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in which city, finding himself, through poverty,
unable to gain a livelihood as an independent
painter, he engaged himself to Cesare d'Arpino,
who employed him to execute the floral and orna-
mental parts of his pictures. Caravaggio, how-
ever, was soon enabled to paint for himself. The
novelty of his manner both pleased and surprised ;
and his works soon became so generally the objects
of public admiration, that some of the greatest
artists then in Rome were induced to imitate, with-
out approving, the new style of Amerigi. Guido and
Domenichino, to gratify a corrupt public taste, were
for some time under the necessity of abandoning
their suavity and their grace, to follow this vulgar
though vigorous trickery of Caravaggio. This in-
fatuation did not, however, continue long ; the
attractions of the grand and the beautiful resumed
their sway over public opinion. After executing
many important works, Caravaggio was obliged to
leave the city on account of the death of a friend,
whom he had killed in a fit of anger ; he repaired to
Naples, whence he went to Malta, where he was
patronized by the grand-master Vignacourt, whose
portrait he twice painted. Once more, through
his hot and fiery temper, Caravaggio was driven
from the town of his choice. He quarrelled with
a knight, who threw him into prison. Caravaggio,
however, escaped from captivity and fled to Syra-
cuse, whence he went to Naples by way of Messina
and Palermo. Having obtained, through the in-
fluence of his friends, the Pope's pardon for the
manslaughter of his companion, Caravaggio set
sail from Naples for Rome, but he was taken
prisoner on the way by some Spaniards, in mistake
for another man. On being set at liberty, he had
the misfortune to find that the boatmen had gone
off with the felucca and his property. He con-
tinued liis way as far as Porto Ercole, where, partly
from his loss, and partly from the heat of the-



Hanfstangl photo]



weather, he was taken ill, and died in 1609. The
merit of Caravaggio is confined to colour, and to
an extraordinary effect, produced by a daring con-
trast of light and shadow, which only belongs to
nature in abstracted situations. To give it veracity
we must suppose the light to proceed from a
partial and prescribed aperture, which alone can
sustain the illusion. He seldom ventured on
works that required the arrangement of a grand
composition, for which his want of academic study
rendered him totally inadequate ; he contented
himself with subjects he could represent in half-
length figures, and which did not demand a correct
delineation of the nude.

Berlin. Museum. Love as a ruler; Conquered Love;
Phyllis (from the Giustiniani

Dresden. Gallery. Card-players ; Four others.

London. Nat. Gall. Christ and the two Disciples at

Paris. Louvre. Death of the Virgin ; The Fortune-

teller; A Concert; Portrait of

Petrsburg. Hermitage. Ecce Homo ; Martyrdom of St.
Peter. _ ,

Rome. .S. Maria del \ Martyrdom of St. Peter; 0(/\}\

Popolo. j Conversion of St. Paul. Jt >*
Vatican Mus. The Entombment (his masttrpitct).

A.MKULIXG, FRIEDRICH, painter, was born at
Vienna, April 14,1803. After some hard struggles
occasioned by narrow means, ho succeeded in
entering the Vienna Academy as a pupil, and
completed his training under Lawrence in London
and under Vernet in Paris. On his return to
Vienna he gained the first prize at the Academy
with his 'Dido forsaken' and 'Moses the Law-
giver." He several times visited Italy. He became
a very popular portrait painter in his native city,
but continued to paint occasional historical and
subject pictures. Among his best known works in
each genre we may name : portraits of himself, of the
Emperor Francis I., of Thorwuldsen, of Franz Grill-
parzer, and of Prince Windischgratz, also 'Judith,'
'Ophelia,' 'The Widow,' 'Koinan Woman with her
Infant.' Amerling was a member of the Vienna
Academy. He died at Vienna in January, 1887.

AMICI, FRANCESCO, was an Italian engraver, of
Florence, of the 18th century, who engraved some
small plates of sacred history subjects, among
which are:

Chri?t on the Mount of Olives; Christ before Pilate;
Christ bearing His Cross ; The Entombment of Christ.




