Maximilian Salzmann.

The anatomy and histology of the human eyeball in the normal state, its development and senescence ; online

. (page 27 of 27)
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extrana, aK outer nuclear layer, j rod nucleus, z cone nucleus, ap outer plexiform layer, / the distal
fibrous division, r the proximal reticular division, x border between the neuroepithelium and cerebral
layer, iK inner nuclear layer, c capillaries, ip inner plexiform layer, G ganglion-cell layer, ^V nerve-fiber
layer, gl glial nuclei, LI membrana limitans interna, M basal cones of Mueller's supporting fibers.

4. Entrance of the optic nerve (papilla nervi optici), horizontal section; magnification 31.
T temporal, N nasal side, D dural sheath, Ar arachnoidal sheath, P pial sheath, / intervaginal space,

Ma medullated portion of the optic nerve, cB central connective-tissue strand, V vena centralis retinae,



EXPLANATION OF PLATE FIGURES 229

A arteria centralis retinae, Lc lamina cribrosa (1. scleralis), Lch lamina chorioidalis, Ks nuclear column,
Me central connective tissue meniscus, Ex physiologic excavation, 5 sclera, Pch perichorioidea, Ch
chorioidea, gr border tissue, R retina, im intermediary tissue.

5. The trabecular work of the intervaginal space, longitudinal section; magnification 288.
Ar arachnoidal sheath, aE its outer endothelium, iE its inner endothelium, Vb trabecula of union

between the dural and pial sheaths in cross-section, surrounded by an invagination of the arachnoidal
sheath, sb primitive subarachnoidal trabeculum, SB large subarachnoidal trabeculum, P pial sheath.

6. Arachnoidal sheath, surface-section; magnification 410.

a outer reticular connective-tissue layer, i inner connective-tissue layer consisting of separated
bundles, E endothelium nuclei.

7. Choriocapillaris in the neighborhood of the posterior pole, natural injection through
hypostasis, surface view, teased preparation; magnification 65.

x the places where the smallest arteries and veins unite with the capillary layer.

8. A small bundle of smooth muscle-fibers in the suprachorioidea, surface view, teased
preparation, staining with Mallory's phospho-molybdic-acid hematoxylin; magnification 200.

ch chromatophores, e endothelial nuclei, n non-medullated nerve-fiber, m smooth muscle-fibers
supported by numerous elastic fibers coursing out in pencil-formed brushes (/).

9. Posterior border of the ciliary muscle, surface view, teased preparation; magnification 32.
M meridional portion of the ciliary muscle, 5/ muscle-stars, N branches of the ciliary nerves.

10. A sector of the inner surface of the ciliary body and of the circumlental space; magni-
fication 15.

Os ora serrata retinae with 2 teeth (2) each of which continue into a stria ciliaris (St), Or orbiculus
ciliaris, PC ciliary processes, w the small warts between, Cl circumlental space with the posterior zonula
fibers, L border of the lens.

PLATE V

1. Choriocapillaris in the neighborhood of the ora serrata retinae, natural injection, surface
view, teased preparation; magnification 56.

The smaller lighter vessels belong to the vessel layer of the chorioidea, A a recurrent artery.

2. The rod and cone mosaic in the extrafoveal territory of the retina, surface-section at
the level of the inner members; staining with Mallory's hematoxylin; magnification 400.

The larger disks are the cross-sections of cones, the smaller, of rods.

3. Details from the center of a very flat fovea; rod-free area, temporal half, horizontal
section; magnification 300.

Li membrana limitans interna retinae, iK rudiment of the cerebral layer, Hf Henle's outer fiber
layer, aK outer nuclear layer, Le membrana limitans externa, Z cone layer, fZ the thin foveal cones.

4. The nasal half of a small fovea centralis, horizontal section; magnification 47.

F middle of the fovea (so-called foveola), d clivus, w wall about the fovea, g larger blood-vessel in
the ganglion-cell layer, Li membrana limitans interna, A" nerve-fiber layer, G ganglion-cell layer, ip inner
plexiform layer, iK inner nuclear layer, Hf Henle's outer fiber layer, aK outer nuclear layer, Sz rod-and-
cone layer, P pigment epithelium, Ch chorioidea, 5 sclera.

