His
name was the first signature to procure a charter, and when the col-
lege was organized he was selected as the President, and held the
office for the first eleven years of its existence, contributing materi-
ally to its success, and resigning only when increasing age rendered
its duties too onerous, when added to a large practice.

From the little beginnings in the early days of Dr. AVheeler's prac-
tice, homeopathy has grown in Cleveland, until it now reckons a
flourishing college, a woman's medical college, two hospitals, an



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