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1869. The Galleries of the Luxembourg and Lille
possess paintings by him. He executed several
decorative panels in the new Louvre, and in the

Hotel d'Albe. He obtained a second-class medal
in 1835, and the decoration of the Legion of
Honour in 1853. Andr painted in a manner hiilf-
way between the style of the old French classic
landscape painters and that of the modern school.
studied under him, and with Pils, became a genre
painter of some repute. In 1876 he painted a
' Halt of Zouaves at Patay.' He died in Algiers
in 1877.


ANDREA, ALKSSANDUO, according to Heineken,
flourished about tlie year 1578, at which time he
engraved the portrait of Gilles de Noailles, Abbe
de St. Amand, the French ambassador at the court
of Constantinople.

ANDREA, ZOAN, an engraver of the early part
of the 16th century, of whom little is known, is
called by Zani, a Venetian. He executed a number
of plates after Albrecht Durer and
other masters. Meyer mentions 35
plates by him.


ANDREA D' AGNOLO is commonly known as
ANDREA DEL SABTO, from the profession of his
father, who was a tailor. He has till lately been
miscalled Vannucchi. Giovanni Cinelli, writing in
1677, was the first to call him by that name. The
mistake arose through the misreading of Andrea's
monogram of two A's for an A and a V
crossed. It may be here noted that he is in
no case called Vannucclii by a contemporary.
His name was Andrea d' Agnolo di Francesco
di Luca di Paolo del Migliore. He was born at
Florence in 1487, and, having shown an early dis-
position for drawing, he was placed with a gold-
smith, to learn the business of engraving on phite.
In this situation he was noticed by Giovanni Barile,
an artist of little note, who persuaded his father to
entrust him to his care. Andrea remained under that
master for three years, and afterwards entered the
school of Piero di Cosimo, who was a better colour-
ist than draughtsman, and from him he acquired
the habit and knowledge of painting those beautiful
landscape backgrounds which are seen in many of
his works. Andrea was, however, more indebted,
for the cultivation of his talents, to his studies from
the frescoes of Masaccio and Ghirlandaio, and after-
wards from the cartoons of Leonardo da Vinci and
Michelangelo, than to the lessons of his instructors.
On leaving the school of Cosimo, he formed an
intimacy with Fiancinbigio (who had been a dis-
ciple of Mariotto Albertinelli), and with him he
lived for some time, but ''contemporary history
contains no reference to anything that they did in
compani'>nship." Amongst his first works are
frescoes illustrating the history of St. John the
Baptist, in the Scnlzo, of which the cartoons are pre-
served in the Palazzo Rinnuccini. The ' Baptism
of Christ' is in his eaily manner, and shows an
undisguised imitation of Albrecht Durer ; in the
'Visitation of the Virgin,' painted a few years
afterwards, his advancement is conspicuous ; and
in the ' Najivity of St. John,' the last he painted
of the series, lie had nearly reached his most
admired style. His next undertaking was the
'Life of Si. Filippo Benizzi,' in five pictures, in
the church of the Servi. In these frescoes, which
have been engraved by Alchiari, the genius of
Andrea took a bolder flight, and they are con-
sidered among the most graceful of his works,


' Al.I.ED


Alinari photo\




Morclli photo~\

[Xationjl Gallery, London



though they were executed while he was still
young, and it was tlieir excellence which gained
for him the title, ' Andrea senza Errori' (Andrea
without faults). The ' Madonna del Sacco,'
painted over the entrance door, is one of his best
works. It has received its name from the sack of
corn upon which St. Joseph reclines. This has
been well engraved by Raphael Morghen.