AM1DANO, GIULIO CESARE (wrongly called
POMPONIO), was a native of Parma, and painted
from about 1560 to 1628. From the resemblance
of his works to those of Parmigiano, he is sup-
posed to have frequented his school. If not his
disciple, he was certainly one of the most success-
ful followers of his style. His heads are nohle
and graceful, and his design full of taste. His
best performance was his picture painted in the
church of the Madonna del Quartiere, which has
been mistaken by good judges for the work of
Pannigiano. Orlandi relates that many of the
pictures of Amidano were purchased by foreigners.

AMIEL, Louis FELIX, s French portrait painter,
was born at Castelnaudary (And?) in 1802. He
was a pupil of Baron Gros, and died at Joinville-
le-Pont it. 1864.


Verona, who flourished about the middle of the
17th century, was a scholar of Claudio Ridolfi ;
his chief talent consisted in the excellence of his
copies, and several of his works have been mis-
taken for those of his master. A copy which ho
made of Paolo Veronese's ' Supper in the House of
the Pharisee' is not only finely drawn, but its
colours are fresh and vivid even at the present

AMIGONI, JACOPO, (or AMICONI), was born at
Venice in 1675. He painted historical subjects
and portraits. His first works at Venice were
two altar-pieces in the church of the Fathers of the
Oratorio, and a picture of ' St. Catherine and St.
Andrew,' for the church of St. Eustache. He
afterwards visited Rome, and from thence went to
Munich, where he settled for some time ; but his
chief performances are in England, whither he came
in 1729 ; he resided here ten years. Whatever may
be the merit of his works, they were for some time
in great vogue. He was employed by several of
the nobility in ornamenting their houses. After
leaving England in 1739 he returned to Venice,
where he remained till 1747 ; he then went to
Spain, and resided there until his death, which
took place at Madrid in 1752. He etched a few
plates in a tame, spiritless style ; the following are
the principal :

Salvator Mundi ; half length.
Jupiter and Callisto.
Zephyrus and Flora,
liathsheba in the Bath.
Madonna and Child.

AMIGONI, OTTAVIO, (or AMICONI), was born at
Brescia in 1605, and was a scholar of Antonio
Uandini. His chief excellence was in frescc
painting, which he treated with great ability, in
the manner of Paolo Veronese. In the Carmelite
Church, in his native city, is a very considerable
work in fresco, executed in conjunction with
Bernardino Gandini, the son of his master, which
is much extolled by Averoldi. The subjects were
tnken from the Life of St. Alberto. He died in


draughtsman and engraver, was bom at Nurem-
berg in 1651. He was taken under the protection
of Maximilian II., Elector of Bavaria, who sent him
for improvement to Paris, where he received the
instruction of F. de Poilly, whose manner he fol-
lowed, but whose excellence he never equalled,
although he became a very good artist. After a
few years he returned to Munich, and was ap-
pointed court-engraver to his patron, Maximilian
Emmanuel, whose portrait he engraved, as well as
those of many members of the electoral family.
Amling died in 1703. He engraved a great num-
ber of plates of historical subjects and portraits,
but was much more successful in the latter, many
of which have great merit. His drawing, par-
ticularly in the nude, is not correct ; and in all his
prints, except his portraits, there is a want of effect.
The following list comprises all his plates, except
those he engraved for the academy of Sandrart,
and some prints after tapestry, which were private
plates in the possession of the Elector of Bavaria:


Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Havana ; after T.
Macolintu, dated 1670, an oval very scarce.



Maximilian Emmanuel ; after J. S. Champagne ; one of

his best works.
Equestrian statue of Maximilian Emmanuel ; after Ab-

Henrietta Maria Adelaide, Duchess of Bavaria ; after

Delamonce, 1675 ; oval.

Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Bavaria. 1670; oval.
Count Johann von Berlo de Brus, Stadtholder of In-

goldstadt, 1680 ; large oval.
Alexander Sigismund, Bishop of Augsburg ; P. F.

Hamilton, pinx.
Komain Liberiet, Abbot of St. Ulrich, Afra, and in

Augsburg; after himself ; a fine portrait ; oval.
Petrus Marinus Sormannus ; in a medallion.
Livio Prince Odescalchi ; in a medallion.
Marcus ab Aviano, 1680; oval.
A young prince conducted to the throne by Hercules

and Nestor; at the foot of the turoue is inscribed,

Two plates of statues ; engraved for Sandrarfs Deutsche


The Virgin and Child, with two portraits ; lifter J. A.

Wolff; a very large plate.
The Image of the Virgin of Consolation; 1682; large

plate, oval.

Vero Ritratto di S. Francesco d'Assisi.
St. Nicholas of Tolentino; after J. A. Wolff, 1691;

large plate.
Vrai Portrait de St. John de S. Facundo; after the

same; large oval.
St. Godard kneeling before the Virgin ; /. Drentwct,

Ten plates in folio Of a triumphal arch in honour of

the Elector Maximilian Emmanuel.
Grand Thesis, dedicated to the Emperor Leopold and

his son Joseph ; R. P. Antonius Lumliiisky, del.
Another large plate, representing the Virgin Mary

treading on the Serpent, accompanied by the four

Doctors of the Church.

AMMAN, JEREMIAS, an engraver of portraits,
who worked at Schaffhausen from about 1660 to
1 070, executed, in conjunction with his son, Johann
Amman, the plates to Patin's Imperatorum Ro-
manorum Numismata (1671), chiefly from the
drawings of F. Chauveau.

AMMAN, JOHANN, a son of Jeremias Amman,
was a native of Schaffhausen, and flourished about
the year 1700. He engraved a few portraits,
among which is one of John Locke.

AMMAN, JOHANN, a German engraver, who
was living at Hanau about 1640. Previously he
engraved a set of small woodcuts, representing
the Passion of our Saviour. They are executed in
a neat and spirited style, and possess considerable
merit. They were published at Amsterdam in
1623, with Latin verses.

AMMAN, JOST, was a painter as well as en-
graver, but owes his reputation chiefly to his
excellence in the last-mentioned branch of ait.
He was born at Zurich in Switzerland, in 1539. The
name of his instructor in art is not recorded. In
1560, he left Zurich, and went to Nuremberg,
where he worked until his death, in 1591. Of his
paintings we have no further account, than thai
his works in stained glass were richly and bril-
liantly coloured. His pen-drawings partake of the
spirit and neatness of his prints, and are preserved
in the portfolios of the curious. As an engraver
he was one of the most laborious of the industrious
artists of his country, who have so ably and amply
contributed to the advancement of the art. The
number of his plates is prodigious, and his work
amounts to upwards of five hundred and fifty
prints, many of which being of a diminutive size, he
is sometimes ranged among the artists denominate

the Little Masters. He engraved on wood and on
copper, but the productions from the latter aie
?ery inferior to those from the former. His draw-
ng, in general, is tolerably correct ; and his exe-
rtion, particularly in his animals, is smart and
pirited ; his manner of engraving is neat and
lecided. This artist used no less than twelve dif.
'erent marks in his plates, but they all consist in a
:ipher composed of the letters /and A, as follows :


Twelve small plates, arched Of illustrious women
of the Old Testameut, beginning with Eve : title,
Era die Gebererin. Jost. Amman, fee.; Stef. Herman,

Eight figures of warriors in ancieut costume, small

upright plates ; marked, Jost. Amman, Inventor. 1590.

Eight plates Of persons fighting with swords and

sticks ; small plates, lengthways ; marked with his


Six very small plates of friezes, Hunting scenes.
Eight small plates, lengthways, the Four Seasons, and

the Four Elements. 1569.

