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Columbia ©nitiem'tp



LIBRARY




THE



HISTORY OP ANTIQUITY.



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FROM THE GERMAN ^ '^ rl . I '•



OF



A..



X












PROFESSOR MAX DUI^CKE



/



/



BY

EVELYN ABBOTT, M.A., LL.D.,

FELLOW AND TUTOR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD.

VOL. III.




LONDON:
. RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,

^ublisljcrs m C^rbinarn to |5cr glajcstn ibc Quccit.



1879.



3



CLAY AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS,



CONTENTS.

BOOK IV.
ASSYRIA. ISRAEL. EGYPT. BABYLON, LYDIA.

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE CAMPAIGNS OP TIGLATH PILESAR II ... ... ... 1

CHAPTER II.

THE PROPHETS OF ISRAEL ... ... ... ... 15

CHAPTER III.

THE PHARAOHS OF TANIS, BUBASTIS, AND NAPATA ... ... 50

CHAPTER IV.

THE FIRST COLLISION OF ASSYRIA AND EGYPT ... ... 76

CHAPTER V.

ASSYRIA IN THE REIGNS OF SARGON AND SENNACHERIB ... 95

CHAPTER VI.

SENNACHERIB IN SYRIA ... ... ... ... ... 121

CHAPTER VII.

ESARHADDON ... ... ... ... ... ••• 143



iv CONTEXTS.

CHAPTER VIII.

PAOR

assurbanipal's wars and victories ... ... ... 161

CHAPTER IX.

THE CONSTITUTION, ARMY, AND ART OF THE ASSYRIANS ... 182

CHAPTER X.

JUDAH UNDER MAN ASSES AND JOSIAH ... ... ... 208

CHAPTER XI.

THE NATIONS OF THE NORTH ... ... ... ... 228

CHAPTER XII.

THE FALL OF ASSYRIA ... ... ... ... ... 247

CHAPTER XIIL

EGYPT UNDER PSAMMETICHUS AND NECHO ... ... ... 295

CHAPTER XI Y.

THE RESTORATION OF BABYLON ... ... ... 320

CHAPTER XV.

NEBUCHADNEZZAR AND HIS SUCCESSORS ... ... ... 35G

CHAPTER XVL

EGYPT UNDER THE LAST PHARAOHS ... ... ... 398

CHAPTER XVII.

THE OVERTHROW OF THE HERACLEIDS IN LYDIA ... ... 414

CHAPTER XVIII.

LYDIA UNDER THE MERMNADJ5 ... ... ... ... 427



-UL,



/ ('()1.,CXliJ..



I



N.YORR. y



A S S Y Pi I A.



CHAPTER 1.

THE CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATH PILESAR II.

In the course of the ninth century B.C. the power of
Assyria had made considerable progress. In addition
to the ancient dependencies on the upper Zab and
the upper Tigris, in Armenia and Mesopotamia, the
principalities and cities on the middle Euphrates had
been reduced, the region of the Amanus had been
won. Cilicia had been trodden by Assyrian armies,
Damascus was humbled, Syria had felt the weight
of the arms of Assyria in a number of campaigns ;
the kingdom of Israel and the cities of the Phenicians
had repeatedly brought their tribute to the warlike
princes of Nineveli ; at length even the cities of the
Philistines and the Edomites could not escape a^
similar payment. Tiglath Pilesar 1. had seen the
great sea of the AVest, the Mediterranean ; three
centuries later Bin-nirar III. received the tribute of
all the harbour cities of the Syrian coast, the great
centres of trade on this sea. Nor was it to the West
only that the power of the Assyrians advanced. Shal-
manesar 11. and Bin-nirar III. gained the supremacy
over Babylon, the ancient mother-country of Assyria.
Each offered sacrifices at Babylon, Borsippa, and Kutha ;

VOL. III. B



2 ASSYRIA.

while to tlie North-west the power of Assyria extended
beyond Media as far as the shores of the Caspian Sea.

The successors of Bin-nirar III. were not able to
sustain their power at this height. Shalmanesar III.
^781—771 B.C.) had again to fight against Damascus
and Hadrach (in the neighbourhood of Danieascus^);
in his short reign of ten years he marched six times
against the land of Ararat (Urarti). Assur-danil III.
^771 — 753 B.C.), the successor of Shahnanesar III.,
also fought against Hadrach and Arpad (now Tel
Erfad, near Hamath ^). He had, m.oreover, to suppress
disturbances which had broken out on the upper
Zab in Arrapachitis (Arapha), and in the land of
Gnzan (Gauzanitis) on the Chaboras. In the reign
of Assur-nirar II. (753 — 745 B.C.) there were risings
in Assyria, even in Chalah, the metropolis.^ But the
prince who succeeded Assur-nirar II. on the throne of
Assyria, Tigiath Pilesar IL, was able not merely to
raise the kingdom to the position which it had occupied
under Shalmanesar II. and Bin-nirar III., but to make
it a predominant power over a still wider circuit.