About the year 1516, a ' Dead Christ,' painted
by Andrea, came to the notice of Francis I. of
France, who commissioned the artist to execute
for him a ' Madonna,' and in 1518 Andrea was
induced to go to Paris. He was accompanied
by his pupil, Andrea Squazella. There he was
honoured, and royally treated by the king. He
painted amongst other works a ' Charity,' now in
the Louvre, and a ' Pieta,' now in the Belvedere
at Vienna. In 1519 Andrea was induced by his
wife Lucrezia del Fede, a beautiful woman, whom
he had married in 1512, to ask, in order thct he
might return to his native country, leave of absence
from the king, who granted his request, and com-
missioned him to purchase works of art for him.
On his return to Florence, Andrea forgot his
engagements, and broke through every bond of
honesty ; he had the imprudence to squander
away in the society of his friends and his impro-
vident wife, not only the liberal remuneration he
had received from Francis for his works, but also
the funds which had been confided to his trust for
the acquisition of objects of art. He executed
numerous works in the Scalzo and elsewhere in
Florence. But reduced at length to a state of
indigence and distress, and stung with the recol-
lection of his perfidy and ingratitude, he sank into
a despondency, which was increased by his jealousy
of his wife. He was ultimately abandoned by her
and the false friends with whom he had wasted
his substance, when his miseries were terminated
in the forty-fourth year of his age, by the plague
which visited Florence in 1531. His wife survived
him, her second husband, by forty years.

Andrea del Sarto possessed an extraordinary
talent of imitating and copying the works of
other masters, with an accuracy which sometimes
deceived even the painters themselves. Of this,
Vasari mentions a very remarkable instance of
which he was himself an eye-witness. Raphael
nad painted for the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici,
afterwards Clement VII., the portrait of Leo X.,
seated between that prelate and Cardinal Rossi,
in which the drapery and background were
painted by Giulio Romano. Federigo II., Duke of
Mantua, passing through Florence to Koine, had
seen this picture, and had requested Clement VII.
to make him a present of it, when the Pope gave
directions to Ottaviano de' Medici to send the por-
trait to Mantua. Unwilling to deprive Florence
of so interesting a work of art, Ottaviano employed
Andrea del Sarto to paint an exact copy of it, which
was sent to the Duke of Mantua at the time when
Giulio Romano was in his service. No person
suspected the deception ; even Giulio was himself
deceived, and was only convinced of the fact by
Vasari assuring him that he had seen it painted",
and by showing him the private mark of Andrea
del Sarto. This celebrated painter has been erro-
neously supposed to have etched a plate of the
' Holy Family,' in which the Virgin is represented
kneeling before the Infant Christ, with St. Joseph
and St. John ; it is inscribed Andrea del Sarto fatti
in Roma; though neatly executed, it is totally un-

worthy of the hand of this artist, and the inscrip-
tion most probably relates to the picture from
which it was designed.

Amongst Andrea's pupils may be mentioned
Vasari, Jacopo da Pontormo, Domenico Puligo,
Giorgio Vasari, F. Salviati, and Squazella.

The following is a list of several of his most
important easel-pictures :

Berlin. Museum. Virgin and Saints (dated 1528).
Dresden. Gallery. Sacrifice of Abraham.

Marriage of St. Catherine.

Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait.
St. Giacomo.

Madonna * di San Francesco' (dated

1517) his masterpiece.
Pitti Pa!. Dispute on the Holy Trinity.
Deposition from the Cross.

Annunciation (with theAngel Gabriel,

followed by two other angels).

Annunciation (a copy is in the Louvre).

Assumption of the Virgin.

Portraits (2) of himself.
Nine other paintings.

London. Kat. Gall. Holy Family.

Portrait of himself (signed with mono-

gram given above}.
Madrid. Gallery Virgin and Child with St. Joseph and

an angel.

Portrait of his wife.LMcrezia del Fede.

Paris. Lotirre. Charity (signed and dated 1518).
Holy Family.

Holy Family (signed in full with the

monogram of the crossed A).

Tetrsbg. Hermitage. Virgin and Infant, and St. Catherine.
Vienna. Gallery. Pieta.