Twelve small upright plates arched Of the mouths
in the year, represented in full-length figures; Jo.
Amman, fee.
A set of plates for a Bible published at Frankfort.

The Bombardment of a Town ; Jo. Amman, fee. 1570.

Large plate, lengthways.

Admiral de Coliguy ; fecit Noriml>era<?, Jost. Amman,
Tinuriiius. 1573.


The Creation, large print ; marked J. A.
An oval print, the Diet of the Empire ; large, length-

The Marriage of Cana middle-sized print, lengthways,


A set of one hundred and fifteen prints of arts and
trades, first printed under the title, flai>oir\ia, om-
nium illilieralium, mechanicamm, aut scdentariarum
artntm qenera contineiis, printed at Frankfort in 156S.
This edition is very scarce ; the book was reprinted
in 1574.

A set of one hundred and three prints of subjects from

Roman History, published at Frankfort, in 1573,

witli the portrait of 8. Feyraboid, the celebrated


A book of. hunting ; entitled Xewe Figuren ton allerlei

lag und Weidtu'erek. Frankfort, 1582.
A set of one hundred and three prints for a work en-
titled Cleri totitis Romano; Ecclesia stibjecti, SfC.
Frankfort. 1585.

A set of one hundred and twenty prints for a boik
entitled ffi/tueceum, sire Thcatrum Mulienim, $e.
Frankfort, 1586.

A complete list of his works is given in Meyer's
' Kiinstler-Lexikon.'

W. B. S.

AMMON, KLEMENS, a son-in-law of Theodor de
Bry, the celebrated engraver, worked in Frankfort
and Heidelberg, in the middle of the 17th century.
His principal work was the continuation of the
collection of portraits entitled, BMiotheca Cal-
cographica, in six quarto volumes, published by
Theodor de Bry, to which he added, at Frankfort,
two volumes, published in 1650 and 1652. His
plates are poor and stiff, and very inferior to those
of his relation.

AMOROSI, ANTONIO, a native of Comunanza,
near Ascoli, flourished about theyear 1700. Mariette
says he was born in 1660. He was still living in
1736. He painted frescoes in Civita Vecchia, and
altar-pieces for the churches at Rome, one of which
is in San Rocco ; but he is principally known as
a painter of Bambocciate, or fancy subjects, in


which he displayed considerable talent : and Lanzi
says, that if his colouring had been a little more
brilliant, his pictures would be equal to those of
the Flemish school of the same kind. Two of his
works have been engraved by William Walker.

AMORT, KASPAR, who was born in 1612 in the
valley of the Jachenau, went to Munich in 1631,
and studied art under Johann Donauer. He then
paid a visit to Italy, where the works of Cara-
vaggio produced much effect on his style. On
his return to Munich he was made court painter,
and executed numerous works for the decoration
of cloisters and churches. He died at Munich in

AMSLEIi, SAMUEL, an eminent engraver, was
born in 1791, in Schiii/.nach, in Switzerland, and
became a pupil of Hess, at Munich. In 1816
he arrived in Rome, and formed friendships with
Overbeck, Cornelius, Thonvaldspn, and other heads
of the new school, of which \\r- became a member.
Accuracy and character in outline, and simplicity
in execution, after the classical examples of Maro
Antonio and Albrecht Diirer, were the principles lie
followed in contradistinction to the picturesque,
but in form and expression negligent, engrav-
ings of the modern Italian, French, and En-.lHi
schools. In this manner, in conjunction with his
friend Barth, he engraved the great frontispiece
of the ' Nibelungen' of Cornelius, and the 'Triumph
of Alexander' of Thonvaldsen. In 1829 Amsler
became professor of engraving in the Royal Aca-
demy in Munich, where Cornelius, Schnorr, Hess,
and other of his friends were already actively
engaged. Besides different small works which he
executed in Munich, he engraved Raphael's ' En-
tombment of Christ,' in the Borghese Gallery of
Rome ; ' The Holy Family,' and 'The Madonna di
Casa Tempi,' by the same master, both in the
Pinakothek. His last work was an engraving of
the great painting of Overbeck, in Frankfort, 'The
Union between Religion and the Fine Arts,' the
completion of which coincides nearly with that of
his life. He died on the 14th of May, 1849. He
was not only an excellent artist, and an estimable
man, kind, modest, and very good-natured, but also
an admirable instructor of his art, who taught a
number of pupils, now celebrated engravers ; as
Merz, who engraved ' The Last Judgment,' of Cor-
nelius, and ' The Destruction of Jerusalem, 'of Kaul-
bach ; Gonzenbach, the author of different
engravings after Kaulbach, Schleich, &c.
In Meyer's 'Kiinstler-Lexikon ' is a full list
of Amsler's works.