The armies of Shalmanesar II. had invaded Media ;
among the tribute brought to him by the land of
Mushri we found camels with two humps, buffaloes,
(yaks) and elephants. After a successful campaign
against Babylon, which he undertook immediately
after his accession, Tigiath Pilesar led his army to the
table-land of Iran, and forced his way to the East.^

1 The older Zachariah mentions tlie land of Hadrach. beside Damas-
cus and Hamath, Zech. ix. 1, 2.

2 Fifteen miles to the north-west of Aleppo the ruin-heaps at Tel
Erfad mark the site of the ancient Arpad; Kiepert, " Z. D. M. G." 25, 665.

2 A document has been preserved from the reign of Assur-nirar,
belonging to the year 747 B.C., regarding the lease of a piece of land ;
Oppert et Menant, " Docum. Juiidiq." p. 151.

* The list of rulers represents him as marching to the stream, t. e.



CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATIl PILESAR II. 3

A tablet discovered at Clialah, wliicli gives a summary
of Tio:latli Pilesar's achievements from the first to the
seventeenth year of his reign, mentions the districts
subjugated in this direction. It is a long list, begin-
nino" with the land of Namri.^ The districts of Parsua,
Zikruti, Nisaa, and Arakuttu are mentioned,^ and the
enumeration concludes with districts in the v/ilds of
Media. ^ The king defeated the numerous warriors of
this region; "60,500 of their people, children, horses,
asses, mules, oxen, and sheep without number I carried
away." ^ Such are the words of the inscription, which
proceeds : " I took possession of the land of Namri
anew, and tlie land of Parsua." With these regions
thirteen districts already mentioned are again enumer-
ated. " Zikruti in rugged Media I added to the land of
Assyria ; the cities I built up anew ; in them I placed
warriors of Asshur, my lord, and people whom my hand
had taken captive. I received the tribute of Media, of
EUip, and all the princes of the mountains to Bikni ;
horses, asses, mules, oxen, sheep without number. My
general, Assurdainani, I sent into rugged Media towards
the risino; of the sun. He brous^ht back 5000 horses,
oxen, sheep without number." ^

According to this inscription Tiglath Pilesar, on his

to the Euphrates, immediately after his accession, and afterwards to the
land of Namri, i. e. to the Zagrus.
^ G. Smith reads Zimri.

2 Nissi in G. Smith, *' Disc." p. 260, but in frag. 4 Nissa.

3 So according to G. Smith [who reads Likruti].

4 LI. 29—33 in G. Smith, "Disc." p. 260; Menant, **Annal."

pp. 142, 143.

5 LI. 34—42, in G. Smith, "Disc." p. 261 ; Menant, he. at. 143.

The words " I possessed anew" are wanting in G. Smith; cf. Lenor-

mant, " Z. ^gypt. Sprache," 1870, s. 48 ff. The statement about the

subjugation of Bit Hamban and the regions which follow, 11. 34—37,

is repeated in the inscrii)tion in Layard, pp. 17, 18, 1. 17 ; in Menant,

loc. cit. 139. The statement about the campaign of Assurdainani is

repeated in frag. 4, p. 271 in G. Smith, loc. cit.