5. Border portion of the retina with cystic degeneration, surface view; magnification 55.
PC pigment epithelium of the ciliary body, R retina, // cystic spaces, for the most part confluent

into dendritic figures.

6. Border portions of the retina with cystic degeneration, meridional section; magnifica-
tion 47.

Ce ciliary epithelium, Os ora serrata, R retina, Ch chorioidea; the place indicated by X is drawn
under seven times magnification.

7. Cystoid degeneration of the retina (from the place marked x in 6); magnification 315.
Li membrana limitans interna, G rudiment of the nerve-fiber and ganglion-cell layer, g retinal

vessel, ip inner plexiform layer, iK inner nuclear layer, ap outer plexiform layer, aK outer nuclear layer,
H cystic spaces, Le membrana limitans externa, SZ rod-and-cone layer.

8. Cells on the surface of the base of the vitreous; staining with Mallory's hematoxylin;
magnification 255.



2 3 o ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE HUMAN EYEBALL

PLATE VI

1. Middle layer of the lamina cribrosa, surface-section, staining with Van Giesen; magni-
fication 255.

B the connective-tissue glial trabeculae, q blood-vessels therein, N nerve-fiber bundle.

2. Cross-section of the optic nerve at the posterior end of the central connective-tissue
strand, staining by Van Giesen; magnification 22.

D dural sheath, sd subdural space, ar arachnoidal sheath, sar subarachnoidal space, P pial sheath,
Glm peripheral glial mantle, V vena centralis retinae, A arteria centralis retinae.

3. Details from 2; magnification 312.

5 connective-tissue septa, g blood-vessels therein, Gl glial extension of the septa, N nerve-fiber
bundle, Ly spaces arising from shrinking.

4. A piece of the medullated portion of the optic nerve in longitudinal section; magnifica-
tion 90.

Sj surface view of the septa, S 2 longitudinal section of the septa, Gl glial continuation of the septa,
N nerve-fiber bundle.

5. Details of the cross-section of a nerve-fiber in the medullated portion of the optic nerve,
Mallory's stain; magnification 950.

n nerve-fibers, gl glial fibers, z a glial cell.

6. The superficial portions of the optic-nerve trunk, cross-section, Weigert's stain for
medullary sheaths; magnification 63.

D dural sheath, sd subdural space, Ar arachnoidal sheath, sar subarachnoidal space, P pial
sheath, Glm peripheral glial mantle, N nerve-fiber bundle, 5 septa, Q artefact arising through squeezing.

PLATE VII

1. The fundus of a i3-year-old girl with a brown iris, seen with the ophthalmoscope;
papilla, retinal blood-vessels, macular and foveal reflex.

2. Corona ciliaris (posterior half) and neighboring portions, transverse section; magni-
fication 47.

Gk nucleus of the vitreous, vG anterior border layer, Lc ligaments-cordiformes, Z cross-sections of
the zonula fibers in the ciliary valleys, iz innermost zonula fibers, Li membrana limitans interna ciliaris,
CE ciliary epithelium, P pigment epithelium, Gf vessel layer of the ciliary body, PC ciliary processes,
Me ciliary muscle (innermost layers of the radial portions).

3. Reticulum of H. Mueller in the anterior part of the orbiculus ciliaris, surface view,
teased preparation, stained by Mallory's hematoxylin; magnification 285.

The arrow below indicates the direction of the meridian and points forward.

4. Orbiculus ciliaris in the neighborhood of the ora serrata retinae, transverse section,
bleached; magnification 320.

Gb vitreous base, Li membrana limitans interna ciliaris (?), CE ciliary epithelium, P pigment
epithelium, / ridges of the reticulum of H. Mueller (large meshes), Cu cuticular lamella, iB interlamellar
connective tissue, el elastic lamella, Gf vessel layer of the ciliary body.