AMSTEL, JAN VAN, an artist who is said to
have excelled in landscapes, which he enriched
with numerous figures in the style of Van Eyck ;
but when or where he painted is not recorded.
Guarienti, in his edition of Orlandi, states that
there was a picture by this artist at Genoa, in the
possession of an Englishman, representing the
Crucifixion, and containing upwards of 200 figures
admirably painted. It is, however, conjectured
that some better known painter is disguised undo?
this name.

AMULIUS (or FAMILLUS), a Roman painter,
flourished in the reign of Nero. He was employed
in the embellishment of the golden house of thut
emperor, who is said by Suetonius to have himself
studied the art of painting. The palace became
a prey to the flames. Pliny represents him as a
painter of common-place subjects, " hiimilis rei

pictor ; " yet he mentions a picture of ' Minerva,'
which cannot be considered to have been a trivial




ANDERLINI, DOMENICO, a landscape painter,
born at Pesaro, flourished about 1720 : he was an
artist of merit.

ANDERLONI, FAUSTINO, an engraver, born at
St. Eufemia, near Brescia, in 1766, received in-
struction from two artists comparatively unknown
Cnrloni and Benezzi. He subsequently went to
Pavia to assist Professor Scarpa in illustrating his
great work on the Anatomy of the Eye. In 1795
he went to Milan, but in 1801 he was apprinted
professor of drawing at the University of Pavia.
He died in 1847. He engraved the illustrations of
several scientific w r orks, and the portraits of the
celebrated Herder, Alfieri, Boerhave, and Schiller.
At a later date he executed a small but charming
engraving of the ' Magdalene Sleeping in the
Wilderness,' after Correggio ; the ' Repose in
Egypt,' after N. Poussin; a 'Mater amabilis,'
after Sassoferrato, and with Garavaglia the As-
cension of the Virgin,' after the painting by ( rui-lo
Reni in the church of Sant' Ambrogio in Genoa ;
which he did not complete until his seventy-sixth

ANDERLONI, PIETRO, brother of Faustino, was
born in 1784, at St. Eufemia, near Brescia, and
showed an early predilection for art. He studied
the fundamental principles under P. Palazzi, and
next received instruction from his brother Faus-
tino, who, observing that he vacillated between
painting and engraving, persuaded him to adopt
the latter art. After greatly profiting by his
brother's tuition, he entered, at the age of twenty,
the school of Longhi, where he remained for nine
years. Under that eminent master he assisted in
the production of many excellent works, among
which was 'Ezekiel's Vision,' after Raphael ; and
to some of these the master allowed the pupil to
place his name, in acknowledgment of the sharo
he had in the execution. In 1824 he went to
Rome for the second time, to make drawings of
the 'Heliodorus' and 'Attila' of Raphael ; and
in 1831 succeeded his master Longhi as president
of the Academy of Engravers in Milan. Pietro
Anderloni was a member of several Academies,
and held a very distinguished rank among his
skilful contemporaries in the art. He died at
his estate of Cabiate, near Milan, in 1849. He is
generally very happy in embodying the character-
istics of the master whose picture he transfers ;
his fault is sometimes a near approximation to the
modern French manner of working too far and
producing glossiness. The following are among
iiis principal works:

Moses defending the daughters of Jethro ; after Jf.