B 2



4 ASSYRIA.

first campaign against Iran, which we may place, on
the authority of the list of rulers, in the year 745 or
744 B.c.,^ though he failed to reach Bactria and the
Indus, forced his way into the eastern regions of Iran
as far as the further shore of lake Hamun. The
meaning of the names Nisaa, Zikruti, and Arakutta
is hardly doubtful. Nisaa must denote the region
or district of Nissea in the east of Media. Zikruti,^
which is mentioned together with Nissea, may be the
name of the Sagartians of Herodotus, the A^agarta of
the inscriptions of the Achsemenids, a race mentioned
by Herodotus among the tribes of the Persians ; they
were settled or wandered to the east of the latter.
Arakuttu gives us the Semitic form of the name
of the Harauvati of the Persian inscriptions, the
Haravaiti of the Avesta, the Arachoti of the Greeks.
The Arachoti were settled in the river- valley of the
Arachotus (now Arghandab), which falls into lake
Hamun, to tlie east of the river. But Tiglath Pilesar
did not maintain his supremacy on the table-land of
Iran to this extent. In the enumeration of the con-
quered districts of the second campaign the names
Nisaa and Arakuttu are wanting, while Zikruti, Parsua,
and Madai (Media), and the tribute of Media, which
must therefore have been obtained by a new campaign
of the general of Tiglath Pilesar, are brouglit into
prominence. The second campaign of the king was
tiierefore limited to the western regions of Iran. At a
later time, in the ninth year of his reign (787 B.C.), he
once more marched into the land of Media. ^ A second
inscription says, in summary, that Tiglath Pilesar

1 This gives 745 — 744 B.C.: Bildanil. To the land of Namri ; cf.
frag. 3 in G. Smith, *' Disc." p. 269.

2 Menant translates, " city of Zikruti; " G. Smith's rendering does
not give this descrij)tion in this passage (p. 260), but on p. 271.

^ G. Smith, loc, cit. p. 279 ; Menant, Joe. cit. p. 146.



CAMrAIGNS OF TIGLATII PILESAR II. 5

imposed tribute on the ^'lancl of Par sua '' and the
^' city of Zikruti," which was dependent on the land of
the Medes, and on the princes of the land of Media as
far as the land of Bikni.^

When Tig^lath Pilesar ascended the throne Nabonassar
(747 — 734 B.C.) had been king of Babylon for two years,
according to the canon of Ptolemy. Babylonia no
longer possessed the extent of country once given to
her by Hammurabi, and which we may ascribe to her
during the numerous wars carried on with Assyria
from the middle of the fifteenth century, and even
at the date of Shalmanesar II. and Bin-nirar III.
Either through the preponderance which Assyria had
obtained over Babylon after the middle of the ninth
century, or from other causes, we find several inde-
pendent principalities on the lower course of the
Euphrates after the middle of the eighth century ; the
Assyrian inscriptions mention as such, Bit Sahalla, Bit
Silan, Bit Dakkur, Bit Amukan, and Bit Yakin at the
mouth of the Euphrates, on the shore of the Persian
Gulf So far as we can discover from the monuments,
Tiglath Pilesar was at war with Babylonia in the very
first year of his reign. ^ Dur Kurigalzu, the old border
fortress of Babylon against Assyria, Sippara, and other
cities of the land of Karduuias on the river or canal
Ukni, are mentioned, and the priests of Bit Saggatu or
Bit Zida, i. e. of the chief temples of Babylon and Bor-
sippa, together with the priest of Nergal, who bring
gifts to Tiglath Pilesar ; we hear of 10 talents of gold,
and 1000 talents of silver, received by TigUith Pilesar
in the first year of his reign. ^ In the summary of his
achievements (on the tablet of Chalah) the king says
that he has taken Dur Kurigalzu, that he has offered

1 L. 17 in Menant, loc. cit. p. 139. 2 Above, p. 2, note 4.

3 Frag. 1, 2 in G. Smitli, ** Dise." pp. 2GG, 2G7.



6 ASSYRIA,

sacrifice at Sippara, Nipur, Babylon, Borsippa, Kutlia,
and Ur, that in the beofinnino^ of his reio^n he ruled
from Dur Kurigalzu to Nipur.^ The king of Babylon,
against whom he fought and whom he compelled to
open the gates of his fortresses and of Babylon, is not
mentioned by Tiglath Pilesar. We must assume, from
the canon of Ptolemy, that it was Nabonassar who
bowed himself before the weisflit of the arms of
Assyria. Yet the obedience of Babylon was not
secured. Fragments of the detailed annals of Tiglath
Pilesar inform us that his general again fought against
the Babylonians, that he himself again conquered a
city which the Babylonians had taken, that in the
region of Tel Assur he sacrificed to Merodach the god
of Tel x4.ssur.^ An inscription of Chalah narrates that
Tiglath Pilesar laid waste Bit Amukan and Bit Sahalla,
and took their kings Nabu-sabzi and Zakiru prisoners ;
that he besieged king Kinziru in Sapiya (Sape), his
capital, and added to Assyria Pillutu on the border of
Assyria and Elam; that he received the tributes of the
kings of the Chaldseans, of Balasu, the son of Dakkuri,
of Nadin of Larrak, and Merodach Baladan, the son of
Yakin, the kino^ of the sea coast. ^ The laro;e tablet tells
US more at length. " Pillutu on the borders of Elam
I added to Assyria ; the Chaldoeans I removed from
thence and placed in the midst of Assyria. The war-
riors of Nabu-sabzi, the son of Silani, I defeated under
the walls of his city of Sarrapani, and I crucified him
before the great gate of his city. Five thousand five
hundred of his people I took captive ; his sons, his
daughters, his gods I carried away ; his city and the

^ Menant, loc. cit. p. 139.

