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chester as a drawing-master. He was also an
art-critic, and wrote several very able reviews of
local exhibitions for the ' Manchester Guardian.'
He died at Manchester, in 1859.

ANTHONY, MARK, bom at Manchester in 1817,
of Welsh descent. Trained for the medical
profession, and at sixteen placed with a doctor,
at Cowbridge, Glamorganshire ; who, being an
amateur painter of some skill, encouraged the
artistic leanings of his assistant Having some

43



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



private means, Anthony abandoned medicine and
went abroad to pursue his studies at Paris and the
Hague. He is said to have remained about ten
years on the Continent, making Paris his head-
quarters. The dates are uncertain. In 1837 he
showed at the Royal Academy a view on the
Ehaidha (sic) Glamorganshire, which suggests
recent residence at Cowbridge, and in 1843, when
he next exhibited at Somerset House, he had a
fixed address in London at 28, Sussex Street.
His name in the catalogues of that and several
subsequent years was given as H. M. Anthony.
In, or about, 1837 he came in contact with Dupre
and Corot at Fontainbleau and was considerably
affected by them. In 1840 he first exhibited at the
British Institution, and in 1845 he became a member
of the Society of British Artists. For their exhibi-
tions he painted ' Harvest Home' (1847) ' Prayer
for the Absent' (1848) 'An Old Country Church-
yard' (1849), and 'The Elm at Eve' (1850).
Meantime, after missing two years, he showed, in
1849, 'Sunshine and Showers' at the Royal
Academy. He was then at 18, Monmouth Road,
Westbourne Grove. After another lapse of two
years, he asain had a picture in the Royal
Academy in 1852, and thereafter with one exception
(1862) he had either one or two pictures annually
at Somerset House until 1866. In 1852 he had
resigned from the British Institution, hoping for
an associateship of the Academy : this, however,
he never obtained. Although never a practitioner
of the pre-Raphselite methods, Anthony was on
intimate terms with that group and their friends ;
especially Madox Brown, who esteemed him
highly. In January 1855 Brown, in his diary, wrote,
apropos of Anthony's pictures, " He has a habit
(of late particularly) of making his skies so heavy
that they quite spoil all the fine qualities otherwise
evinced in his works. The picture of Stratford
Church, however, ia magnificent in every respect,
save the sky ; which, if he can paint, it will be
one of his finest works. It is admirable colour,
but his other works look somewhat opaque."
Brown was an excellent critic, and here he has
summarized the merits and faults of Anthony.
From one of Brown's letters in the autumn of
1855 to Lowes Dickinson, it appears that Anthony
had been very successful indeed, and was then in
Ireland ; and from another to the late Mr. George
Rae in 1868 we learn that " Anthony has been
again to Spain : " this perhaps accounts for the
lack of anything at the Royal Academy until
1869, when 'The City and Fortress of Lerida'
was exhibited. In 1873 he showed 'Evensong'
(Chinsford Church, Essex), one of his best pic-
tures, which, being sent in the same year to the
Liverpool Autumn Exhibition (to which Anthony
had contributed from the commencement, in 1871),
was purchased for the Permanent Collection.
This, however, was not his first Liverpool recog-
nition, for in 1854 he was awarded the annual prize
of 50 for the "best" picture in the Exhibition
of the Liverpool Academy. This was ' Nature's
Mirror,' now in the possession of Mr. Albert
Woods. In the latter part of his life, Anthony
withdrew more and more from social intercourse,
and eventually ha discontinued exhibiting at the
Royal Academy after 1879. He continued to
exhibit at Liverpool BO long as the exhibitions
of the Academy were continued, and afterwards
when they were resumed under the auspices of
the corporation, until his death, which took place
44



on the 2nd of December 1886. From 1858 he had
resided at the Lawn, Hampstead. His pictures
are for the most part English landscapes, poectical
and triste in sentiment, but well painted though
unequal in merit. He occasionally touched genre,
and in 1865 exhibited a sheep-washing subject.
Most of his works are in private collections. His
rather theatrical ' Harvest Festival ' (probably the
1 Harvest Home' of 1847) is in the Salford Public
Art Gallery. His 'Deserted Church' and ' Erith
Church ' were in the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition
of 1886. A recent tendency to spell this painter's
name Antony appears to have no justification.
His first baptismal name was probably Henry.