Guineas, H., 'Andrea del Sarto.' London: 1899.
Reumont, A., 'Andrea del Sarto.' Leipsig : 1835.
Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ' History of fainting in Italy.'

London: 1866.
Biadi, Luigi, ' Notitie inedite della vtta d" Andrea del

Sarto.' Firenze: 1832.
Breton, Ernest, ' Notice >ur Andrea Vannucchi, dit

Andrea del Sarto.' Paris : 1848.
' Gazette des I5eaiuc-Arts,' for 1876 and 1877.







ANDREAE, TOBIAS, who was born at Frankfort
in 1823, studied under J. Becker, and then went
to Munich, where he made the acquaintance of
Rahl and Genelli. In 1853 he visited Italy, and
painted landscapes, into which he occasionally
introduced moonlight effects. Andreae died at
Munich in 1873.

ANDREAE, T., is mentioned by Strutt as
the engraver of a plate representing an emblem-
atical subject, in which a woman is lying on
the ground, in the front of the print, and another
female is standing over her, holding in her hand
a book, inscribed Giulio Cesare opera. It is
slightly etched, in a very indifferent style, and is
signed T. Andreae, inv. et fee.

torical painter and etcher, was born at Aix, in
Provence, in 1700. He himself signed his name
UANDB-BABDON, or D. BABOON, because his uncle,
Louis Bardon, made him his heir on condition that
he continued the name of Bardon ; but his real
name was Andre, as the registers of the church of
St. Madeleine testify. Michel Francis was des-
tined by his parents for jurisprudence, and studied



at Paris. In 1719 he began to design during his
leisure hours under the direction of J. B. van
Loo, and studied painting with J. F. de Troy.
His progress was so rapid, that he obtained, in
1725, the second prize at the Royal Academy. He
went afterwards to Rome, and after being there six
years he returned to France, through Venice, where
lie stayed six months. He painted the Palais-de-
Juatice, the Hotel -de- Ville (which perished in
1792), and the church of St. Jerome, at Aix. He
went to Paris, where he displayed his talents, not
only as a painter and etcher, but also as a poet
and writer. In 1735 he became a member of the
Academy ; in 1752 professor ; afterwards secre-
tary ; and finally teacher of historical painting.
He was also the founder of the Academie des
Beaux-Arts at Marseilles. Andre designed with
great facility, and was a perfect master in repre-
senting the nude. He died at Paris in 1785.

The following are his best works :
Aix. Museum. The Emperor Augustus ordering the

punishment of the robbers of the
State money. (Signed DANDRE-
ROM;E JET&.T. sum 29 ANNO 1729.)

,. Palais-de-Justiee. Allegorical Figures of the Virtues.
Marseilles. Jlfus. Christ on the Cross.
Montpellier. JIIus. Tullia driving over the dead body of
Servius Tullius.

The work which lie executed of ' Jason plough-
ing,' intended for the tapestry manufactory at
Beauvais, has disappeared. The following are his
most important etchings :

The Dead Body of Christ.

Two Dead Children at the entrance of a vault.

The Burial of the Dead.

Johannes SuelUnks ; after Tan Dijck.

ANDREANI, ANDREA, a painter, and very cele-
brated engraver, was born at Mantua, according to
some biographers, about the year 1540, others say
1546 ; but Brulliot says his birth did not take place
until 1560, which seems the more likely, for his
earliest work bears date 1584. His works as a
painter are little known, as he appears to have
devoted himself to engraving at an early period of
his life, when he settled at Rome, some time after
the art of chiaroscuro on wood had been first
practised in Italy by Ugo da Carpi. His works
are confined to woodcuts, which are printed in
chiaroscuro, and he carried that branch of engrav-
ing to a much higher degree of perfection than it
had reached before. His drawing is correct, his
execution is strong and spirited, and in a very
masterly st3'le. The number of prints attributed
to this master is very considerable, as he is
reported to have procured the blocks executed by
other artists, and after retouching them, to have
published them as his own. He died in 1623. His
works have frequently been confounded
with those of Albrecht Altdorfer, from his
having used a similar cipher.