'^ The list of rulers inserts a second camjiaign of Tiglath Pilesar to
the land of the stream in the year 737 B.C. ; frag. 8, 11. 18, 19, 52 — bb in
G. Smith, loc. cit. pp. 277, 280, 281.

3 LI. 12—19 iu G. Smith, " Disc." pp. 255, 256.



CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATH PILESAR II. 7

cities round about it I destroyed and burnt. . Zakiru,
the son of Salialli, and liis chieftains I captured ; I
put them in irons and brought them to Assyria ; 5400
of the people of Bit Sahalla I captured ; I laid
waste all the districts of Bit Sahalla and united them
to Assyria. The numerous army of Kinziru, the son
of Amukan, I defeated before the great gate of his
city, Sapiya ; I besieged him and overthrew all his
cities. Bit Silan, Bit Amukan, Bit Sahalla, I have
laid waste throughout their whole extent ; I received
the tribute of Balasu, the son of Dakkuri, and of Nadin
of Larrak ; Merodach Baladan, the son of Yakin, the
king of the sea-coast, was overcome by the fear of
Asshur, my lord : he came to Sapiya and kissed my
feet, and I received his tribute." ^

The canon of Ptolemy represents Nadius as succeed-
ing Nabonassar of Babylon in the year 733 B.C. Is the
Nabu-sabzi of Bit Silan whom Tigiath Pilesar defeats
near the city of Sarrapani the king Nadius of the
canon ; and ought his name to be altered in the canon
to Nabius ? According to the canon Nadius reigned
only two years (733, 732 B.C.) ; the campaign of Tig-
lath Pilesar, which ended in the conquest and execu-
tion of Nabu-sabzi, must therefore have taken place in
the year 732 B.C. After the conquest of Nabu-sabzi,
as the inscriptions told us, Tigiath Pilesar subjugates
Kinziru of Bit Amukan, when he had besieged Sapiya,
his capital ; in this city he receives the homage of
Merodach Baladan. The list of rulers places the
campaign against Sapiya in the year 731 B.C. In the.
canon of Ptolemy, Nadius is succeeded by a joint
rule: from the year 731 to 727 B.C. Chinzirus and
Porus reign over Babylon. Is the Kinziru of Bit
Amukan the Chinzirus of the canon ?

1 LI. 14—28 in G. Smitli, " Disc." pp. 258— 2G0.



8 ASSYRIA.

After the subjugation of Merodacli Baladan, king of
the sea-coast, i, e, the coast of the Persian Gulf, Tiglath
Pilesar's dominion extended over the whole region of
the Euphrates. He assures us that *' he laid waste the
land of Chaldsea throughout its whole extent," and
*' received tribute from all the Chaldoeans ; " that " he
possessed the whole land of Kardunias (Babylonia),
and was lord over it ; " ^ and with perfect truth, for an
inscription of king Sargon tells us, that Bit Amukan,
Bit Dakkur, Bit Silan, Bit Sahalla, Bit Yakin form the
whole of the land of the Chaldaeans.^ Tiglath Pilesar
calls himself " king of Asshur, king of Babylon, king
of Sumir and Accad ; " he claims the full title of the
kings of Babylon. The names of the principalities
of Chaldaaa are obviously taken from their dynasties.
Nabu-sabzi is called the son of Silan, and his land Bit
Silan ; Merodacli Baladan is the son of Yakin, and his
land is Bit Yakin. Shalmanesar II., as we saw (Vol.
XL p. 289), spoke of Israel as Bit Omri, i. e. the house of
Omri. The Chinzirus of the canon of Ptolemy enables
"US to assume that Tiglath Pilesar after the defeat of
Kinziru of Bit Amukan placed this Kinziru as a vassal-
king or viceroy over Babylon, a proceeding w^hich
recurs often enough in the proceedings of the kings of
Asshur towards conquered principalities and lands.