ANTIDOTUS, a disciple of Euphranor, and Hie
instructor of Nicias the Athenian, flourished about
B.C. 336. He was more remarkable for the labori
DUS finish of his encaustic paintings than for the
ingenuity of his invention. His colouring was cold
md his outline hard and dry. Among the fen
pictures by him which have been noticed, were ' A
Warrior ready for Combat ;' 'A Wrestler ; ' and
' A Man playing on the Flute.' Pliny is the only
writer who has mentioned him.

ANTIGNA, JEAN PIERRE ALEXANDRE, was
born in 1818 at Orleans, at the college of which
city he was educated. He was taught drawing
by Salmon, a professor of merit, who, discover-
ing the talent of his pupil, induced him in 1836
to enter the studio of Norblin. After remain-
ing here a twelvemonth he placed himself under
Delaroche, from whom he received, during seven
years, instruction and counsel. Under his influ-
ence he made, in 1841, his debut in religious
subjects, which he continued to paint until about
1846, when he turned his attention to genre paint-
ing, and it was in this branch of art that he
achieved his reputation. He was awarded medals
at the Salons of 1847, 1848, and 1851, and he also
obtained a medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855,
which included a good collection of his works. He
was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1861.
He died on the 27th of February, 1878. His chief
works are:

Angers. Museum. The Mirror of the Woods. 1865.
Avignon. Museum. Vision of Jacob.
Bordeaux. Museum. Episode of the Vendean War. 1864.
Orleans. Museum. The Chimney Corner.

The First Plaything.

The Storm.

Women Bathing.

Paris. Luxembourg. The Fire. 1850.

0. J. D.

ANTIPHILUS, a painter of Egypt, was of
Greek extraction, and a pupil of Ctesidemus. He
flourished in the time of Ptolemy Philopator, at
the close of the third century before Christ. He
invented the caricatures known as ' Grylli,' a
kind of grotesque monsters, part animal or bird
and part man. Quintilian praises him for his
facility in painting, and he is also noticed by
Pliny and Lucian. Amongst his works mentioned
are a 'Satyr with a Panther-hide,' a ' Boy blow-
ing a Fire,' and portraits of Philip of Macedon
and Alexander the Great.

ANTIQUUS, JOHANNES, was born at Groningen
in 1702, and learned from Gerard van der Veen the
art of painting on glass, which he practised for
some years ; but ke afterwards became a scholar
of Jan Abel Wassenberg, a respectable painter of
history and portraits, under whom he studied some
time. He afterwards went to France, where he
was much employed as a portrait painter, but did



ANTONELLO DA MESSINA




Hjnfit .,;,'."/ j \\ilional C.allerv London

ST. JEROMK IX HIS STUDY



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



not long remain at Paris, being desirous of visiting
Italy. He resided chiefly at Florence, where he
was employed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany for
six years. His principal work was a large picture
of the ' Fall of the Giants,' which was esteemed of
sufficient merit to occasion the sketch of it to be
placed in the Florentine Academy. After passing
several years in Italy, he returned to Holland,
where he met with a very flattering reception, and
was employed by the Prince of Orange in the
Palace of Loo, where he painted a large picture of
'Mars disarmed by the Graces,' and several other
works. He was a correct draughtsman and a
good colourist. He died in 1750. His brother
LAMBERT was also a painter of merit. He was
living at Gioningen as late as 1751.