The following is a list of his known works, all
copies from his contemporaries or painters then
lately deceased :

The pavement at Siena, two immense prints ; after the
design of Domcnico Beccafutni ; very scarce ; dated

The Deluge, large print, in four sheets ; after Titian,
with his cipher.

Pharaoh's Host destroyed in the Red Sea, large print,
in four sheets ; after the same, 1585, with his cipher.

The Adoration of "the Magi; after Parmigiano, 1585,
with his cipher.

The Purification ; after Salviati, with his cipher. 1608.

The Virgin and Chili], with a bishop kneeling ; after A.

Casolaiti, with his cipher. 1591.

The Virgin and Child, with St. John presenting a bird,
and a female saint holding a lily; after Giac. Ligozzi,
with his name.
Christ curing the Leper; after Parmigiano, with his

Christ curing the Paralytic ; after Franc, de Nauto dn

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Raphael,

1609, with his cipher.
Christ departing from Pilate, who is washing his hands ;

after a basso-rilievo of Jean Boulogne, with the name

of the engraver ; in two sheets. This is one of his

most finished prints.
Christ bearing His Cross ; after A. Casolani, with his

cipher. 1591.
The Entombment of Christ ; after G. Scolari, with his

Another Entombment, half figures ; after Raffaello

Motta, with the name of the engraver.
St. Peter preaching; marked with the name Pulidoro,

and his cipher. 1608.
St. Sebastian ; marked Fridcricui Barotius Urbinat,

with his cipher. 160S.
The lower part of the picture of St. Nicholas, by

Titian, with the cipher of Audi-earn.
The Triumph of the Church; C/iristi Triumphus, large

frieze, in eight sheets ; after Titian, dedicated to the

Duke of Mantua in 1599, and published by Calisto

Ferrante at Rome in 1608.
An emblematical print, of a Christian after life received

into Heaven, and crowned by Jesus Christ ; marked

B. F. for Baptista Franco, and the cipher of the

engraver. An. M.DC.X. Mautona.
The Picture of Human Life, represented by a woman

at the foot of a rock, assailed by the passions ; marked

Jac. Ligotius, inv. et Andreani, 1585. Firenze.
Three prints, after a marble group by Gio. da Bologna,

seen on three sides, representing the Rape of the

Sabines ; inscribed Rapta tSfibinum a Jo. Bolog. mann


Another Rape of the Subines : after Jean Boulogne, in
three sheets; inscribed Andreas Andreantis Mantua-
nus aeri incidit, c., M.D.LXXXV. Florentine.

Clelia on horseback, with one of her attendants, going
to cross the Tiber ; marked with the name of Matu-
rino, and his cipher. 1608.

Mucius Scsevola holding his hand over a brazier ;
marked with the name of Bald. Peruzzi, and his
cipher. 1608.

The Triumph of Julius Casar, with the title ; a series
of 10 prints; very fine; after And. Manttgna.

Venus and Cupid, with nymphs bathing ; after Parmi-
giano, with the cipher of Andreani. 1605.

Circe giving drink to the companions of Ulysses; oval
print ; after Parmigiano, witii his name. 1602.

A Woman warming herself before the fire; marked
Bernard Malpitins, inv., with his cipher.

The scene of a comedy represented before the Grand
Duke Cosmo I. ; after a design of Bart. Iferoni, large
piece. 1579.

The Triumph of Death, a Sepulchral Monument, repre-
senting a kind of rock, on which are the three Fates ;
after Fortuna Fortunio, with the cipher of the en-

Christian Virtues, six pieces ; also Force, Truth, and
Virtue ; all after Parmigiano.

\V. B. S.

ANDREASI, IPPOLITO, who was born at Man-
tua in 1548, was an imitator of Giulio Romano :
he painted pictures of merit for the churches of
his native town, where he died in 1608. The
Louvre possesses a ' Holy Family ' by him.