The canon of Ptolemy does not make Chinzirus the
sole king of Babylon. Prom 731 B.C. to 727 B.C. Chin-
zirus and Porus are said to have reigned together — a
joint sovereignty, of which this is the only instance
in the canon. Strikingly enough their two reigns end
in the same year, and this, 727 B.C., is the very year
in which, accordino^ to the Assvrian canon, Tiojlath Pile-
sar's reign is brought to a close. In the excerpt from

^ G. Smith, loc. cit. pp. 255, 258.

2 Oppert, "Dur Sarkuyan," p. 20; Menant, "Annal." pp. 160, 181.



CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATII PILESAR 11. 9

Berosus' list of the kings of Babylon, given by Polyliistor,
of wliicli Eusebius has preserved some very scanty
fragments, the 45 kings who reigned over Babylon for
526 years are followed by "a king of the Chaldseans,
whose name was Phul." ^ If the Babylonians named
Tiglath Pilesar Phul in their list of kings, and if Porus
in the canon of Ptolemy is a mistake for Polus (Pul),
the Babylonians, in order to conceal their dependence
on Assyria, must have placed their countryman before
the stranger, the vassal king before the real king in
their series of rulers.

The Hebrew Scriptures tell us that Phul of Asshur
marched against Israel ; Menahem of Israel paid Phul
a tribute of 1000 talents of silver, and the kino- of
Assyria returned into his land. Then Ahaz of Judah
sent messengers to king Tiglath Pilesar of Asshur to
save him out of the hand of Rezin, king of Damascus,
and Pekah, king of Israel. Pekah had put to death
Pekahiah, the son of Menahem, after a reign of two
years, and seated himself on the throne. Tiglath Pilesar
listened to Ahaz and came and carried away a part of
the Israelites to Assyria, and Hoshea set on foot a con-
spiracy and slew Pekah and became king in his place. ^
The inscriptions of Tiglath Pilesar mention among the
princes who brought him tribute " Minihimmi (Mena-
hem) of Samirina (Samaria),"^ and also " Jauhazi (Ahaz)
of Judah ;"* a fragment informs us that Tiglath Pilesar
reached the borders of Bit Omri, i, e. of Israel (Vol. II.
p. 239). " Pakaha (Pekah) their king they had slain ;"
so Tiglath Pilesar continues in this fragment, " I j^ut
Husi (Hoshea) to be king over them.''^ The inscription

1 Vol. II. p. 27 ; Euseb., *' Chron." 1, p. 26, ed. Schone.

2 2 Kings XV. 19, 29; xvi. 7—9; 1 Chron. v. 26.

3 G. Smith, " Disc." p. 277.

^ G. Smith, loc. cit. p. 263. ^ q^ Smith, he, cit. p. 284.



10 ASSYRIA.

also speaks, in this place, of sending or carrying away
to Assyria, but it is in such a mutilated condition that
more accurate knowledge is impossible. Still it is
abundantly clear from this fragment that the king of
Assyria, who received tribute from Menahem of Israel
and then marched against Israel when Pekah had
ascended the throne, was one and the same prince,
Tiglath Pilesar. We might assume a double payment
of tribute on the part of Menahem, a payment to
Phul and a second payment to Tiglath Pilesar, but
this is met by the fact that the monuments of
Assyria know no king of the name of Phul, and
the continuity of the lists of Assyrian Eponyms
does not allow us to insert a king of the name of
Phul between Tiglath Pilesar and his predecessor
Assur-nirar II. The error of the Book of Kings in
ascribing the first campaign against Menahem of
Israel to Phul, and the second, in support of Ahaz
against Pekah of Israel, to Tiglath Pilesar, is most
easily explained, if we admit the hypothesis given
above,^ that the Babylonians gave the name Phul to
Tiglath Pilesar as their supreme king.

Tiglath Pilesar held the western regions of the table-
land of Iran in dependence. He ruled as king over
Babylonia, over the whole region of the Euphrates down
to the borders of Elam and the shore of the Persian
G ulf ; and in the North also he led the armies of Assyria
to victorious campaigns. His tablets tell us that he
incorporated with Assyria the land of Nairi, i. e. the
region between the upper Zab and the uj^per Tigris,
that he defeated king Sarduarri of Ararat (Urarti), who
had rebelled against him, took his camp and besieged
him in his city of Turuspa ; that he set up " an image of
his majesty " there, and laid waste the land of Ararat