ANTOLNE, SEBASTIEN, an engraver of no great
celebrity, was born at Nancy, in 1687. We have
by him a portrait of Augustin Calmet, a large oval
plate, dated 1729 ; the ' Enterprise of Prometheus,'
from the ceiling at Versailles, painted by Mignard ;
and a representation of the crown of jewels used
at the coronation of Louis XV. in 1722. He
worked chiefly with the graver, in a slight, feeble
style. He is known to have engraved as late as
1761.

ANTOLINEZ, JOSE, was born at Seville in
1639. At an early age he was sent to Madrid to
study under Francisco Hizi, one of the painters ol
Philip IV. He pointed history and portraits, and
was also admired for the landscapes he introduced
into his works. Palomino spoke favourably of
two pictures by this master, which were in the
church of La Magdalena at Madrid ; they repre-
sented the ' Miraculous Conception,' and the ' Good
Shepherd.' He died, from the effects of wounds
received in a duel, at Madrid in 1676.

ANTOLINEZ Y SAKABIA, FRANCISCO, who was
born at Seville in 1644, was nephew of Jose Anto-
linez. He was an historical and landscape painter,
and studied in the school of Murillo, whose style
and manner of colouring he followed. He went to
his uncle at Madrid in 1672 ; but notwithstand-
ing his having already distinguished himself as n
piiinter, he left the profession for literary pursuits,
and for the purpose of obtaining a lucrative situa-
tion at the bar, having been originally educated at
Seville for the law. Being unsuccessful, he was
compelled again to have recourse to painting as n
means of subsistence. It was then that he pro-
duced those small pictures from the Bible and the ]
life of the Virgin, which are so much admired by
amateurs for their invention, colour, and facility
of execution. He died in 1700 at Madrid, regretted
by the true friends of art, who lamented the mis-
application of those talents with which he was
endowed.

ANTON VON WORMS. See WOENSAM.

ANTONAZO (or ANTONIACCI). See AQDILIO.

ANTONELLO DA MESSINA. See ANTONIO,
ANTON ELLO D'.

ANTONIANUS, SILVANDS. According to Pa-
pillon, this artist was an engraver on wood, and
flourished about the year 1567. He executed a set
of cuts for a book of Fables, published at Antwerp
in 1567, entitled Centum Fabul(e ex antiquis
avctoribus delectce, et a Gabriele Faerno Cremo-
nensi carminibus explicates. He usually ^
marked his prints with a monogram com- ft
posed of an S and an A. I/ t /

ANTONIASSO (or ANTONIACCI). See AQDILIO.

ANTONIO, ANTONELLO D', (or DEGLI ANTUKJ),



commonly known as ANTONELLO DA MESSINA, played
an important part in the introduction of oil paint-
ing into Italy. We have few authentic details of
tliis artist's life. He was born at Messina about
the middle of the 15th century (some writers say
in 1414, others in 1421, &c.), and studied art in
Sicily, where he painted some time. According
to Summonzio, he was a scholar of Colantonio,
an obscure artist. He went subsequently to
Naples, and having seen there, in possession of
Alfonso of Aragon, a painting by Jan van Eyck,
he was ao struck by it, that he left everything
and went to Flanders, where he studied princi-
pally after the works of Van Eyck, and became
acquainted with his disciples, in conjunction with
whom he is supposed to have executed several
works. After having thus acquired the art of
painting in oil, he returned to Italy about the
year 1465, and it is quite certain that he was at
Messina in 1472 and 1473, when he painted in San
Gregorio a triptych, representing the Virgin and
Child enthroned, with two Angols holding the
crown, between St. Benedict and St. Gregory. In
1473 he visited Venice, where he painted a 'Ma-
donna and St. Michael,' in San Cassiano, now lost,
which was long considered the chief ornament of
that church ; besides this he executed excellent
portraits of a small size, for which he had high
reputation. His introduction of painting in oil
m.'ide a great sensation among the artists at Venice,
and he soon became followed by Bartolommeo and
Luigi Vivarini, Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, Car-
paccio and Cima. He is also said to have visited
several towns in Lombardy between 1480 and
1485, and to have been known at Milan as an urtist
of merit. The exact date of his death is uncer-
tain, but it probably occurred at Venice about 1493.
Antonello was the first Italian painter who prac-
tised Van Eyck's method of painting in oil. He
was an eminent colourist, and his tones are so
warm, clear, and bright that he almost surpassed
Van Eyck. As an Italian he tried to unite a certain
simplicity and natural beauty with the character-
istic Flemish execution of the details ; but he did
not succeed, and for that reason his outline is
sometimes stiff and hard. His portraits were
entirely successful, and possessed, in spite of all
the detail, a certain idealism. The following is a
list of some of hia authentic paintings, compiled
for the most part from Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon:'