The Adoration of the Shepherds; after Titian.

A Holy Family, the Judgment of Solomon, the Helio-
dorus, and the Meeting of Attila and Pope Leo III. ,
after Saphael.

St. John ; after Luini.

Portraifs of Canova, Longhi, Appiani, Jenncr, &c.

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER, who was born at
New York in 1775, was the son of a Scotchman,
and the earliest engraver on wood in America.
He first studied medicine obtaining in 1796 the
degree of Doctor but abandoned that profession


in order to devote himself entirely to engraving.
Among his most important are those in Webster's
' Spelling Book,' Bell's 'Anatomy,' Josephus's 'His-
tory,' and Shakespeare's Plays, all from original
designs. An engraving of the ' Last Supper' (from
an English design), which was made between 1820
and 1830, was the last work he produced on copper.
He afterwards confined himself to wood engraving.
Anderson worked on to a very great age, and died
in Jersey City in 1870. His works are in the
style of English wood engraving of the earlier
part of the 19th century. (For a full account of
his life, see 'Art Journal' for 1858, p. 271.)

ANDERSON, ROBERT, born in 1842, was a
Scottish engraver of some repute. In the latter
part of his life lie devoted himself to painting in
water-colour. He was elected an Associate of the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1879, and died in
Edinburgh, April 24, 1885.

ANDERSON, WILLIAM, who was born in Scot-
land, in 1767, was a painter of marine subjects,
chiefly of small dimensions. His subjects are
treated in a very pleasing manner, with a soft
pencil and great amenity of colour. He exhibited
at the Royal Academy from 1787 to 1814. He
died in 1837.

ANDERSSON, NILS, a Swedish painter, who was
born in East Gothland, in 1817, was the son of
a peasant. Alter he had received a course of
instruction in Stockholm, he travelled through
Europe, and went in 1854 to Paris, where he
stayed for two years, and studied under Couture.
On his return to Stockholm, he was made a mem-
ber of the Academy, and in 1858 a professor. He
died at Vaxholm, near Stockholm, in 1865. He
painted historical pieces, pictures of genre subjects,
and landscapes with animals. Good examples of
his work are in the National Museum at Stockholm.
ANDERTON, HENRY, an English painter, who
was born in 1630, was a scholar of Streater, and
afterwards went to Italy for improvement. He
painted historical subjects and portraits, but was
principally employed in the latter. He acquired
the patronage of Charles II. by a portrait he
painted of Mrs. Stuart, afterwards Duchess of
Richmond, and almost rivalled Sir Peter Lely. He
died soon, after the year 1665.

ANDRE, JEAN, (or ANDBAY), who was born in
Paris, in 1662, became a Dominican in 1679. He
went to Rome, where he received lessons from
Carlo Maratti, and studied the works of Michel-
angelo and Raphael. He painted portraits and
historical subjects, and has tlie character of being
very correct in Ins designs, and a good colonrist.
He died at Paris in 1753. Amongst hia best
works may be mentioned the ' Feast of the Phari-
see," in the Dominican Church at Lyons ; his own
Portrait, in the Louvre ; the ' Marriage of Cana,'
and the ' Miracle of the Loaves,' at Bordeaux ; and
the ' Adoration of the Kings,' and numerous others
which he painted in various churches in Paris.
Andre imparted instruction to art to Taraval,
Chasle, and Dumont.

ANDRE, JOLES, who was born in Paris in 1807.
studied under Jolivard and Watelet, and became
a landscape painter of merit. He travelled in
Belgium, the south of France, and the Rhine
country ; and he was also employed at the porce-
lain manufactory at Sevres. He died at Paris in

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