ANDRES, Fray LEON DE, a Spanish painter of
the 16th century, is celebrated for the miniatures
he executed in 1568 for choir-books especially
that of 'El Capitulario' now in the Escorial.
He died in 1580.

Lambeth in 1816. Though an engineer by pro-


fi-ssion he devoted most of his time to painting,
and exhibited first in 1840. He painted chiefly
marine subjects in water-colour, and became
successively Associate, Exhibitor, Member and
Treasurer of the Royal Water-Colour Society. He
drew for the 'Illustrated London News 'and the
' Graphic,' and died at Hammersmith in 1898.

AXDRIESSEN, ANTHONIE, who was born _at
Amsterdam in 1746, painted, in conjunction with
his brother Jurriaan, under whom he AA
studied, landscapes and figure-pieces. _/_/\\.
He died at Amsterdam in 1813.

Amsterdam in 1775, was the son and scholar of
Jurriaan, and became a good painter of history,
genre subjects, landscapes, \iews of towns, and
occasionally portraits. Among his works may be
mentioned a Panorama of Amsterdam.

ANDIMKSSKN, HEN-DRIPR, who was surnamed
' Manoken Heijn' (The Limper), was born at
Antwerp, probably in the year 1607. He was a
painter of still-life; composed with great skill,
and finished his pictures artistically. He died in
Set/land in Hi55.

ANUUIESSEN, JCRRIAAN, born at Amsterdam
in 174'J, was a scholar of A. Elliger and J. M.
Quinkhardt. He was an able artist in decorative
painting; the decorations of the new theatre at
Amsterdam were executed by him and Numan.
Several distinguished modern Dutch painters are
from his school. He died at Amsterdam in 1819.
ANDRIOLI, GIROLAMO, a pupil of Brusasorci,
was a painter of Verona. His name, with the date
1606, was inscribed on an altar-piece of 'St. Dome-
nick nnd other Saints' formerly in the church of
Santa Caterina di Siena at Verona,

AN'lHUuT, FRANCOIS, a French engraver, who
was born in Pi.ris about 1655, practised both in
France and in Italy, especially in Rome. He fol-
lowed the style of F. de Poilly, and among his
works are :

Two Annunciations, after Alliano ; a Magdalene, after
Guido; Madonna anil Child, after Guido ; The Holy
Family, with a rose, after Raphael; The Crowning
with Thorns, after Domenickino ; and the same, after
Ann. Carracci ; The Good Samaritan, after Povssin;
aud other subjects of sacred history, after Gvitle-
bault, and other masters.

architect and engraver of whom but scanty records
have survived. His parents' name was Androtiet,
hut they acquired the affix ' du Cerceau' from a
hoop ^yhich they hung on their house as a dis-
tinguishing mark, and the double name was adopted
by their son. Jacques was born about 1510, pro-
bably at Paris, but it was at Orleans, the home of
his family, that he spent the greater part of his
life ; and most of his works bear the date of that
city. He is said to have studied under Etienne
Delaulne ; but the strong resemblance of his style
to that of Lconhard Thiry, another artist of Fon-
tainebleau, has led to the belief that he formed his
manner from the artists of that school. lie visited
Italy with George d'Armagnac, ambassador of
Francis I. to the Venetian Court, and on his return
in 1546-47 he was patronized by the royalty and
nobility of France. It is supposed that he retired
to Annency, or Geneva, towards the close of his life,
and died there after 1584. As an engraver his
subjects were various mythological, architect-
ural, perspective, trophies, arabesques, friezes,
Caryatides, vases, furniture. &c. : we mention :

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Partnigiano (Fran-
ciscui Parmensit Inventor).

The Birth of Christ ; unsigned.

The Gods of Heathen Mythology; after Rosso; 20

The Loves of the Gods; after Perino del Vaga and
Rosso ; 20 plates.