5. Orbiculus ciliaris in the neighborhood of the corona ciliaris, transverse section, bleached;
magnification 380.

vG anterior border layer of the vitreous, Z cross-sections of the zonula fibers in the orbicular space,
Li membrana limitans interna ciliaris, / its ridges, inclosing in part finest zonula fibers, CE ciliary
epithelium, P pigment epithelium, Cu cuticular lamella (small meshes of the reticulum of H. Mueller),
iB interlamellar connective tissue, el elastic lamella, Gf vessel layer of the ciliary body.

6. Ciliary border of the sphincter pupillae with the spoke bundles, surface-section;
magnification 348.

Sph sphincter pupillae, Sp spoke bundle, K clump cells, b collagenous intermediary substance of
the iris stroma.

7. Senile warts of the glass membrane of the chorioidea, magnification 390.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE FIGURES 231

PLATE VIII

1. Drawing of the anterior iris surface (yellowish-gray iris, flecked here and there by
rust-brown) unstained, reflected light; magnification 9.

Pz pupillary zone, Cz ciliary zone, Ps pigment seam of the pupil-border, k 2 pupillary crypts, Z
angular line (smaller circle), N brown fleck, / contraction furrow, k t ciliary (peripheral) crypts in the
border zone.

2. Relief of a posterior iris surface, under reflected light; magnification 9.

rF radial furrows of the pupillary zone, SF structural furrows, cF circular furrows, C anterior
border of the corona ciliaris.

3. Pupillary zone of the iris, meridional section; magnification 60.

uG anterior border layer (with endothelium) , G vessel layer, Di dilatator pupillae, P pigment epi-
thelium, Sph sphincter pupillae, Sp spoke bundle, e radiations of the dilatator into the sphincter from
behind, Ps pigment seam of the pupillary border, K clump cells.

4. The markings upon the anterior surface of the iris arising after treatment with silver
nitrate; magnification 636.

5. Plexus of the chromatophores in the anterior border layer of a brown iris out of the
outer half of the ciliary zone, surface view, teased preparation; magnification 375.

6. Ciliary border of the dilatator pupillae, surface view; magnification 28.
SF structural furrows.

7. Elements of the dilatator pupillae in the middle of the ciliary zone, surface view, teased
preparation ; magnification 375.

8. Ectodermal layers of the posterior iris surface, meridional section, bleached; magni-
fication 260.

Str stroma of the vessel layer of the iris, hG posterior border lamella, sp layer of the pigmented
spindle cells, P pigment epithelium.

9. Ectodermal layers of the posterior iris surface, transverse section, bleached; magni-
fication 330.

Annotations as in 8.

10. Posterior layers of the pupillary zone of the iris, transverse section, bleached; magni-
fication 300.

Str stroma of the vessel layer, Sph sphincter pupillae, K clump cells, Di pupillary border of the
dilatator pupillae constructed out of transition forms between typical dilatator elements and epithelial
cells; in the center is a union with the sphincter, P pigment epithelium.

11. Inner layers at the anterior declivity of a ciliary process (transition of the ciliary
epithelium into the pigment epithelium of the iris), meridional section; magnification 375.

Li membrana limitans interna ciliaris, CE ciliary epithelium, P pigment epithelium of the ciliary
body, Cit cuticular lamella, Gf vessel layer of the ciliary body (processes).

12. Narrow iris (iris breadth 3 mm, pupil width 5 mm); magnification 20.

13. Broad iris (iris breadth 5 mm, pupil width 2.5 mm); magnification 20.

14. Radiations of zonula fibers into the anterior border layer of the vitreous; a detail
out of a surface preparation of the anterior border layer, stained with Mallory's hematoxylin;
magnification 67.

vG anterior border layer, finely folded, m a meridional zonula fiber radiating into the border layer
at two places, k a short bundle of zonula fibers coming from the corona ciliaris, radiating in its entirety
into the border layer, farther above a smaller similar bundle, cZ circular zonula fibers.