Antwerp. Jlfusrum.
Berlin. Museum.



Dresden. Gallery.
Genoa. Spinola Pat.
London. Nat. Gallery.



Messina. S. Gregorio.



S. A'iccoU.

Paris. Louvre.



Rome. Pal. Borghese
Venice Academy.



Christ on the Cross between the two
Thieves, with the Virgin and the
Evangelist. 1475.

The Virgin with the ChiM in a land-
scape (signed).

St. Sebastian (siyned),

A man's portrait (sigtt-'d 1445 ;
originally 1478?).

St. Sebastian.

Ecce 1 1. in. i

Salvator Mundi. 1465.

The Crucifixion.

St. Jerome in his Study.

The Virgin and Child between
St. Gregory and St. Benedict.
1473

St. Nicholas.

Portrait of a man, dated 1475 (pur-
chased at the Pourtales sale in
1865, for frs. 113,500 = 4540).

Portrait of a man in a red dress.
1475.

Christ bound to the pillar.

A Nun in tears.

45



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Venice. Academy. A Virgin reading at a desk.

Casa GiovaneUi. The portrait of a young Patriciau.
Vienna. Gallery. The dead body of Christ supported
by three Angels.

ANTONIO, GIROLAMO DA, a Carmelite Friar,
who entered his order in 1490, at Florence, and
worked in it and for it until his death in 1529. He
is known chiefly by two works the one a picture
of ' Christ as a Man of Sorrows,' signed and dated
1504, in the Carmine : the other, an altar-piece,
representing ' Christ adored by the Virgin and St.
Joseph,' signed and dated 1519, in the Scuola
della Carita, at Savonn.

ANTONIO, PEDRO, was born atCordovain 1614,
and was a scholar of Antonio del Castillo. Some
pictures which he painted for the convent of San
Pablo at Cordova, established his character as a
good co'.ourist. He died in 1675 in his native city.
ANTONIO PA FEHKARA. See FERRARA,
ANTONIO DA MONZA, Fra. See MONZA.
ANTONIO DA MURANO. See MDRANO.
ANTONIO DA TRENTO. See TRENTO.
ANTONIO DE 1IOLANDA. See HOLANDA.
ANTONIO DE SAN ANTONIO. See SAN AN-
TONIO.

ANTONIO VEXEZIANO. See VENEZIANO.
ANTONISSEN, HENRICDS JosErnus, a painter of
landscapes and cattle, was born at Antwerp in
1737. He entered the studio of Balthazar Beschey,
in 1752-53, and three years later he was free of the
Guild at Antwerp of which he was twice Dean.
His works are mostly in private collections on the
Continent. In the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort
there is a ' Landscape with Cattle' by him ; signed
and dated 1792. He died at Antwerp, in 1794.
He instructed numerous scholars, and amongst
them the celebrated Ommeganck.
ANTONISZOON, COHXELIS. See ANTHONISZOON.
ANTONJ, DEGLI. See ANTONIO, ANTONELLO i>'.
ANTUM, AART VAN, was a Dutch marine-painter,
who flourished from about 1630 to 1640. A sea-
piece by him, signed A. A., is in the Berlin
Museum.