1 It is due to E. Sclirador.



CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATIl PILES AR II. 11

far and wide.-^ Afterwards Sarduarri and Sulumal of
Milid (Melitene) and Kustaspi of Kummukli (Guma-
thene), each trusting to the power of the other, rebelled ;
these he defeated, and took captives to the number of
72,950 men. In the middle of the battle Sarduarri
rode away : he (Tiglath Pilesar) took the seal from his
neck, his neck-band, his royal chariot, and his couch,
and dedicated them to Istar of Nineveh.^ The inscrip-
tions further inform us that Kustaspi of Kummukh,
Sulumal of Milid, and Vassurmi of Tubal gave tribute
to Tiglath Pilesar, and when Vassurmi was negligent
in the service of Assyria and did not appear before his
face, Tiglath Pilesar sent his chief captain against him
and set up CLulii to be king of Tubal in Yassurmi's
place.^ The list of rulers puts the first war of Tiglath.
Pilesar in the year 743 B.C., the second campaign
against Ararat and the princes leagued with him in
the year 735 B.C.

Of the successes of Tiglath Pilesar in Syria we shall
hear below. When he received the tribute of Hamath,
Byblus, and Israel before the ninth year of his reign, i. e.
in the year 738 B.C., Zabibieh, the queen of the Arabs,
also paid tribute.* AVhen he had overthrown Damascus,
Israel, and the Philistines (732 B.C.), he fought against
Samsieh, the queen of the Arabians, in the region of
Saba,^ as we are told in a fragment of his annals, and
took from her 30,000 camels, and 20,000 oxen. In
the inscriptions which sum up the achievements of the
king we are told that he subjugated the Nabatu (who

1 Frag. 4, 11. 12—23 in G. Smith, *' Disc." pp. 271, 272.

2 Frag. in G. Smith, loc. cit. p. 272, 273.

3 The large inscription, lines 57 — 59, 64, 65 in G. Smith, loc. cit,
p. 263.

4 Frag. 8, 1. 33 in G. Smith, loc. cit. p. 279.

5 Frag. 13, 1. 3 ; of. frag. 10, 1. 16 ; frag. 12, 1. 19 in G. Smith, pp. 283,
285, 286.



12 ASSYRIA.

must be soiiglit to the south on the lower Euphrates),
the Hagaranu. (the Hagarites), the Pekudu (Pekocl) ;^
that the distant tribes of Tenia (the Temanites) and
Saba (the Sabseans), on the borders of the setting sun,
heard of his power, and submitted to him, brought gold,
silver, and camels, and kissed his feet.^ A fragment
of the annals repeats this statement ; on the borders of
the land of the setting sun they heard of his power and
his victories and submitted to him.^ Hence it was not
only migratory tribes in the neighbourhood of Syria
and the lower Euphrates, like the Pekod and Hagarites,
whom Tiglath Pilesar forced to recognise his supremacy
and pay tribute : his armies must have advanced from
Syria and the lower Euphrates to the interior of Arabia,
if the Temanites (I. 324) and the tribes of the South,
" on the borders of the setting sun," i. e. the tribes of
the South-west, the Sabseans, in " fear of his power
and his victories," sent him tribute.

If the armies of Assyria reached no further than
Deraeah in the interior of iVrabia, it was still a vast
stretch of country which they traversed in the eighteen
years in which Tiglath Pilesar sat on the throne. Yet
they also reached Lake Hamun and the land of the
Arachoti in the East on the further side of the Persian
Gulf. On the terrace of Chalah which supported the
royal citadels Tiglath Pilesar built himself a palace to
the south of the house of Shalmanesar IT. It is the
central palace of the explorers. The great inscription
on one of the marble slabs found in the floor in the
ruins tells us that he built his royal abode in the midst
of Chalah for his glory ; that he placed it higher above
the bed of the Tigris than the palaces of his predecess-

1 Tablet of Clialali, 1. 6 in G. Smith, p. 254; stone of Chalah,
U. 6, 8, 13, p. 254.

2 Stone of Chalah, Ih 53—55 in G. Smith, ?oc cit p. 262.

3 Frag. 13, loc. cit. p. 286.



CAMPAIGNS OF TIGLATH PILESAR II. 13

ors ; that he adorned it with costly decorations, and
placed in it the tributes of the kings of the Chatti, the
princes of the Aramaeans and Chaldaeans, who had
bowed their might at his feet/ The inscription begins
with the words, " Palace of Tiglath Pilesar the great
king, the mighty king, the kiug of the nations, the
king of Assyria, the high priest of Babylon, the king
of Sumir and Accad, the king of the four quarters of



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