PLATE IX

1. Equatorial zone of the lens capsule with the insertion of the zonula fibers, surface view,
teased preparation; magnification 37.

vZ anterior zonula fibers, Zl meridional striations of the zonular lamella, qZ middle (equatorial)
zonula fibers, EG location of the epithelial border, hZ posterior zonula fibers.

2. Lens epithelium treated with silver nitrate, surface view; magnification 540.



2 3 2 ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE HUMAN EYEBALL

3. The lens vortex of a 59-year-old man, meridional section; magnification 333.

Zl zonular lamella with ligamentum hyaloideo-capsularis, K lens capsule, E lens epithelium, Eg
epithelial border, / lens substance.

4. Superficial layers of the lens of a 2-weeks-old child, equatorial section; magnification
308.

K lens capsule, E lens epithelium, L lens substance (Rabl's lamellae).

5. Deeper layers of the same preparation (1.3 mm below the surface); irregular arrange-
ment and form of the lens fibers.

6. Optic grooves in an open medullary canal, embryo of 2.6 mm gr. 1.; magnification 21.
(Copy from Keibel, normal plates (116) No. 6, p. 24, Text Fig. 6 a.)

E ectoderm, W wall of the medullary canal, A the optic grooves, M mesoderm.

7. Transition of the (primary) optic vesicle into the optic cup, beginning of the lens
invagination, embryo of 5 . 2 mm gr. 1., section in the direction of the optic cleft; magnification
66.

(Collection of the I. Anatomic Institute of Vienna.)

E ectoderm, L lens primordium, M mesoderm, W wall of the medullary canal (forebrain), V lumen
of the same, S lumen of the pedicle of the optic vesicle, A lumen of the (primary) optic vesicle, a outer
leaf of the optic cup, i inner leaf of the eye-cup.

8. Completely formed optic cup, optic cleft for the most part closed, lens vesicle con-
stricted off, beginning of the formation of the definite cornea, embryo of 9. 75 mm gr. L, section
in the direction of the optic cleft; magnification 66.

(Collection of the I. Anatomic Institute of Vienna; Keibel, normal plates (116) No. 42, Tandler,
207.)

E ectoderm, L lens vesicle, M mesoderm, Mf mesodermal processes in the cavity of the optic cup,
H primitive cornea, G primitive vitreous, W wall, v lumen of the forebrain, 5 lumen of the pedicle of the
optic vesicle, A lumen, a outer, i inner wall of the optic cup.

9. Anterior segment of the eyeball, embryo of 28.5 mm gr. L; magnification 40.
(Collection of the I. Anatomic Institute of Vienna.)

E ectoderm, Fo primordium of the fornix conjunctivae, H primordium of the cornea stroma, IP
lamina irido-pupillaris, isthmus, L lens, TV tunica vasculosa lends, G vitreous with its vessels, R retina
(inner leaf of the optic cup), P pigment epithelium (outer leaf of the optic cup), 5 sclera (the primordium
of the chorioidea is not plainly visible because of the low magnification). The clefts between H and IP,
as well as between R and P, are artefacts.

10. Primordium of the iris and of the ciliary body, fetus of 18 cm 1., meridional section;
magnification 35.

E epithelium of the cornea, C corneal stroma, D endothelium of the cornea, Li limbus, 5 sclera, Vk
anterior chamber, Pm pupillary membrane, / iris primordium, Sph sphincter primordium, PC primor-
dium of the corona ciliaris, Me primordium of the ciliary muscle, P pigment epithelium, R retina, G
vitreous, Z zonula primordium, TV tunica vasculosa lends, L lens.

11. The border of the retina (ora serrata) of the newborn, meridional section; magnifica-
tion 116.

R retina, F apex of the so-called Lange's fold, CE ciliary epithelium, P pigment epithelium, U uveal
tract, S sclera.



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Anatomy and histology o
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Online LibraryMaximilian SalzmannThe anatomy and histology of the human eyeball in the normal state, its development and senescence ; → online text (page 27 of 27)