APARICIO, JOSE, a Spanish historical painter,
was born at Alicante, in 1773, and studied in Paris
under David. His chef-d'oeuvre, ' The Redemption
of Algerian Captives,' is in the Madrid Gallery.
He died in Madrid, in 1838.

APELDOORN, JAN, a landscape painter and
designer, was scholar to Jordan Hoorn, at Amers-
foort, where he was born in 1765. He painted but
few pictures in oil. He resided nearly fifty years
at Utrecht, but died in his native town in 1838.

APELLES, the greatest of all Grecian painters,
was probably born at Colophon in Ionia, although,
according to Pliny and Ovid, he was a native of
the isle of Cos ; whilst Strabo and Lucian call him
an Ephesian. Neither the date of his birth, nor
that of his death, is known ; it is only certain that he
flourished from before B.C. 336 until after B.C. 332.
He was a disciple of Pamphilus, and was probably
of a distinguished family, as no student of mean
birth was admitted into the school of that master.
Combining in himself all the excellences of the
artists who had preceded him, and endowed with
a genius capable of contending with the most
arduous difficulties, Apelles is generally supposed
to have carried art to the highest attainable per-
fection. He not only excelled in composition,
design, and colouring, but also possessed an un-
bounded invention. He was select and beautiful
in his proportions and contours, and, above all, his

4B



figures were always distinguished by an unspeaK-
able grace, which was peculiar to him, and may be
almost said to have been the effect of inspiration.
No painter ever applied to the study of his art
with more persevering assiduity than Apelles. He
never permitted a day to pass without practising
some branch of his art ; hence the proverb, Nulla
dies sine lined.

His extraordinary talents, and the polished
accomplishments of his mind, secured him the
patronage and esteem of Alexander the Great,
from whom he received the exclusive privilege of
painting his likeness. Among others, was a por-
trait of Alexander holding a thunderbolt, painted
on the walls of the temple of Diana, at Ephesus:
which was so admirably executed, that Plutarch
reports that it used to be said there were two
Alexanders, one invincible, the son of Philip, the
other inimitable, the work of Apelles. For this
picture he received twenty talents (4320).

But his most admired production, which is said
to have cost the enormous sum of 100 talents
(21,600), was a picture of Venus rising from the
sea, called ' Venus Anadyomene,' which was painted
for the temple of .ffisculapius at Cos, and which
Ovid has celebrated in his verses :

Si Venerem Cois nunquam pinxisset Apelles,
Mersa sub tequoreis ilia lateret aquis.

Pliny asserts that Alexander permitted his fa-
vourite mistress, the beautiful Campaspe, to sit to
him for his Venus, and that the painter became
so enamoured of his model, that the conqueror
resigned her to him. Other writers pretend that
Phryne served him as a model for his Venus. We
are told by Lilian, in his ' Various Histories,' that,
having painted a portrait of Alexander on horse-
back, which was not so much admired as it de-
served by the monarch, whose horse neighed at
the sight of the charger in the picture, Apelles said
to Alexander : " Sire, it is plain that your horse is
a better judge of painting than your Majesty."

One of this painter's disciples having shown him
a picture of Helen, which he had loaded with gold,
" Young man," said the painter, " not being able
to make thy Helen beautiful, thou hast resolved
to make her rich."