The Labours of Hercules ; after Rosso ; 6 plates.

The Life of Psyche ; after Raphael; 32 plates.

The Dog of Montargis fighting his Master's Murderer
(faict d Montargis).

Plans of Antwerp, Jerusalem, Rome, &c.

Landscapes, 24 plates.

' Le Premier Volume des plus Excellents Bastimeuts
de France." Paris, M.D.LXXVI.

' Le Second Volume des plus Excellents Bastiments de
France.' Paris, M.D.LXXIX. Both volumes are dedi-
cated to Catherine de Medicis, for whom they were

ANEDA, JUAV DE, was born at Burgos, where
he painted in 1565, in conjunction with Juan de
Cea, several pictures, which are still to be seen in
the cathedral.

ANESI, PAOLO, landscape painter and etcher,
was born at Rome about the year 1700. He
painted landscapes with considerable success at
Florence and at Rome. The frescoes in the Villa
Albani, near Rome, are done by him, in conjunc-
tion with Antonio Bicchierai and Niccol6 Lapic-
cola. They bear the date 1761, with the signature
Paolo Anesi fece. He was, Lanzi tells us, one of
the masters of Francesco Zuccarelli. IJe painted
ancient ruins in the manner of Pannini, and hia
works have been much confused with those of that
artist. Four small landscapes, by Anesi, arc in the
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Gallery at Lowenberg.

ANGARANO, Conte OTTAVIO. According to
Zanetti, this artist was of a patrician family of
Padua, and flourished at Venice in the second half
of the 17th century. It is not mentioned by whom
he was instructed in the art, but he was a reput-
able painter of history, and acquired considerable
celebrity by a picture he painted for the church of
San Daniele, at Venice, representing the ' Nativity,'
which is highly commended by his biographer, and
of which there is an etching, as some say, by him-
self ; but Bartsch ascribes it to Giuseppe Diatnan-
tini. Angarano painted in the manner of the
followers of Caravaggio.



ANGEL, PEDRO (or ANGELO), the first of Spain's
good engravers, flourished at Toledo at the end of
the 16th and beginning of the 17th century. The
frontispiece to the ' History of Our Lady of Gua-
daloupe,' containing the portrait of that ungainly
idol, published in 1597, is one of his earliest works.
The elegant armorial design in the title, and the
fine portrait of Cardinal Tavera in ' Salazar's
Chronicle,' published 1603 ; and the still finer and
rarer portrait of Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros in
Eugenio de Noble's 'Life,' published 1604, are
l>y Angelo. He likewise engraved a title-page
for Luis de Tena's ' Commentary on St. Paul's
Epistle to the Hebrews,' 1611-17 ; a print of
' Our Lady of the Conception,' and other devo-
tional subjects.

ANGEL, PHILIPS, who was born at Middelburg,
in the early part of the 17th century, painted at
Haarlem (where he entered the Guild in 1639), at
Leyden, and afterwards in Ispahan, and in Batavia,
where he probably died after 1665. His only
known work a picture of still-life, signed P.
ANGEL, 1650 is in the Berlin Museum. If this



date is correct it must have been painted while he
was in the East.


NAPOLETANO, from his being sent to Naples when
he was very young. He was born at Rome
towards the end of the 16th century, and was the
son of an artist who was employed under Sixtus
V. He excelled in painting landscapes and battles,
and, according to Baglioni, was much employed in
ornamenting the palaces and villas at Rome. He
frequently painted architectural views, with a
number of figures arranged and composed with
great ingenuity. He died at Rome during the
pontificate of Urban VIII., about 1640. The
Louvre has a ' Satyr and Peasant ' by him, and
his own portrait is in the Uffizi at Florence.


ANGELI, GittLio CESARE, born at Perugia about
1570, studied in the school of the Carracci, at
Bologna. He was more remarkable for his colour
than design, and excelled rather in the draped

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