One of the chief excellences of Apelles in por-
trait painting was to give so perfect a resemblance
of the person represented, that the physiognomists
were able to form a judgment as easily from his
pictures as if they had seen the originals. This
readiness and dexterity in taking a likeness was of
singular utility to the painter, in extricating him
from a very perilous dilemma into which he was
thrown at the court of Ptolemy. When that
prince reigned in Egypt, Applies, who had not
the good fortune to be in favour with Ptolemy,
was driven by a storm into the port of Alexandria,
where his enemies suborned a mischievous fellow,
who was one of the king's buffoons, to play n
trick upon him, by inviting Apelles, in the king's
name, to supper. On his arrival, finding Ptolemy
surprised, and not very well pleased with his visit,
he apologized for his coming by assuring the
king that he should not have presumed to wait
upon him but by his own invitation. Being re-
quired to point out the person who had thus im-
posed upon him, he sketched his portrait from
memory, with a coal upon the wall, which Ptolemy
instantly recognized to be his buffoon. This ad-
venture reconciled him to Ptolemy, who after-
wards loaded him with wealth and honours.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Antiphilus, a painter of reputation, though
greatly inferior to Apelles, who was then at the
court of Ptolemy, accused him of having been
implicated in the conspiracy of Tlieodotus,
governor of Phoenicia, affirming that he had seen
Apelles at dinner with Theodotus, and that, by
the advice of that painter, the city of Tyre had
revolted, and Pelusium had been taken. The
accusation was totally groundless, Apelles never
having been at Tyre, and having no acquaintance
with Theodotus. Ptolemy, however, in the height
of his resentment, without examining into the
affair, concluded him guilty, and would have
punishod him with death, had not an accomplice
of the conspirators declared his innocence, and
proved that the accusation originated in the
jealousy and malevolence of Antiphilus. Stung
with confusion at having listened to so infamous
a slander, Ptolemy restored Apelles to his favour,
presented him with a hundred talents, to compen-
sate for the injury lie had sustained, and con-
demned Antiphilus to be his slave.

On his return to Greece, as a memorial of the
persecution, and to avenge himself of his enemies,
Apelles painted an allegorical picture representing
'Calumny,' in which he seems to have exerted all
nis inventive faculties. Of this ingenious compo-
sition, Lucian has furnished us with the foIlowiL
description: "On the right of the picture wa;- ,
seated a person of magisterial authority, to whorr
the painter has given large ears, like those o1 ;
Midas, who held forth his hand to Calumny, as i:
inviting her to approach. He is attended b\
Ignorance and Suspicion, who are placed by hi-
side. Calumny advanced in the form of a beat:
tiful female, her countenance and demeanour ex
hibiting an air of fury and hatred. In one ban.!
she held the Torch of Discord, and with the otb.e<
dragged by the hair a youth, personifying Inno- "
cence, who, with eyes raised to heaven, seemed
to implore the succour of the gods. She was pre-
ceded by Envy, a figure with a pallid visage and
an emaciated form, who appeared to be the leader
of the band. Calumny was also attended by two
other figures, who seemed to excite and animate
her, whose deceitful looks discovered them to be
Intrigue and Treachery. At last followed Re-
l'1-niatice, clothed in black, and covered with con-
fusion, at the discovery of Truth in the distance,
environed with celestial light." Such was the
ingenious fiction which indicated the vengeance of
Apelles, and which may be regarded as one of
the most admirable examples of emblematical
painting that the history of the art affords.
Raphael made a drawing from Lucian's description
in 1 this picture ; it is now in the Louvre.

It was customary with Apelles to exhibit his
pictures publicly, not for the purpose of beinjj
flattered with the incense of applause, but with an
intention of profiting by whatever just criticism
might be made on the work. That the public
might feel themselves at liberty to express their
> 'ntiiuents freely, he usually concealed himself
behind a panel, that his presence might not be
a restraint on the expression of their judgment.
On one of these occasions, a cobbler found fault
with some incorrectness in the representation of a
Clipper, and Apelles, convinced of the judicious
observation of the artisan, made the necessary
alteration. The picture being again offered to
public view in its improved state, the cobbler,
proud of the success of his first criticism, ventured



to find fault with the leg, when Apelles, discover-
ing himself, addressed to him the well-known
sentence which has since become proverbial, Ke
supra crepidam sutor. The modesty of this great
painter was not less worthy of admiration than
his extraordinary talents. Far from being jealous
of his contemporaries, he not only extolled their
merit, but, favoured as he was by fortune, made
use of his wealth in promoting the interest of his
rivals. His generous conduct to Protogenes is
generally known, and is more particularly noticed



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